नेपाली वृहत शब्दकोश, nepali dictionary

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 1
g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z  -;+zf]lwt / kl/jlw{t ;+:s/0f_
 g] kfn k| 1f–k| lti7fg 
 
k|sfzs  g]kfn k|1f–k| lti7fg sdnfbL, sf7df8f} + .
k|yd ;+:s/0f M !),))) k|lt lj) ;+) @)$),
k'gd' {b|0f M %,))) k|lt lj) ;+) @)%)
k'gd' {b|0f M %,))) k|lt lj) ;+) @)%@
k'gd' {b|0f M %,))) k|lt lj) ;+) @)%%
k'gd' {lb|t ;+zf]lwt / kl/jlw{t kfFrf} F ;+:s/0f— %))) k|lt lj) ;+) @)%*
k'gd' {lb|t ;+zf]lwt / kl/jlw{t 5}6f} F ;+:s/0f— %))) k|lt lj) ;+) @)^)
k'gd' {lb|t ;+zf]lwt / kl/jlw{t ;ftf} F ;+:s/0f— %))) k|lt lj) ;+) @)^& 
d" NoM ¿= *&%.—
ISBN No.: 978-99933-71-10-6 
 
 cWoIf 
;b:o
8f= a]Gh' zdf{    k|f= 8f= dxfb]j cj:yL efpkGyL 
;'nf]rgf dfgGw/ lwtfn   a"  Fb /fgf   /fde/f]; sfkl8 …e|d/Ú
8f= ;+hLtf jdf{    lji0f' k|eft
;b:o–;lrj 
;gt /]UdL
 cWoIf 
 dfwjk| ;fb l3ld/]  pks'nklt, g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fg
;b:o
k|f) afns[i0f kf]v/]n 8f) jf;'b]j lqkf7L 8f) jNnedl0f bfxfn 
wgjh| jh|frfo{  sfzLgfy tdf]6
;b:o–;lrj 
ljhoaxfb'/ dNn, ;lrj, g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fg
;xof]uL
k|:t't zAbsf]zdf s]xL yk kfl/eflifs zAbsf] ;'emfj lbg'eO{ ;xof]u ug' {x'g] ljåfg\x¿
sdn bLlIft  s]bf/ Gof}kfg]  3gZofd sF8]n  r" 8fgfy e§/fo  8f) 5ljnfn uh'/]n  hgsnfn zdf{  q}nf]Sodfg k|wfgfË  k" 0f{k|sfz …ofqLÚ g]kfn  km0fLGb| sfˆn]   leS6/ k|wfg  /fhj  /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL  /fdk|;fb zdf{  /]jtL/d0f vgfn
 
;Dkfbs–d08n
 lgb] {zs 
k|f) afns[i0f kf]v/]n ;b:o -efiff_, g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fg
 ljz]if ;Dkfbs 
8f) jf;'b]j lqkf7L k|fWofks Pj+ cWoIf, lq) lj) g]kfnL lzIf0f ;ldlt
8f) jNnedl0f bfxfn k|fWofks, lq) lj) g]kfnL lzIf0f ;ldlt
;Dkfbs 
s[i0fk|;fb k/fh'nL pkk|fWofks, lq) lj) g]kfnL lzIf0f ;ldlt
;x;Dkfbs 
uf]kLs[i0f zdf{  ;xk|fWofks, lq) lj) g]kfnL lzIf0f ;ldlt
;xfos ;Dkfbs 
;+of]hs 
;b:o
k|f= 8f= dxfb]j cj:yL
k|f= uf]kLs[i0f zdf{ 
8f= hLj]Gb|b]j lu/L
;xof]uLx¿
k|f= 8f= of]u]Gb|k|;fb ofbj
k|f= /fh]Gb| ;'j]bL
8f= vu]Gb| n'OF6]n
k|f= 8f= b]jLk|;fb uf}td
dfwj 9'ª\u]n
  s'nkltsf] dGtJo
g]kfn k|1f–k|lti7fg g]kfnsf] ;f+:s[lts, eflifs / wfld{s ljljwtfnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL ;du|  jfª\dosf] ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ugf{sf lglDt ;ª\ul7t ;+:yf xf] . g]kfnsf bz{g, ;+:s[lt, efiff, ;flxTo, ;ª\uLt, snf, gf6\o, ;fdflhs zf:q cflbsf] cWoog–cg';Gwfg u/fO{ ltgsf] k|fl1s k/Dk/fnfO{ ;an agfpg @)!$ ;fn c;f/ ( ut] g]kfn Ps]8]dL -kl5 /fon g]kfn Ps]8]dL / g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f k|lti7fg_sf] :yfkgf ePsf] lyof] . @)^@÷)^# ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfaf6 g]kfndf ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf eof] / g]kfn k|1f–k|lti7fg g]kfnsf ;a} hfltsf efiff, ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt, bz{gzf:q / ;dflhs zf:qh:tf jfª\do;Fu ;DalGwt k|1fsf] s]Gb| aGof] . g]kfnL jfª\dosf oL k|To]s ljifo / logsf ljleGg ljwfdf cWoog–cg';Gwfg u/fO{ k|sfzgdf Nofpg', k'/fgf 1fgsf] ;+zf]wg / lj:tf/sf ;fy} gofF 1fgsf] :yfkgf ug' { / g]kfnsf nf]kf]Gd'v hfltsf efiff, lnlk, ;+:s[lt, >'ltk/Dk/f, hLjgk4lt / ;flxTosf] vf]hL u/L ltgnfO{ hf]ufpg' klg o; k|lti7fgsf] k|d'v bfloTj xf] . PSsfO;f} F  ztfAbLsf] ljZj:t/Lo b' |tj]uL 1fgk|jfxaf6 g]kfnL k|fl1s hut\nfO{ / g]kfnsf gjLg k|fl1s pknlAwaf6 ljZj;d'bfonfO{ nfeflGjt t'Nofpg]tkm{ klg of] k|lti7fg ;hu 5 . jf:tjdf g]kfnsf ;Dk" 0f{ If]qsf] k|fl1s pGgog / ;[hgfTds ;d[l4sf lglDt cu|0fL e" ldsf v]Nb} /fhwfgL aflx/ klg cg's" n jftfj/0fsf] l;h{gf ul/lbg' o; k|1f–k|lti7fgsf] bfloTj / sd{If]q klg xf] . 
g]kfnleq tyf g]kfnaflx/sf] l;Ëf] g]kfnL k|fl1s hut\sf ;a} ljåfg\–ljb'ifL, ;|i6f–b|i6f tyf k|1fsdL{x¿sf ;b\efj, ;xof]usf ;fy} uf]i7L / ljrf/–dGygdf ;xsfo{ u/L k|fl1s j}rfl/s cfbfg– k|bfgåf/f g} g]kfnL k|1f–hut\ ljZjsf] 1fgnx/L;Fu xf]:6]df x} F;] ub} { g]kfnsf 1fg–k/Dk/fsf] ;d'Ggog ug{  / /fli6«o uf}/jsf] >Lj[l4sf] sfo{df ;dof]lrt of]ubfg ug{ g]kfn k|1f–k|lti7fg ;kmn x'g]5 eGg] b[9 ljZjf; lnPsf] 5' .
@)^& kf}if 
 9
/fi6«gfos >L % dxf/fhflw/fh jL/]Gb|jL/ljqmd zfxb]j ;/sf/sf] j/b ;+/IfsTjdf g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fgn] g]kfnL efiff, ;flxTo, snf, ;+:s[lt tyf 1fg–lj1fgsf] If]qdf pQ/f]Q/ ljsf; ub} { hfg] :j0f{ cj;/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . df};'km ;/sf/af6 aS; ePsf] dxfg\ k|  ]/0ff tyf lgufxsf]  kmn:j¿k k|1f–k|lti7fgaf6 of] g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z k|sflzt x' Fb} 5 .
g]kfnL efiff g]kfnsf] /fi6«efiff xf] . o; efiffdf ePsf] hLjGttfn] ubf{ o;n] lbg–k/lbg ljz]if k|ult ub} { cfPsf] s'/f ;j{ljlbt 5 . g]kfnL efiffdf k|rlnt zAbx¿ ;ª\u|x u/L cfjZos kl/efiff tyf pbfx/0f;d]t lbP/ Jojxf/f]kof]uL zAbsf]z k|sflzt ug] { of]hgfcGtu{t g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z  tof/ kf/]/ k|1f–k|lti7fgn] Pp6f k/Dk/fut dxŒ jk" 0f{ sfo{ ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . d'n'ssf] ;jf{ª\uL0f ljsf;qmddf /fi6«efiffsf] Jofks k|rf/, ljsf; tyf lj:tf/df o; zAbsf]zn] 7" nf] of]ubfg lbg]5 eGg]  dnfO{ ljZjf; 5 .
/fi6«sf] uf}/j a9fpg] o:tf dxŒ jk" 0f{ sfo{df ljåfg\x¿af6 kfPsf] ;xof]u / ;b\efjgfsf nflu k|1f–k|lti7fg pxfFx¿k|lt xflb{s cfef/ k|s6 ub{5 .
ldlt M @)$) kf}if !$ ut]  n}gl;+x afª\ub]n  k|yd ;+:s/0f s'nklt
g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fg
 
