大学英语 b 网考辅导

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大大大大 B 大大大大 语语语语语语语语语 大大 大大大

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大学英语 B 网考辅导. 语法精讲与样题分析. 主讲 曾仲贤. 语法知识归纳. 一、非谓语动词. 二、情态动词和虚拟语气. 非谓语动词. 不定式. 非谓语动词. 动名词. 现在分词. 分 词. 过去分词. 非谓语动词的三种形式. 语法知识归纳. 一、非谓语动词. 1 、哪些动词接不定式,哪些接动名词,哪些动词即可接不定式,又可接动名词,但是词义不同。. 2 、不定式、动名词的复合结构及其时态和语态。. 3 、不定式符号 to 的省略与否。. 4 、现在分词与过去分词的区别。. 1 、接不定式作宾语的动词有. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

大学英语 B网考辅导

语法精讲与样题分析 主讲 曾仲贤

Page 2: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

语法知识归纳一、非谓语动词

二、情态动词和虚拟语气

Page 3: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

非谓语动词

非谓语动词 动名词

分 词

不定式

现在分词

过去分词

Page 4: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

语态 时态 主动 被动

不定式一般式 to do to be done

完成式 to have done to have been done

动名词一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done

分词一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done

非谓语动词的三种形式

Page 5: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

语法知识归纳一、非谓语动词1 、哪些动词接不定式,哪些接动名词,哪些动词即可接不定式,又可接动名词,但是词义不同。2、不定式、动名词的复合结构及其时态和语态。3、不定式符号 to的省略与否。4、现在分词与过去分词的区别。

Page 6: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

1 、接不定式作宾语的动词有afford, agree, decide, determine, expect, hope, manage, refuse, offer, pretend 等。

55. He ____ to arrange a loan through a finance company. (test 1) A. tried B. succeeded C. managed D. endeavored

c

考点分析: succeed (in) doing sth, endeavor to do sth 表示“尝试、试图”,而 magage to do sth 表示“设法做某事”

Page 7: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

2 、不定式中的 to是否省略1) 感官动词 feel, hear, listen to, see, look at, notice, watch 以及使役动词 have, let, make 等动词后,不定式不带 to, 但是,当这些动词变成被动语态时,动词不定式要加上 to. 如:

Mum makes me eat eggs every day.

I’m made to eat eggs every day (by mum).

Page 8: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

2) 不定式用作介词 but 和 except 的宾语时,如果其前有 do的某种形式,不定式不带 to, 否则不定式要带 to. 如:

46. That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but ____the police. (test 4) A. called in B. calling in C. call in D. to call in

49.They talked in whispers, but still, I couldn’t help but ____ their conversation. (test 5)

A. overhear B. to overhear C. overhearing D. overheard

A

D

Page 9: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

注意:在 but 构成的习惯用语中不带 to:

can not help but do…(不得不)

can do nothing but do…

can not choose but do…

can not do anything but do…(只能做 ) 3) 在情态动词如: had better, would rather… than 之后不用 to, 动词 help 后, to可带可不带。

Page 10: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

3 、下列动词或动词词组后只接动名词作宾语1)admit, appreciate, avoid, delay, consider, escape, enjoy, finish, mind, practise, risk, suggest…

52. I don’t know why she avoids ____ his opinion on the subject. (Test 3) A. to give B. to be given C. giving D. being given

c

50. Her sun-tanned face suggested that she_____ in excellent health. (Test 6) A. be B. is C. was D. were

c

Page 11: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

2) can’t help, can’t stand, give up, feel like, put off, be busy, have difficulty /trouble (in), have a good/wonderful/hard time,

be used to, see to, be opposed to, be sentenced to, admit to, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to…