k|sfzsLo
g]kfnL efiffsf] clxn];Dd k|sflzt ;a}eGbf cflwsfl/s zAbsf]zdf g]kfn k|1f–k|lti7fgsf] g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z /lxcfPsf] 5 . tt\sfnLg g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fgaf6 tof/ kf/L of] sf]z ;j{k|yd lj=;+= @)$) df k|sflzt ul/Psf] xf] . To;kl5 qmdzM lj=;+= @)%), @)%@ / @)%% df o;sf ljleGg ;+:s/0fx¿ k'gd' {b|0f eO{ k|sfzdf cfPsf lyP . lj=;+= @)%* df tt\sfnLg k|f1–kl/ifb\sf] g]t[Tjn] o;nfO{  s]xL ;+zf]wg / kl/jw{g ;d]t u/L o;sf kfFrf} F / 5}6f} F ;+:s/0fnfO{ qmdzM @)%* / @)^) df k'gd' {b|0f u/]sf] xf] . @)^) b]lv nfdf] cjlw;Dd ljleGg k|fljlws sf/0fn] o; zAbsf]zsf] csf] { ;+:s/0f k|sfzdf cfpg ;s]g . ljz]if u/L lj=;+= @)^@ sf] bf];|f] hgcfGbf]ngn] d'n'snfO{ gofF ;+/rgfdf ¿kfGt/0f u/]kl5  d'n'ssf ;a} cª\usf] gofF ;+/rgf aGg] agfpg] qmddf tt\sfnLg g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fgnfO{ klg gofF ;+/rgfdf ¿kfGt/0f ug{ lgs} ;do nfUof] / g]kfn k|1f–k|lti7fg P]g @)^$ n] k|lti7fgnfO{ gofF  :j¿kdf ¿kfGt/0f u/]kl5 klg o;sf g]t[TjbfoL cª\u k|f1–;ef / k|f1–kl/ifb\ u7gdf nfdf] ;do;Dd kv{g' k/]sfn] lg0ff{os g]t[TjbfoL cª\usf] cg'kl:yltdf k|1f–k|lti7fgsf cGo sfd yftLdf /x] h:t} g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z sf] csf] { ;+ +:s/0f k|sfzgdf cfpg ;s]g . o;/L nfdf] ;do;Dd o; sf]zsf] k'gd' {b|0f x'g g;s]sfn] ahf/df o;sf] cTolws dfu /x]sf] s'/fnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL g]kfn k|1f–k|lti7fgsf] gjul7t k|f1– kl/ifb\n] o;sf] gofF ;+:s/0f t'?Gt k|sfzg ug] { lg0f{o u/] adf]lhd sf]zsf] ;ftf} F ;+:s/0f xfn k|sfzdf cfPsf] 5 .
k|:t't ;+:s/0fnfO{ k" j{ k|sflzt o; sf]zsf] 5}6f} F ;+:s/0fs} k'gd' {b|0f eg]df klg km/s kb} {g . d'n'ssf] abln+bf] kl/l:ylt cg'¿k gofF k|of]udf cfPsf s]xL zAb / k'/fgf] ;+:s/0fdf lbOPsf s]xL zAbsf c;fGble{s cy{nfO{ ;fGble{s ¿kdf cy{n]vg ug' { l;jfo o; ;+:s/0fdf tflŒjs km]/abn ePsf] 5}g . k|1f–k|lti7fgsf] cflwsfl/s g]t[Tj u7g x'g'cl3 g} tt\sfnLg k|1f–k|lti7fgsf] k|zf;gaf6 o; sf]znfO{  ;dofg's" n kfg{ efifflj1x¿sf] ;d" x u7g ul/Psf] / o;/L ul7t ;ldltn] o; sf]zsf] ;ftf} F ;+:s/0f k|sfzgsf nflu tof/ kf/]sf ;'emfpx¿nfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ jt{dfg k|f1–kl/ifbn] of] ;+:s/0f k|sfzg ug] {  lg0f{o lnPsf] xf] . o; sf]znfO{ gofF kl/l:ylt cg'¿k w]/} s'/fdf cBfjlws ug{ cfjZos /x]sf] dx;'; ubf{ub} { klg o;/L cBfjlws ug{ lgs} ;do nfUg] ePsfn] ahf/sf] dfu k" /f ug{ o;nfO{ oyfl:yltdf g}  k|sfzgdf Nofpg kl/ifb\ tof/ ePsf] xf] .
 
  12
g]kfnL efiffsf] n]Vo k/Dk/f ;'? ePsf] klg Ps xhf/ jif{eGbf a];L eO;s]sf] 5 . ;'?df cfo{d" nsf v; afx'g 5]qL cflbaf6 dft[efiffsf] ¿kdf af]lng] of] efiff xfn g]kfnsf ljleGg efiffefifL ;d'bfosf] ;Dks{ efiff ePsf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiff klg oxL efiff ePsfn]  g]kfnsf ;a} hflt hghfltsf nflu klg of] efiff cfˆgf] cleJolStsf] cleGg cª\u ePsf] 5 . g]kfnsf]  a9\bf] aflx/L ;Dks{ / 1fglj1fgsf If]qdf g]kfnLx¿sf] k|ultpGd'v kx' Frn] o; efiffsf] k|of]u If]q c¿ a9\b} 5 . ef/tdf g]kfnL efiffn] ef/tLo g]kfnL efiffsf] ¿kdf ;+j}wflgs dfGotf k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . ef/t h:t} ljZjsf ljleGg efudf cfk|jf;gsf qmddf k'u]sf g]kfnLx¿sf] hftLo klxrfgsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] o; efiffsf] lj:tf/ ljZjJofkL ¿kdf a9\b} 5 . To:t} ljZjsf ljleGg ljZjljBfnon] klg g]kfnL efiff, ;flxTo / ;+:s[ltnfO{ k7gkf7g u/fpg] k|lqmof lbgk|ltlbg a9\bf] 5 . g]kfnL efiffsf] o; ljsf;zLn :j¿knfO{  ;d]6\g @)$) ;fndf k|sflzt g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z sf] kl/dfh{g / lj:tf/ ub} { cBfjlws ug{ cfjZos 5 . ljleGg ef}uf]lns, hflt, hghflt If]qdf k|of]u eO/x]sf gofF gofF zAbx¿nfO{ ;dfj]z u/L o; sf]znfO{  cBfjlws ug] { ljz]if of]hgf k|f1–kl/ifb\n] o;} cfly{s jif{b]lv sfof{Gjog ub} { 5 . o; sfdsf nflu ;j{k|yd sf]z cBfjlws ug{ cfjZos s]xL dfgs l;4fGtsf] lgwf{/0f ug{ / g]kfnL efiffsf] df}lnstfnfO{  ;+/If0f ub} { g]kfnL efiffsf] j0f{ljGof;, n]vg k4ltnfO{ ;dofg's" n agfpg lj1x¿sf] ljz]if 5nkmn x'g'  cfjZos 5 . oxL cfjZostfnfO{ dx;'; u/L g]kfnL efiff k|of]udf Nofpg] ;a} ;d" xsf k|of]Stf / b]z ljb]zdf /x]/ g]kfnefiffsf] ;d[l4df nfluk/]sf lj1x¿sf] hd36 u/fO{ g]kfnL j0f{–ljGof; / sf]zlgdf{0fsf dfgs lgwf{/0f ug{ oxL cfly{s jif{df a[xt\ eflifs ;+uf]i7Lsf] cfof]hgf k|f1–kl/ifb\n] ug] {5 . o; ;+uf]i7Ln]  lgwf{/0f u/]sf dfgsx¿sf] hudf 6]s]/ g} o; sf]znfO{ o;} jif{blv cBfjlws ug] { sfo{ ;'? u/L cfufdL cfly{s jif{df k|sfzg ul/g]5 . a[xt\ 5nkmnkl5 tof/ kl/Psf dfgsx¿sf] cfwf/df tof/ kfl/g] g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z sf] gofF ;+:s/0fn] g]kfnL efiffsf] dfgs ¿k lrGg lrgfpg dxŒjk" 0f{ e" ldsf v]Ng]5 eGg]  k|f1–kl/ifb\sf] ck]Iff /x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{nfO{ ;kmn kfg{ g]kfnL efiffsf] If]qdf sfo{/t lj1x¿af6 cjZo g}  k" jf{u|x/lxt ;xof]u k|lti7fgn] k|fKt ug] { xfd|f] cfzf 5 .
w]/} lbgb]lv cefjdf /x]sf] g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z nfO{ s]xL ;+zf]wg ;lxt k|sfzg ubf{ lgZro klg s]xL sdL sdhf]/L /x]sf xf]nfg\ . o:tf ;du| sdLsdhf]/L x6fpg lj1 kf7saf6 k|fKt x'g] ;'emfjnfO{ o; sf]zsf] cBfjlws x'g] gofF ;+:s/0fdf ;d]l6g] k|lta4tf hfx]/ ub} { of] ;+:s/0f tof/ kfg{ ;xof]u ug] {  ;Dk" 0f{ dxfg'efj Pj+ ljz]if u/L o; zAbsf]zsf] sDKo'6/;DaGwL ;f/f sfo{ ;DkGg ug{ /fhs'df/ >]i7 / d'b|0f;DaGwL ;f/f sfo{ ;DkGg ug{ k|sfzg k|d'v ;GWof kxf8L k|1f–5fkfvfgfsf ledk|;fb ;fksf]6f, ;'/]Gb|sfhL l;Gb'/fsf/, OGb|k|;fb ;'j]bL, /fds[i0f dxh{g, z]if/fh b]jsf]6f, nf]s]Gb| ofvf, s0f{axfb'/ s'dfn, tyf e'naxfb'/ >]i7 cflbn] b]vfpg' ePsf] pT;fx, hfFu/ / st{Jolgi7fsf] ;/fxgf ub} { wGojfb 1fkg ub{5' .
@)^& kf}if ! ut]  sdnfbL, sf7df8f} + .
uËfk|;fb pk|  ]tL pks'nklt 
 