46. Jean did not have time to go to the concert last night because she was busy ___ for her exam. (Test

1) A. to prepare B. to be prepared C. preparing D. being prepared

c

Page 12: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

57. I ____ going to the doctor, but I wish I hadn’t. (Test 1) A. pick out B. make out C. give off D. put off

d

46. The match was cancelled because most of the members ___ a match without a standard court. (Test 6) A. objected to having B. objected to have C. were objected to have D. were objected to having

a

Page 13: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

4 、 1) 下列动词或词组后既可以跟动名词作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语,但意义上又区别,要特别注意。

forget / rememberto do sth 忘记 /记住去做某事 doing sth 忘记 /记住已做某事

53. If I had remembered ____ the window, the thief would not have got in. (Test 3) A. to close B. closing C. to have closed D. having closed

a

Page 14: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

stop to do sth 停下来接着做另一件事doing sth 停止做某事

try to do sth 努力 /试图做某事doing sth 尝试着做某事

mean

go on

to do sth 意欲 /想 /企图做某事doing sth 意味着做某事

to do sth (做完某事)接着做另一件事doing sth 继续做同一件事(=go on with sth)

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2) 动词 need, require, want 和 be worth

need/require/wantdoing/to be done

sb. to do sth.

The window needs/requires/wantscleaning.

to be cleaned.

be worth+n.

doing

The place is worth visiting.( 主动表被动含义。

Page 16: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

5 、分词 现在分词和过去分词 1 )区别:掌握八个字。

分词现在分词:主动、进行过去分词:被动、完成

2 )过去分词和现在分词的被动式都可以表示被动的意义,但各自的时间的概念不同:过去分词表示动作完成或已经发生,而现在分词的被动式表示动作正在进行,还未完成。

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46. Air pollution ___, this city is still a good place to live in. (Test 3) A. being greatly reduced B. greatly being reduced C. to greatly reduce D. greatly to reduce

a

47. Many Americans worry about leisure and hurry from one activity to the next, ______ little time to stop and think. (Test 3) A. leave B. leaving C. left D. to leave

b

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54. Cambridge has announced plans to establish a business school ____the master’s degree in the business administration. (Test 3) A. representing B. offering C. presenting D. supplying

b

考点分析: represent 的意思是“代表”, offer 意为“提供”, present 意为“提出” , supply 意为“供应”

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53. ______ such a good chance, he planed to learn more. (Test 5) A. Giving B. Having given C. Having been given D. To be given

c

If he______ such a good chance, he planed to learn more. A. was giving B. had given C. had been given D. was to give

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52. Having been asked to speak at the convention ______. (Test 6) A. some notes were prepared for Dr. Smith B. Smith prepared some notes C. The convention members were pleased to hear Dr. Smith D. Some notes were prepared by Dr. Smith

b

49. The concert usually takes place at the People’s Square, with the audience ____ on the ground. (Test 1) A. seating B. seated C. be seating D. to seat

b

Page 21: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

二、情态动词和虚拟语气(一)情态动词重点掌握“情态动词 +完成时”的用法 1. must + have done: 表示对过去的一种肯定的推测,意为“肯定”“一定”。

2. may (might) + have done: 用于肯定和否定句,表示对已发生的是事情的推测,相当于“可能”“大概”,但不太肯定。

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3. should (ought to) +have done: 该结构一般用于虚拟语气,肯定句表过去没有发生但却发生的事,译为“本应”;否定句表示过去发生了本不该发生的事,译为“本不该”。

47. Although Jack made a foolish mistake, we _____ at him. (Test 4) A. ought to have laughed B. oughtn’t to have laughed C. ought to laugh D. should not to laugh

b

Page 23: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

47. Five minutes earlier, ____ we could have caught the last train. A. and B. or C. so D. but

c

5. needn’t + have done: 表示不必做的事却做了, 可译为“其实不必”

4. could (not) + have done: 表过去的时间,说明某事可能(不可能)发生;肯定句表示某事过去本可以做但却未做;否定句表示某事过去本来不应该做但做了。

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二)虚拟语气 1 、虚拟语气在非真实条件句中

2 、虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用 3 、虚拟语气用在 as if (as though), even if (even though) 中