k|sfzsLo
 
  14
ds}sf v;|f rfdn eGg] g} yfxf 5}g / dg k/]sL k|  ]ldsf eGg] nIofy{ rflxF k|rlnt 5 . h;/L j[lQe]bn]  Ps} zAbsf ljleGg cy{ nfU5g\, To;/L g} x[bosf] efj a'emfpg] ljleGg zAbsf] sl/a–sl/a cleGg cy{  nfU5 . k|  ]dL / k|  ]ldsf dfof klg u5{g\, k| Llt klg u5{g\ / k/:k/ dfofk| Llt klg u5{g\ . xfdLnfO{ dfof ;a}sf] nfU5, t/ dfof lk|odf dfq a:5 . pxL dfof ubf{ , nfUbf / a:tf slt ;" Id aGb} hfG5 Û …dfof gu/]  klg bof t u/Ú eg]/ dfof / bofnfO{ leGg} 7fG5f} FÙ t/ ar/fsf] rNnf s'lNrP/ dg{ nfu]sf] b]Vbf xfdLnfO{  dfof nfU5 . hLjGt efiff ;xh ¿kn] :k' ml/t x'G5, To;df efjx¿ lgem{/df aUg] OGb|  ]gLsf n'sf{em} F slxn]  5'l§P/, slxn] hf]lN6P/ lgl:s/xG5g\ . xfdLn] o;} efiffdf dfof nufof} F / Ps} zAbnfO{ klg lnP/ lbgel/ efjgfdf k|jflxt eof} F . xfdLn] o;}df ;kgf b]Vof} F / ;';]nLdf o;}sf] efsf cnfKof} F . dg'iox¿ cfˆgf cGt/tddf stf–stf Wjlg / laDanfO{ cleGg ¿kdf cg'ej u5{g\, clg …¿kÚ eGg]sf] dgdf …gfdÚ aG5 / gfd ;'Gg]sf] dgdf …¿kÚ aG5 . xfdL zAb / cy{nfO{ k/:k/ ;Dk[Qm lzj / kfj{tL dfGb5f} F, h;af6 dg'iosf]  dfg;ljZjsf] lg/Gt/ cleJolQm eO/xG5 .
g]kfnL efiff n]Vo ¿kdf b]vf kg{ yfn]sf] Ps xhf/ jif{ eof] . o;df ;aeGbf klxn] ;flxTo, To;kl5 Jofs/0f / To;kl5 dfq sf]zsf] lgdf{0f eof] . cfheGbf sl/a cfwf ztfAbLcl3 6g{/sf] g]kfnL sf]z k|sflzt eof], h;sf] cy{ cª\u|  ]hLdf 5 . To;kl5 g]kfnLd} cy{ ePsf] g]kfnL sf]z rflxF g]kfnL efiffk|sflzgL ;ldltsf] zAbsf]z xf] . ;ldltsf] sf]z rlGb|sf Jofs/0f;Ddt jt{gLdf cfw[t 5 eg] 6g{/sf]  sf]zrflxF sYo g]kfnLsf] jt{gLsf] glhsdf 5 . xfd|f] ;flxTon] ;ldlts} jt{gL -lxHh]_–sf] cg';/0f u¥of] . n]Vo efiffdf To;}sf] Jofks k|efj k¥of] . o;/L g]kfnL zAbsf] :j¿knfO{ To; j]nf Jofs/0f, sf]z / ;flxTon] ;lDdlnt ¿kdf l:y/ u/] . clw/fHoel/ / clw/fHoaflx/ hxfF n]v] klg zAbnfO{ ToxL ¿kdf n]lvg' / To;sf] ToxL cy{ a'lemg' efiffsf] lglDt Ps 7" nf] pknlAw xf] . oBlk hLljt efiffnfO{ sf]z / Jofs/0fn] hsl8/fVg ;Qm}gg\ / ;docg';f/ To;sf zAb / cy{df kl/jt{g x' Fb} cfpg' hLjGttfsf] nIf0f xf]Ù t/ Tof] kl/jt{g klg ;j{u|fXo x'g ;s] dfq pknlAw 7xl/g hfG5 . jf:tjdf zAbsf] cy{ eGg' ;ª\s]t xf], jt{gL eGg' afgL g} xf] . t/ Psb'O{ hgfn] ;ª\s]t ub} {df zAbdf zlQm :k' ml/t x' Fb}g / Psb'O{ hgfsf]  afgL a:t}df To;nfO{ ;a}n] :jLsf/ ub} {gg\ . ;ldlts} sf]zsf] k/Dk/fdf afnrGb| zdf{sf] g]kfnL zAbsf]z k|1f–k|lti7fgaf6 aL; jif{cl3 k|sflzt ePsf] xf] . cfh 6g{/, ;ldlt / zdf{sf] uf}/jdo k/Dk/fdf b'O{  kfOnf cl3 ;fb} { of]  g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z cfPsf] 5 . @)## ;fndf tTsfnLg pks'nklt >L n}gl;+x afª\ub]n -jt{dfg s'nklt_–sf] cWoIftfdf zAbsf]z–;ldltsf] u7g ePsf] lyof] / To;}sf] k/fdz{df @% k|ltzt sfo{ ;DkGg eO;s]sf] lyof] . @)#^ ;fndf jt{dfg pks'nkltsf] cWoIftfdf s]xL kl/jt{g;fy sf]z;ldltsf] u7g eof] / To;sf] k/fdz{cg';f/ ;Dkfbgsf] sfo{ cufl8 a9Øf] . xfdLn] ;Dkfbgsfo{df efifflj1, sf]zlgdf{0f–lzNksf lzNkL / ljljw ljifosf ljz]if1x¿sf] clwsflws ;ª\Vofdf ;xeflutf k|fKt u¥of} + . o;df a9L ;ª\Vof lqe'jg ljZjljBfnosf k|fWofksx¿s} 5 / o;af6 zAb:j¿k / ltgsf] cy{df k|1f–k|lti7fg / lq)lj)lj)–aLr ;dGjo /xg]5 eGg] xfdLn] cfzf /fv]sf 5f} F . o; sf]zdf zAbsf] cy{sf]  lglDt kof{ojfrL zAbsf] ;fy} oyf;Dej kfl/eflifs cy{ lbg] k|oTg ePsf] 5 . hxfF p:t}–p:t} cy{ a'emfpg]  zAbdf ;" Id e]b 5, hxfF Ps} zAbsf ljleGg ljifocGtu{t cg]s cy{ 5g\, hxfF ;Eotfsf] ljsf;n] ubf{  k|frLg zAbsf] cy{ lj:d[t eO;s]sf] 5, hxfF :y" n cy{ lbg] pxL zAbn] ;" Id cy{ lbPsf] 5, To:tf :yndf xfdLn] pbfx/0f;lxt cy{ v'nfpg] pkfo u/]sf 5f} F . nf]s;flxTo / ;" lQmdf sltko zAb d'Vofy{df eGbf nIofy{df k|rlnt x'G5g\, To:tf zAbsf] lglDt nf]shLjgdf leh]sf pvfg–6'Ssf / ljlzi6 jfSof+z klg lbPsf 5f} F . k|ljlw / lj1fg cflb ljifosf nf]k x' Fb} uPsf, k|rlnt eO/x]sf / gofF k|rngdf cfO/x]sf s]xL kfl/eflifs zAbnfO{ klg ;dfj]z u/]sf 5f} F .
 
 15
s[tfy{ kfl/aS;]sf] 5 . o; ;Gb]zdf lglxt kljq efjgfnfO{ xfdLn] /fi6«efiffsf] clej[l4 ug] { sfo{df cem pT;fxn] ;+nUg /xgsf] lglDt k|  ]/0ffk|b cfzLjf{b ;Dem]sf 5f} F .
>L % sf] ;/sf/n] zAbsf]z k|sfzg ug{ / o;sf] cfoaf6 …zAbsf]z–kl/qmdflglwÚ :yfkgf ug{  pbf/tf;fy Psd'i6 /sd k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] lglDt >L % sf] ;/sf/k|lt ljz]if wGojfb 1fkg ug{  rfxG5f} F .
zAbsf]z–;ldltsf ;xof]uL ljåfg\x¿af6 xfdLnfO{ cd" No k/fdz{ k|fKt ePsf] 5 . vf; u/L, kfl/eflifs cy{n]vgsf] lglDt cfwf/e" t gd'gf tof/ kfg] {, zAbsf j}slNks ¿k s'g cfwf/df slt lbg], ;Dkfbg eO;s]kl5 clGtd ¿k lbg] h:tf sfo{df pxfFx¿af6 xfdLn] 7" nf] ;xof]u kfof} F . o;} u/L xfd|f ;xof]uL ljåfg\x¿n] vf;–vf; ljifosf k|foM c1ft jf lj:d[t eO{sg klg pkof]uL s]xL zAbx¿sf]  ;ª\sng / kfl/eflifs cy{n]vgdf ?lr;fy ;xof]u lbg'eof] . o;sf] lglDt ljåfg\ dxfg'efjnfO{ xflb{s wGojfb 1fkg ub{5' . k|:t't sf]zsf] tof/Lsf] qmddf s]xL zAbsf] cy{n]vgdf ;xof]u lbg'x'g] k|fWofksx¿ ;j{>L 3gZofd sF8]n, 8f) bof/fd >]i7, g/]Gb| rfkfufO{ + / /fh]Gb| ;'j]bLnfO{ klg wGojfb glbO{ /xg ;lsGg .
lgb] {zs ;Dkfbs, xfd|f efifftkm{sf ;b:o, k|fWofks afns[i0f kf]v/]n, ljz]if ;Dkfbsåo k|fWofks 8f) jf;'b]j lqkf7L / k|fWofks 8f) aNnedl0f bfxfn, ;Dkfbs pkk|fWofks s[i0fk|;fb k/fh'nLn] o; sf]zdf cfˆgf] k|ltef / kl;gf g} lehfpg'ePsf] 5 . o;sf] ;fy} ;x;Dkfbs ;xk|fWofks uf]kLs[i0f zdf{ / sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs k+) xif{gfy e§/fO{n] pNn]vgLo sfo{ ug' {ePsf] 5 . o;/L sf]z ;Dkfbgsf] sfo{nfO{ kljq cg'i7fgsf] ¿kdf ;DkGg ug] { ;Dkfbsd08nsf ;a} ;xsdL{ ljåfg\x¿nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb k|bfg ub{5' .
d'b|0fsfo{sf] lglDt ;'rf? ¿kn] ;Dk" 0f{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] k|zf;gk|d'v nId0fk|;fb nfld5fg], d'b|0fsf] j]nf;Dd klg d" n k|ltsf] lg/LIf0f, kl/dfh{g / k| 'km ;+zf]wg ug' {x'g] s[i0fk|;fb k/fh'nL, k| 'km ;+zf]wg ug] { uf]kLs[i0f zdf{, xif{gfy e§/fO{, s'df/w/ zdf{, ab| LrGb| vgfn / jf/f0f;Ldf d'b|0fJoj:yfsf]  lglDt ;xof]u lbg] ;flxTosf/ b'uf{k|;fb >]i7nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb k|bfg ub{5' .
of] sfo{ ;a}sf] ;xeflutfaf6 ;DkGg ePsf] xf] / o;sf] ;kmntfsf] >]o klg ;a}sf] xf] . hf] o;df ;+nUg 5}gg\, tL efiffk|  ]dLaf6 klg eljiosf] sf]z;Dkfbgsf] lglDt o;df /xg uPsf e" nnfO{ cf} FNofOlbg] / efiffsf] cfsfzdf cem} b]Vg z]if /x]sf tf/flt/ O;f/f ul/lbg] cfzf /fVb5f} F .
@)$) ;fn, kf}if !$ ut] .  dfwjk|;fb l3ld/]  pks'nklt
g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k| lti7fg 
 
k'gd' {lb|t ;+:s/0faf/] 
o; k'gd' {lb|t ;+:s/0fdf ljleGg ;|f]taf6 pknAw ePsf cz'l4x¿dfq oyf;Dej ;'wfl/Psf 5g\ . k|yd ;+:s/0fdf ePsf cz'l4x¿ klxNofOlbg] ljåfg\x¿df g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fg ztzM wGojfb ck{0f ub{5 .
eljiodf klg ljåfg\x¿af6 o:t} z' 4Ls/0fsf ;'emfpx¿sf] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
@)%) kf}if !$ ut] .  O{Zj/ a/fn bf];|f] ;+:s/0f pks'nklt
g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k| lti7fg 
 
 17 
;DkfbsLo
!= k|:tfjgf  dfgjhLjgsf ;Dk" 0f{ lqmofsnfk, lrGtgdgg tyf cleJolQmx¿sf] ;aeGbf ;zQm dfWod efiff g} 
xf] . efj tyf ljrf/sf] k|:k' m6g tyf ;~rf/sf qmddf efiffn] ;fdflhs hLjgnfO{ ultzLn agfpgfsf ;fy;fy} ;flxTo tyf ;flxTo]t/ 1fglj1fgsf] prfO;Dd k'¥ofpg] u5{ . efiffsf] cleJolQmIfdtf o;sf zAbe08f/sf] Ifdtfdf lge{/ u5{ / To; efiffdf v]n]sf, leh]sf / /lQPsf zAbx¿s} ;dli6 xf]  zAbe08f/ . ljZjsf x/]s hfltsf eflifs k|of]udf To; efiffsf zAbPsfOx¿sf] dxŒ jk" 0f{ :yfg x'G5 . s'g}  efiffsf] ;~rf/;fdYo{sf] dfkg ug] { d" n cfwf/ zAb;|f]t klg xf] . zAb;DkGgtf / cy{jxg–Ifdtfn]  efiffnfO{ hLjGt agfpF5 . efiffdf cfjZostf / kl/l:yltcg';f/ x'g] zAbk|of]u / cy{ljwfgdf ;dofg's" n kl/isf/ jf kl/jt{g eO/xG5g\ . lgZro g} zAbsf]z s'g} klg efiffsf] zAbe08f/sf] ;" rs xf] / To; efiffsf] k|of]u jf cWoog ug] {x¿sf nflu ;xfos cfwf/ klg xf] . cGo efiffefifLx¿ / ljb]zLx¿sf lglDt t o;sf] emg\ a9L pkof]lutf 5 .
g]kfnL efiff, Jofs/0f cflbaf/] gofF 9Ën] rf;f] lng] ljb]zLx¿df 8An') h]) ss{Kofl6«s, ;L) o') P6g / P) 6g{a'n cflbsf] sfo{ k|z+;gLo 5 . ss{Kofl6«sn] g]kfnsf] Oltxf; jf j+zfjnL;DaGwL ljj/0fsf]  k[i7efudf g]kfnL zAbx¿sf] ;" rL klg lbPsf 5g\ . o; k':tssf] k|sfzg !*!! O) df ePsf] lyof] . o;sf] gf} jif{kl5 !*@) O) df P6gn] …g]kfnL Jofs/0fÚ eGg] k':ts snsQfaf6 k|sflzt u/fP . !**&  O) df 6g{a'nsf] …g]kfnL Jofs/0f / zAbfjnLÚ sf] k|yd ;+:s/0f klg bflh{lnªaf6 k|sflzt eof] . g]kfnL efiffsf] cGj]if0f ug] {, ljåfg\x¿df cf/) Pn) 6g{/sf] gfd pNn]Vo 5 . pgsf] g]kfnL zAbsf] cy{ cª\u|  ]hL efiffdf n]lvPsf]  g]kfnL–cª\u|  ]hL zAbsf]z  !(#! O) df k|sflzt eof] . o; qmddf g]kfnL efiffdf zAbsf]zsf] lgdf{0f ug] { g]kfnL ljåfg\x¿df kl08t rqmkfl0f rfln;], kl08t /fdrGb| 9'ª\ufgf cflbsf k|of; pNn]vgLo 5g\ .
lj) ;+) @)!( df g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k|lti7fgåf/f k|sflzt afnrGb| zdf{åf/f ;Dkflbt g]kfnL zAbsf]zsf] ljz]if of]ubfg /x]sf] 5 . pQm sf]zn] lgs} ;do;Dd cefjsf] k" lt{ u/]sf] xf] tfklg Tof] km]l/ k|sflzt x'g ;s]g .
efiffsf] If]qdf kfFr–bz jif{df klg lgs} gofFgofF zAbx¿ k|rngdf cfpg] u5{g\ . To;}n] o:tf gofF zAbx¿sf] klg vf]hd]n u/L zAbsf]zdf ;dflji6 ug' {kg] { cfjZostf :jefjtM a9\b} hfG5 . o;}  kl/k|  ]Iodf k|1f–k|lti7fgåf/f ljleGg ljåfg\x¿sf] ;xeflutfdf Pp6f :t/Lo zAbsf]z ck]lIft 7flgPcg';f/ k|:t't zAbsf]z tof/ ePsf] xf] .
zAbsf]zsf] ;Dkfbgsfo{ >d;fWo / ;do;fWo x'G5 . k|1f–k|lti7fgåf/f @)## ;fnb]lv sf]zsf]  tof/L ug] { lg0f{o eO{ o; zAbsf]zsf] ;Dkfbgsfo{ k|f/De eP tfklg xfd|f lglDt eg] cToGt ;Lldt ;do dfq k|fKt eof] / k|foM ;Dk" 0f{ sfo{ gofF ¿k/]vfdf nueu gofF lsl;dn] k" 0f{ ug' {k¥of] . zAbsf]z;Dkfbgsf]  u'?t/ sfo{cg'¿k clwsflws ljåfg\x¿sf] ;xeflutf k|fKt u/L ;fd" lxs o1sf ¿kdf zAbsf]zsf] of]  ;Dkfbgsfo{ cufl8 a9Øf] . o; ;Gbe{df Ps¿ktf sfod ug' {b]lv lnP/ cy{sf] k'gn] {vg tyf ltgsf]  kl/isf/, 5'6 tyf sltko gofF zAbx¿ ;dfj]z ug' {;Ddsf sfo{ ;Dkfbgsf qmddf ePsf 5g\ . o;}n] cNk cjlwdf h]hlt x'g ;Sof], cToGt >d–;fwgfn] dfq x'g ;s]sf] 5 . d'b|0fsf qmddf uO;s]kl5 klg sltko zAb / cy{df kl/dfh{g tyf kl/isf/ ug' {k/]sf] 5 . o;/L tof/ ePsf] k|:t't sf]z q'l6/lxt 5 eGg] bfaL 5}gÙ t/ klg sf]znfO{ k|fdfl0fs / :t/Lo agfpg ;fwg / ;don] lbP;Dd el/;Ss] k|of;rflxF ePsf] 5 .
 