4 、在 It is (high) time (that)… 句型中,也需用虚拟语气。从句中的动词用过去式。

5 、用于 if only 引导的句中。

Page 25: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

构 主 从 成 句时态

虚拟条件句 主句

与现在事实相反的假设

If + 主语 + 动词的过去式( be 动词用 were )

主语 +should /would /could /might+ 动词原形

与过去事实相反的假设

If + 主语 +had + 过去分词

主语 +should /would /could /might +have+过去分词

与将来事实相反的假设

If + 主语 + 动词的过去式 If + 主语 +were to do If + 主语 +should do

主语 +should /would /could /might+ 动词原形

1 、虚拟语气在非真实条件句中

Page 26: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

53. If I had remembered ____ the window, the thief would not have got in. (Test 3) A. to close B. closing C. to have closed D. having closed

a

50. If the whole program ____ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost. (Test 1) A. was not planned B. were not planned C. would not be planned D. had not been planned

d

Page 27: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

2 、虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用49. We desire that the tour leader ____ us imme-diadately of any changes in plan. (Test 4) A. inform B. informs C. informed D. has informed

a

当 suggest, propose, desire, advice 等含有建议的意思时, that 从句习惯用( should)+ 动词原形50. Her wish was that he ____ at Beijing Univer-sity at once. (Test 5) A. studies B. studied C. study D. will study

c

Page 28: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

考点分析:在 would rather 、 would prefer 后的宾语从句中,需用虚拟语气,其构成为动词用过去式。

49. Most insurance agents would rather you ____ anything about collecting claims until they inves-tigate the situation. (Test 6) A. don’t do B. didn’t do C. would not do D. do

b

Page 29: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

在 It is + 形容词或过去分词或特定的名词 + that 的主语从句中:

形容词有: advisable, desirable, essential, impor-tant, necessary, normal, strange…

过去分词有: decided, desired, demanded, ordered, required, suggested…

特定的名词有: advice, decision, desire, demand, suggestion, wish, proposal, idea…

Page 30: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

48. This is very difficult operation. It is essential that you ____ for emergency.. (Test 6) A. are to be prepared B. would prepared C. be prepared D. must be prepared

c

Page 31: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

3 、虚拟语气用在 as if (as though), even if (even though) 中

54. Determined to _____ as if everything were normal, he responded with a kind of indifference. (Test 1) A. carry on B. account for C. bring up D. get through

a

4 、在 It is (high) time (that)… 句型中,也需用虚拟语气。从句中的动词用过去式。

Page 32: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

51. Isn’t it about the time you ____ to do morning exercises? (Test 1) A. began B. begin C. should begin D. have begun

a

考点分析:表示现在的愿望,用 would/could do; 表示与过去事实相反的愿望,用 would/could have done

46. If only he ____ what I tell him, but he won’t. (Test 5) A. had done B. would do C. would have done D. has done

b

Page 33: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

解题技巧解题技巧直接法直接法——直接利用相关语法知识,通过题干中的已供信息,捕捉到解题线索,从而得出正确答案的解题方法。 关键词法关键词法——许多题目中都有这样一些词,它们对于快速而准确地判定答案起着至关重要的作用。我们称这些词为关键词 (key words) 。找到句中的关键词,也就找到了解题的突破口 。

Page 34: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

类推法类推法——如果对题目的备选答案没有十分把握或把握很小,不妨利用“如果 A对,那么 B 也对”的类推法,从而可将 A、 B予以否定 。

前后照应法前后照应法——此方法多用于两个以上句子或对话形式命题的题目。解题前透彻理解,然后联系上下文,捕捉隐含信息,方能准确找出答案 。

Page 35: 大学英语 B 网考辅导

排除法排除法——根据题干提供的信息,先把一眼就看出的干扰项排除,缩小选择范围,然后将剩余的选项填入空白处进行检验,辨别真伪 。

Page 36: 大学英语 B 网考辅导