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@= zAbrog tyf k| ljli6cg'qmd  k|:t't zAbsf]zdf eflifs Jojxf/ / jfª\dosf ljleGg kmfF6df k|rngdf cfPsf g]kfnL zAbx¿
lbg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . Hofb} ck|rlnt, cltIf]qLo / cltsYo zAbx¿ sf]zdf ;dflji6 ul/Psf 5}gg\ . :t/Lo g]kfnLdf Ps kbdf efj JoQm gx'g] zAb e]l6Pdf ljz]iftM If]qLo eflifsfaf6 lng] gLlt cFuflnPsf]  5 eg] ;f+:s[lts hLjgdf k|rlnt zAbnfO{ klg w]/yf]/ leœ ofOPsf] 5 .
;+:s[t tT;d zAbnfO{ lnFbf jt{dfg dfgs jf :t/Lo g]kfnL efiffdf 1fg–lj1fgsf ljleGg kmfF6df k|of]u eP;Ddsf zAbx¿nfO{ lnOPsf] 5 . k|of]u–cf}lrTo / cfjZos 1fgsf b[li6df afx]s g]kfnLdf ck|rlnt /x]sf ;+:s[t tT;d zAbx¿ o;df ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5}gg\ . g]kfnL zAbn] g} kof{Kt cy{ jxg ug] { / ltgnfO{ k|of]u ul/Fbf lxGbL–pb"  { cflbaf6 k|efljt ePsf tyf la6'nf 7flgg] cfuGt's zAb klg o;df uflePsf 5}gg\ . o;/L k" j{jtL{ sf]zdf ;dflji6 c8rg, Px;fg, lbSst, k8f];L, k/];fg h:tf y'k|  } zAb x6fOPsf 5g\ . cª\u|  ]hL cflb efiffsf zAbdf klg g]kfnL lhe|fdf klr;s]sf zAbnfO{ dfq k|ljli6 lbOPsf]  5 / To;/L lbg' cfjZos ePsf 7fpFdf klg clwsf+ztM g]kfnL zAb x]g{ ;ª\s]t ul/Psf] 5 .
zAbx¿sf] /vfOqmd jf cg'qmddf ;fbf Ps j0f{ dfq ePdf ;j{k|yd ;f] j0f{ / To;kl5 qmdzM rGb|laGb', lz/laGb' / lj;u{o'Qm j0f{ lbOPsf 5g\ . b]jgfu/L lnlksf C[ tyf n[, n[ [ j0f{sf] k|of]u g]kfnL :j/j0f{df gx'g] x'gfn] n[ j0f{sf] sfd …nÚ Jo~hgj0f{sf qmdd} x'g ;Sg] ePsfn] :j/j0f{df ltgsf] k|ljli6 lbOPsf] 5}g . If, 1 / q h:tf ;+o'Qm j0f{nfO{ k" j{k|rngcg';f/ qmdzM If -s\±if_, 1 -h\±`_ / q -t\±/_ j0f{sf cg'qmdd} lbOPsf] 5 .
k|:t't zAbsf]zdf cFuflnPsf pko' {Qm /vfOqmdn] g5]s];Dd qmd klg glaufg] { / d" n zAbx¿sf ;fy;fy Jo'Tkflbt tyf ;d:j¿kL ;x;DalGwt zAb klg k]6af]nLdf lbg] gLlt lnOPsf] 5 . o;f] ubf{  zAbnfO{ j0ff{g'qmddf x]g{ ;lsg]5 . k|fltklbs, d" n, lqmofd" n / cg's/0fd" nx¿df rflxF qmdsf] Jojwfg geP;Dd sf]l6 g} lkR5] cg'R5]b gkm]/L d" n ¿k;Fu} /flvPsf] 5 . k]6af]nLdf cfpg] uf}0f k|ljli6sf zAbx¿nfO{ tLg lsl;dsf lrXg lbP/ hf]8\g] sfd ul/Psf] 5Ù h:t} —
-s_ låv08Lo x'g ;Sg] cyf{t\ cfwfcfwf 5'l§g] ;d:t zAbdf — -wsf] { lrXg_ lbOPsf] 5 . h:t}—  clwsf/ — If]q — kq — jfnf  sdn — u§f — gog — gogf  3/ — cfFug — s]6f] — vr{ 
— v]tL — uGtL — ufpFn] -v_ s[t\k|Too / tl4tk|Too nfu]/ ag]sf jf ;d¿kL ;x;DalGwt zAbdf v08 5'§Øfpg gldNg] x'gfn] > 
(Jo'Tkfbs lrXg) lbOPsf] 5 / z]ifdf csf] { vl08t ¿k gcfP;Dd ;fbf 5f]l8Psf] 5 . h:t} — pkef]u > pkef]uL pkef]Uo v'n:t > v'n:TofOF v'n:TofOg' v'n:Tofpg' 
-u_ Pp6} cy{PsfOsf eP tfklg kbof]u gx'g] ljz]if0fo'Qm zAb, cn's ;df; jf kbfjnL / 6'Ssfdf rflxF  ∼ -lrXg_ lbOPsf] 5 . h:t} —
 csf;]  ∼ v]tL ∼ j[ lQ  cFufnf]  ∼ xfNg' 3/ ∼ vfg' O) 
t/ s'g} Jo'Tkflbt zAb :jod\ klg k|hggzLn /x]sf] b]lvPsf 7fpFdf cf}lrTo x]/L To:tf zAbnfO{  k]6af]nLdf g/fvL d" n k|ljli6sf ¿kd} klg lbOPsf] 5 .
d" n lqmofkbdf …g'Ú sf] u0fgf ul/Psf] 5}g cyf{t\ …g'Ú nfO{ z" Go dfg]/ k|ljli6 lbOPsf] 5 . Jo'Tkflbt lqmofdf eg] of] lgod lqmoflGjt 5}g / lqmofd" n s[bGt zAbx¿nfO{ pko' {Qm lsl;dn] k]6af]nLdf g} lbOPsf] 5 . qmd 5]lsg]df rflxF :jtGq k|ljli6 ul/Psf] 5 / o:tf lqmofd" n zAbdf Jo'TklQ b]vfO{ d" n zAbnfO{ uf9f 6fOkdf lbP/ To:tf lqmofaf6 Jo'Tkflbt uf}0f zAbnfO{ k'gM hf]8\g] sfd klg ePsf] 5 .
 
 19
;fn# O) . clg j0ff{g'qmd glau|g] / b'j} ¿k ;d:t/Lo ePsf zAbnfO{ 58\s] lrXg lbP/ Ps} 7fpFdf klg kfl/Psf] 5 . h:t}— clnaf/÷clna]/, sldr÷sldh, 8F8fnL÷8F8fNgL O) .
:qLlnª\uL zAbx¿sf] k|ljli6 lbFbf efn] gfd -k'lnª\u_ af6 :qLlnª\u agfpg] Jo'Tkfbs k|lqmof ;/n ePdf k]6af]nLd} To:tf :qLlnª\uL zAb :qL) hgfO{ lbOPsf 5g\ / ;f] k|lqmof hl6n /x]sf 7fpFdf eg]  cnUu} k|ljli6 lbOPsf] 5 .
g]kfnL gfdjfrL psf/fGt zAb Psjrg a'emfpFbf cf]sf/fGt klg ePsf b]lvG5g\ . k|rng tyf cg's" ntf x]/L ltgsf psf/fGt jf cf]sf/fGt b'j} ¿k lbOPsf 5g\ . ltgsf] cy{ eg] s'g} Ps k|rlnt zAbdf dfq lbOPsf] 5 . h:t} — 5fg'—5fgf], dfg'–dfgf] OToflbdf . 3f]8f] / 3f]8f, 5f]/f] / 5f]/f h:tf zAbdf cf]sf/fGt ¿kdf cy{ lbO{ cfsf/fGtnfO{ pk:t/Lo dflgPsf] 5 .
g]kfnL efiffdf cFufnf]÷cªfnf], eFufnf]÷eªfnf] h:tf ¿k rn]sf 5g\Ù t/ cª\ufnf], eª\ufnf] h:tf ck|rlnt pRrf/0f ePsf zAbnfO{ x6fOPsf] 5 . b'j} ljsNk ¿kdf k|of]u x'g] u/]sf] b]lvPsf 7fpFdf b'j}  y/L zAbnfO{ ;d:t/Lo dfgL k|ljli6 lbOPsf] 5, cy{ klg k|foM b'j} 7fpFdf n]lvPsf] 5 .
cg's/0fd" n -emn\, y/\, t/\_ cflb zAbnfO{ d" n k|ljli6df lbOPsf] 5}gÙ t/ ltgaf6 ag]sf zAbsf]  k|ljli6 -h:t}— ys{g', ts{g' O)_ lbOPsf] 5 / cGTodf k|hgglrXgdf eg] d" n hgfOPsf] 5 . h:t} — ts{g'  -t/\_, emNsg' -emn\_ O) . o;/L hgfpFbf c) d" ) -cg's/0fd" n_ eGg] ;ª\s]t lbgfsf ;fy} of]ufTds zAb / låTj ePsf 7fpFdf -lå)_ cflb klg hgfOPsf] 5 .
k|Toof+zsf a4 ¿k ;a}nfO{ k|ljli6 glbO{ a9L k|rlnt jf nf]slk|onfO{ dfq k|ljli6 lbOPsf] 5 . h:t} — cfO, cf]6, cfj6, Onf] O) . …g]Ú k|Tooo'Qm Jo'TkGg zAbnfO{ :yflkt eO;s]sf ePdf jf ltgaf6 c¿ Jo'TkGg zAb lbg'kg] { eP dfq lbOPsf] 5 . h:t}—sf6\g], nfUg] / sf6\g] xltof/, vfg] xft O) .
#= Jo'TklQ zAbx¿sf] dfp ¿k klxNofpg jf k|:6Øfpgsf lglDt zAbsf]zdf Jo'TklQ jf pkklQsf] klg k|d'v
e" ldsf /xG5 . o; qmddf Jo'TklQ jf pkklQ lbg' ljleGg b[li6n] ck]lIft ePsfn] ;do / ;fwgn] lbP;Dd oyf;Dej lbOPsf] 5 . o;/L zAbsf Jo'TklQ lbFbf tb\ej cflb zAbdf h'g eflifs ;|f]t xf] To;sf] d" n lbg]  sfo{ ePsf] 5 . k/Gt' tT;d cflbdf d" n glbO{ efiffs} gfd ;ª\s]tåf/f hgfOPsf] 5 . h:t}— ;+) Ö ;+:s[t, k|f) Ö k|fs[t, c) Ö c/aL, cª\) Ö cª\u|  ]hL OToflb . ;+:s[t tT;d zAbdf ;+:s[ts} k|Too 5'§ØfP/ b]vfOPsf] 5}g / …clwsfl/g\Ú h:tf ;+:s[t ¿ksf] k|ljli6 klg ul/Psf] 5}g . ;+:s[tsf lj;u{ jf xnGt / pb"  {–c/aLsf pQm ¿knfO{ klg 5fl8Psf] 5 .
;+:s[taf6 k|fs[t x' Fb} cfPsf tb\ej zAbdf cfjZos b]lvPsf tyf ;Dej ePsf 7fpFdf k|fs[t tyf ;+:s[t b'j} ;|f]t lbg] k|of; klg ul/Psf] 5 . cGoq k|fs[t jf ;+:s[t s'g} Ps ¿k lbOPsf] 5 . s'g}  eflifs ;|f]tsf] Jo'TklQ lbFbf To;sf zfvf–k|zfvf ;':ki6 gePsf zAbx¿df vns dfq klg hgfOPsf] 5, h:t} — ef]) a) -ef]6–ad] {nL_ .
s'g} zAbsf] Jo'TklQ ;lGbUw ePsf 7fpFdf k|Zgjfrs lrXg dfq klg /flvPsf] 5 jf s]xL glbO{ vfnL g} 5fl8Psf] 5 . Jo'TklQ ghgfOPsf zAb xfnnfO{ g]kfnL ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug' {k/]sf] 5 .
$= cy{n]vg zAbsf] cy{ n]Vtf 5f]6s/Ldf kl/eflift ug] { jf JofVof ug] { oyf;Dej k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . To;kl5 
pknAw eP;Ddsf kof{o lbOPsf] 5 . pxL kof{ox¿ ljleGg cy{df bf]xl/g] v08 k/]df st}st} cflbjfrL O) lrXg lbP/ ;ª\If]kLs/0f klg ul/Psf] 5 . cTofjZos b]lvPsf zAbdf ljk/LtfyL{ ¿k klg b]vfOPsf]  5 . zAbsf] cy{ lbFbf ;a}lt/ pbfx/0f lbOPsf] 5}g tfklg cTofjZos 7fpFdf pbf)— ;ª\s]t u/L pbfx/0f oyf;Dej ;dflji6 ul/Psf] 5 .
 
  20
s'g} zAbsf d" n ¿kdf w]/} cy{ x'g] / g]kfnLdf cfpFbf Psb'O{ cy{dfq k|rlnt 5g\ eg] ;a} cy{  glbO{ k|foM tL k|rlnt cy{ dfq lbOPsf 5g\ . To:tf k|rlnt cy{ lbFbf eflifs Jojxf/ jf jfª\dosf s'g kIf jf ljifosf x'g\ ;f] hgfpg] sfd klg ul/Psf] 5 . h:t}— ;flxTozf:qsf cg';f/, lj1fgsf cg';f/, dgf]lj1fgsf cg';f/, of]uzf:qsf cg';f/, Hof]ltifzf:qsf cg';f/ O) .
låTj x'g] zAb jf wft'x¿df cflbTjnfO{ :t/Lo dfgL låTjnfO{ pk:t/Lo dflgPsf] 5 . h:t}— cft];, cfQ];, ctflng', cQflng', ctflNng' cflbsf cft];, ctflng' cflbnfO{ :t/Lo dfgL cy{ lbOPsf] 5  / z]ifnfO{ pk:t/Lo dflgPsf] 5 . t/sf/L÷tsf{/L, ;/sf/L÷;sf{/L, uf]/vf÷uf]vf{ cflbdf klg b'j}nfO{  k|ljli6 lbP/ :jLsfo{ jf ljz]if k|rlnt Pp6fdf cy{ lbOPsf] 5 . o;/L :t/Lo zAbdf cy{ lbO{ pk:t/Losf]  cy{ n]Vtf k|foM x]) ul/Psf] 5Ù cyjf k" /fk" /f ;dfgfyL{df dfq klg o:tf] ePsf] 5 .
pvfg6'Ssfsf] k|of]u cfjZos b]lvPsf 7fpFdf oyf;Dej ePsf] 5 . s]xL pvfgsf] k|of]u k|ljli6qmddf ePsf] 5 / slt t cy{ k|:6Øfpgsf lglDt / pbfx/0f ¿kdf klg k/]sf 5g\ .
%= j0f{ ljGof; j0f{ljGof; efiffsf lnlvt, clelnlvt, 6ª\lst cflb ¿k;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 . efiffsf] 
n]vgk4ltcGtu{tsf lgodx¿n] n]Vo efiffdf kbof]u, kbljof]u nufot :t/Lo j0f{ljGof; lgwf{l/t u5{g\ . g]kfnL efiffn] 5fkfvfgfsf If]qdf k|j]z u/]sf] s]xL jif{b]lv dfgs j0f{ljGof;sf cfjZostfsf] af]w x'g yfNof] / To;af/] kmf6km'6 rrf{ klg rNb} uof] . xnGtalxisf/ cfGbf]ng / To;sf lqmofk|ltlqmofdf p7]sf rrf{ o; ;Gbe{df :d/0fLo 5g\ . ljqmdsf] aL;f} F ztfAbLsf] ;ftf} F bzslt/ g]kfnL efiffdf Jofs/0fsf k':ts 5flkg yfn]sf x'g\ . o; k|lqmofdf rlGb|sf / dWorlGb|sf h:tf g]kfnL Jofs/0fsf cfwf/df g]kfnL j0f{ljGof;sf] dfgs ¿ksf] lgwf{/0f x'g yfNof] . ltgdf ;j{;Ddlt geP tfklg Jofks ;xdltsf ;fy}  cflwsfl/stf k|fKt x' Fb} uof] . g]kfnL efiffk|sflzgL ;ldltsf dfWodaf6 n]vg / k|sfzgsf If]qdf g]kfnL efiffdf pko'Qm dfgs ¿ksf] sfof{Gjog x'g yfNof] . o; ;Gbe{df ;ldltåf/f k|sflzt …g]kfnL s;/L z' 4 n]Vg] <Ú gfdsf] n3'k'l:tsfsf] Jofks k|efj klg :d/0fLo 5 . o;/L df]6fdf]6L tLg–rf/ bzssf cjlwdf g]kfnL j0f{ljGof;n] cfwf/e" t :j¿k k|fKt u¥of] / k|rlnt x' Fb} uof] . o;af/] ;fgfltgf s'/fdf sltko dtdtfGt/ ljBdfg /x]sf 5g\ . Jofks :jLsfo{tfsf cfwf/df g]kfnL j0f{ljGof;sf] dfgs ¿ksf] l:ylt lgs} al;;s]sf] 5 . o; kl/k|  ]Iodf k|:t't sf]zdf lzi6 k/Dk/fsf dfGo :j¿knfO{ g} :jLsf/ u/L Psfw s'/fdf xfn b]vf k/]sf gofF ;xdltsf s'/fnfO{ klg j}slNks ¿kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 .
;+:s[t tT;d zAbnfO{ ;+:s[ts} j0f{ljGof;sf lgodcg';f/ oyfjt\ sfod ul/Psf] 5 / clt k|rlnt eO{ tb\ejt'No ePsf ag, n;'g h:tf zAbnfO{ g]kfnL lzi6k/Dk/fcg';f/ g} :jLsf/ u/L j}slNks ¿kdf k|rlnt g]kfnL pRrf/0fcg';f/ klg lbOPsf] 5 . t/ c/aL, kmf/;L, pb"  {, lxGbL, kf]t{ufnL, cª\u|  ]hL cflb ljleGg efiffaf6 cfPsf clwsf+z cfuGt's zAbnfO{ g]kfnL j0f{ljGof;sf lgod / Wjlgcg';f/ n]Vg]  u/L d" n k|ljli6 x|:jdf lbOPsf] 5 . h:t}— hflu/, h'n';, tflnd, glthf, dGh'/, lnnfd, xflh/ cflb . kb jf bhf{df cTolws k|rlnt eO;s]sf :yfg jf b]zsf] gfd hgfpg] s]xL cfuGt's zAb oyfjt\ g} /flvPsf klg 5g\ . h:t} — rLkm, 8Lg, xsLd, u| L; O) .
;sf/df klg ;+:s[t tT;dafx]s tb\ej tyf ljb]zL zAbx¿df k|foM …;Ú nfO{ g} d" n ¿kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . h:t}— ;'?, ;'?cft, :6];g, s/kf]/];g, cl;:6]G6 O) . gfd, y/, kbjL cflb hgfpg] ljz]if ¿kn] k|rlnt eO;s]sf zAbdf / ;f+:s[lts–;fdflhs dxŒ jsf zAbdf eg] k" j{¿k …zÚ nfO{ g} sfod /fvL k|ljli6 lbOPsf] 5 . h:t}— zfx, zfxsfn, zdz]/, zfxhfbf, zfxhfbL, zxLb cflb .
 
 21
b'O{ leGgfleGg} cy{ x'g] >'lt;d leGgfy{ zAbx¿nfO{ klg k|rlnt j0f{ljGof;cg';f/ x|:j–bL3{ b'j}  k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . h:t}— k' mn -cG8f, l8Daf_Ù k"  mn -k'ik_, ltg -pg_, tLg -# sf] cª\s_Ù k'/f -ef]hg z]if_, k" /f -k" 0f{, l;ª\uf]_ O) .
7" nf], tLtf], dL7f], a" 9f] h:tf zAbnfO{ klg lzi6 k/Dk/fcg';f/ bL3{ g} k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 / ltgaf6 ag]sf tl4t zAbx¿df eg] x|:j g} nfu" ul/Psf] 5 . h:t}— a'9ØfOF, ld7f; cflb .
g]kfnL lzi6 k/Dk/fcg';f/ g} cJo'TkGg cJoosf clg, klg, rflxF cflb h:tf zAbsf kbfGt ¿k x|:j k|of]u ePsf 5g\ / x¿, nfO{ cflb zAbnfO{ bL3{ g} k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 .
cª\sdf lå -b'O{_ / lq afx]s cufl8, aLrdf / k5fl8 ;a} bL3{, h:t}— tLg, aL;, tL;, rfnL;, ;f7L, c;L O) g} /flvPsf] 5 . :j/j0f{ 5'§} cfPsf] 5 eg] cflb, dWo klg x|:j ul/Psf] 5 . h:t}— pGgfO;, PSsfO;, afO;, t]O;, ;QfO;, cÝfO;, pgGrf;, pg;ÝL, pgG;Q/L, pgf;L cflb .
g]kfnL tb\ej / cfuGt's zAbx¿sf] cGtdf xn\ pRrf/0f x'g] -gfd, ;j{gfd, ljz]if0f / cg's/0ffTds zAbx¿_ 7fpFdf klg …cÚ :j/;lxts} ¿k n]lvg] lzi6 k/Dk/fcg';f/ oyfjt\ sfod /x]sf 5g\ . h:t} — skfn, snd, u8a8, emnfemn, ;n;n O) . ;df;sf] k" j{kbdf em/f{ -g]kfnL k|fs[t_ / tb\ej zAbsf d" n ¿k lbg] eP bL3{Tj glaufg] { l;4fGtcg';f/ bL3{ g} k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . h:t} — kfgLcfGb|  ], r/Lr'Rr], ufO{hfqf, b'O{cf} Fn] cflb .
;+:s[t tT;d zAbsf cg':jf/ WjlgnfO{ lz/laGb' jf j0f{sf] k~rd j0f{åf/f JoQm ug] { kl/kf6L b]lvG5 tfklg o; sf]zdf d'b|0f Joj:yfn] lbP;Dd k~rd j0f{s} k|of]u ul/Psf] 5Ù t/ tb\ej tyf cfuGt's zAbx¿df eg] k|rlnt pRrf/0fcg';f/s} lxHh] sfod ul/Psf 5g\ . h:t} — l;GsL, emGem6, ;Grf], 6G6f, dfGg', ;Demg' O) . cË, 9Ë, dËn h:tf zAbnfO{ ckm;]6 6fOkdf c;'ljwf k/]sf sf/0fn]  cª\u, 9ª\u, dª\un OToflbsf ¿kdf g} /xg lbOPsf] 5 .
tb\ej g]kfnL zAbdf ª, g, d, /, n sf dxfk|f0fx¿nfO{ klg ;+:s[tsf n]Vo kl/kf6Ldf Xg, Xd, Xn, x| cflb gn]vL o;/L k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 — uGxfpg', u¥xfpg', c¥xfpg', c¥xf]6 O) . ;+:s[tsf lrXg, k|Xnfb, a|fXd0f O) nfO{ eg] k" j{ k|rngcg';f/ g} /flvPsf] 5 .
kbof]u / kbljof]usf ;DaGwdf :jtGq zAb, lgkft, ljelQmkl5 /x]sf] gfdof]uL cflb 5'§Øfpg] / ljelQm, ;d:t zAb, cg's/0ffTds zAb, låTj zAb, cs/0fsf] …gÚ cflb hf]8\g] k" j{ lgodx¿nfO{ g} kfngf ul/Psf] 5 .
ljz]if0fo'Qm gfdzAb ghf]8L lbOPsf] 5 . h:t}— csf;] v]tL, kfv'/] df]xL, sfG5f] afa', sfnf] d'G6f], xf8] cf]v/ O) . t/ ljsf/ ePsf zAbdf / sd{wf/o ;df; x'g ;Sg] afx]ssf zAbdf eg] hf]8]/ n]lvPsf]  5 . h:t}—sfnLsf7, sfnLdf6L, d" nkfgL, a"9Ldfp, /ftLu]8L, nfnLu'/fF; O) .
^= pk;+xf/ k|:t't g]kfnL zAbsf]zsf] ;Dkfbgdf ljleGg ljåfg\x¿sf] ;xeflutfsf ;fy;fy} k" j{k|sflzt lxGbL,
;+:s[t / cª\u|  ]hLsf sltko sf]zx¿af6 klg ;xfotf ldn]sf] 5 . o; cg'i7fgsf lglDt ljåfg\x¿ tyf ltgsf k':tsx¿af6 kfPsf] ;xof]u lr/:d/0fLo /xg]5 . o;/L dd{1 ljåfg\x¿af6 kfPsf] ;'emfp;Nnfx k|  ]/0ffbfoL x'g]5 / cfufdL ;+:s/0fdf k|:t't zAbsf]zn] cem} gofF cg'xf/ lnFb} k|fdfl0fs ¿kdf cfpg ;Sg]5 eGg] ljZjf; 5 .
g]kfnL efiff lbgk/lbg cufl8 nDsFb} 5 . o;df ljleGg ljwf tyf ljifodf cleJolQmsf gofF  ;Defjgf b]lvPsf 5g\ / gofF lIflth v'Nb} 5g\ . o; ;Gbe{df xfdLn] g]kfnL efiffnfO{ g]kfnL df6f] / d'6'df leh]sf cfˆgf zAbx¿sf] ;+/If0fsf ;fy} o'uLg cfjZostfg';f/ gofFgofF cleJolQm jxg ug{ ;Ifd kfg' { 5  / gofFgofF zAbnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug' {kg] { ePsf] 5 . g]kfnL efiff hLljt / ljsf;zLn efiff xf] . o; efiffsf]  hLjGttf cfˆgf] kgnfO{ hf]ufpFb} zAbsf] kpn /flzdf v]Ng'df 5 . To;s} Pp6f ;Tk|of;sf ¿kdf k|:t't zAbsf]z lj1 kf7sx¿sf ;fd' 5 . cfpFbf lbg / gofF l5dnx¿sf lglDt o; sf]zn] s]xL dfu{bz{g u/]5  eg] xfdL ;a}sf] k|of; k'likt ePsf] cg'ej x'g]5 .
— ;Dkfbsd08n . 
;+zf]ws d08nsf] egfO
k|yd k|sfzgsf] ;q jif{kl5 g]kfnL a[xt\ zAbsf]z ;+zf]lwt, kl/dflh{t / lsl~rt\ kl/jlw{t ¿kdf d'lb|t eP/ k|sfzdf cfpFb} 5 . o;sf] ;+zf]wgsfo{ lj=;+= @)%$ df g} cf/De ePsf] xf] / Toltv]/ of] sfo{  cNkfjlwdf 8f) s]zjk|;fb pkfWofo, z/RrGb| zdf{ e§/fO{, xif{gfy e§/fO{ Pj+ vu]Gb|k|;fb n'O6]naf6 ul/Psf] lyof] . ;+) @)%^ df d'b|0fsf nflu tof/L ug] { l;nl;nfdf o;sf] cWoog ubf{ o;df g;RofO{  gx'g] lgs} q'l6x¿ afFsL /x]sf b]lvP . d'b|0f sfo{ hlt ;s]sf] l56} ;DkGg xf];\ eGg] x]t'n] o;sf] sDKo'6/ 6fOk ug] { qmddf g} cfjZos ;+zf]wg–kl/dfh{gsf ;Fu;Fu} k| 'km klg x]b} { hfg] / To;nfO{ clGtd ¿k lbg]  ;Nnfx ePcg';f/ 8f) s]zjk|;fb pkfWofosf] ;+of]hg / lgb] {zgdf z/b\rGb| zdf{ e§/fO{ / dfwj nD;fnsf ;xof]uaf6 sfo{ ;DkGg ul/Psf] xf] .
o; zAbsf]zsf] ;+zf]wg–kl/dfh{g ubf{ ljleGg kqklqsfx¿df k|sflzt ;'emfpsf] pkof]u ul/Psf]  5 eg] o; qmddf cgfjZos nfu]sf s]xL zAb x6fO{ cTofjZos nfu]sf s]xL zAb yKg] sfd klg ul/Psf]  5 . ;fy} lå¿kfTds zAbnfO{ j}slNks ¿kdf Ps} 7fpFdf /fVg] sfd klg o;df ul/Psf] 5 / vf; u/L o;df cy{;DaGwL q'l6 ;Rofpg] sfd ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf] ;+zf]wg–kl/dfh{gsf qmddf zAb yKbf s]xL cl3b]lv g} k|rngdf /x]sf / s]xL jt{dfgdf Jofks ¿kdf k|rngdf cfPsf zAb yk]/ o; sf]znfO{  cBfjlws t'Nofpg] k|of; klg ul/Psf] 5 .
o; zAbsf]zsf] ;+zf]wg–kl/dfh{g o;sf lgdf{tfx¿n] k|yd ;+:s/0fsf lgldQ cFufn]sf sf]z / Jofs/0f;DaGwL gLlt Pj+ lgodcGtu{t /x]/ ul/Psf] 5 .
o; zAbsf]zsf] sDKo'6/ 6fOksf] sfd / d'b|0f ;DaGwL ofjt\ sfd klxnf] k6s k|1f 5fkfvfgfdf ePsf x'g\ . oL sfd o; 5fkfvfgfdf sfo{/t k|fljlws sd{rf/Lx¿af6 ;DkGg ePsf x'g\ . klxnf] k|of; eP klg cf–cfˆgf sfd s'zntf;fy ;DkGg kfg{df sDKo'6/ ;dfof]hs ;/f]hs'df/ >]i7, /fhs'df/ >]i7, /fh]Gb|s'df/ zfxL tyf d'b|0f Joj:yfks dLgf uf}tdn] b]vfpg'ePsf] pT;fx, hfFu/ / st{Jolgi7fsf] xfdL d'/Ld'/L k|z+;f u5f} { + .
xfd|f] cg'ej / ljrf/df zAbsf]zsf] ;+zf]wg–kl/dfh{g sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP/ o;nfO{ cBfjlws kfg] { k|of; eO/xg'k5{, o; ljifodf k|lti7fgn] ljrf/ ug] { g} 5 .
o; k|lti7fgsf pks'nklt / ;b:o–;lrj nufot cGo k|f1 dxf]box¿n] o; a[xt\ zAbsf]zsf]  ;+zf]wg–kl/dfh{gsf] u'?t® bfloTj xfdLnfO{ ;'Dkg'ePsfdf / cfjZos ;Nnfx, ;xof]u Pj+ k|f]T;fxg lbg'ePsfdf xfdL pxfFx¿k|lt cfef/ k|s6 ub{5f} +, ;fy} xfdL s]xL zAb yKg / cy{ ;Rofpg ;'emfp lbg]  ljleGg JolQm / ;+3–;+:yfx¿k|lt klg cfef/ k|s6 ub{5f} + .
;+zf]ws d08n @)%* 
;+zf]ws   z/RrGb| zdf{ e§/fO{ 
 xif{ gfy e§/fO{   vu] Gb| k| ;fb n' O6] n 
 dfwj nD;fn 
;b:o g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f–k| lti7fg
 
;ª\s]t;"rL
c) — c/aL . k) ;) — k/;u{ c) lqm) — csd{s lqmof k" ) ;) — k" j{;u{  cª\) — cª\u|  ]hL kf]t{) — kf]t{ufnL c) d" ) — cg's/0f d" n k|f) — k|fs[t cJo) — cJoo k|f) g]) — k|frLg g]kfnL cf) g]) — cfw'lgs g]kfnL k|  ]) lqm) — k|  ]/0ffy{s lqmof O) — OToflb kmf) — kmf/;L pl8) — pl8of k| mf) — k| mfG;]nL pbf) — pbfx/0f k| m]) — k| m]Gr pk) — pk;u{ a) j) — ax'jrg s) lqm) — sd{jfRo lqmof af) af]) — afnaf]nL sYo) — sYo efiff ef) O) — ef/t–O/fg]nL lqm) k) — lqmof–kbfjnL ef]) — ef]hk'/L lqm) lj) — lqmofljz]if0f ef]) a) — ef]6–ad] {nL u| L) — u| Ls, u| L;, lu|;]nL du) — du/fFtL lrlg) — lrlgofF d/f) — d/f7L hfkf) — hfkfgL d}) — d}lynL 8f]) — 8f]6]nL ln) — lnDa" efiff tfdf) — tfdfª\uL lj) — ljz]if0f lt) ¿) — lto{s\ ¿k ljk) — ljk/Ltfy{s t') — t'sL{, t's] {nL lj) af]) — lj:doflbaf]ws t'n) — t'ngf, t'ngLo lje) — ljelQm yf) — yf¿ ;+) — ;+:s[t bª) — bªfnL ;+If]) — ;ª\If]kLs[t ¿k lbJo) — lbJopkb]z ;+o') — ;+o'Qm lå) — låTj ;+of]) — ;+of]hs lwdf) — lwdfn ;) lqm) — ;sd{s lqmof gf) — gfd ;j{) — ;j{gfd gf) of]) — gfdof]uL ;ft) — ;ftTo lgkf) — lgkft :qL) — :qLlnª\u g]) — g]kfnL :k]) — :k]lg; g]jf) — g]jf/L lx) — lxGbL k) g]) — klZrd g]kfn x]) — x]g' {xf];\ 
 lrXg;"rL
÷ ljefhs -ljsNk ¿k_ - _ uf}0f ;ª\s]t — lgb] {zs lrXg tyf ;d:tkb ;ª\s]t ± ;+of]hs jf hf]8 ) ;ª\If]kLs[t lrXg ~  ljz]io gfd -ghf]l8g]_
[ >]  d" n Jo'TkGg :yfg <  cufl8 b]vfOPsf] Jo'TkGg ¿k
√  d" n ¿ksf] ls6fg >  k5fl8 b]vfOPsf] Jo'TkGg ¿k
 
 c 
cFufn] .) #= ;xfotf ug' {Ù kIf lng' . >  c“ufnfO— gf) cFufNg] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof . c“uflng'— s) lqm) cFufNg] sfd ul®g'Ù cFufnf] xflng' .
 c“ufn]— lj) [cFufnf]±P] != Ps cFufnfdf c6fpg]Ù cFufnfdf af]lsg]Ù cFufnfel®sf] . gf) @= vnfdf wfg r'6\g] jf emfF6\g] a]nfdf wfgsf cFufnf af]Sg] v]tfnf]Ù la6f af]Sg] dfG5] .
 c“ufnf]— gf) [;+) cflnª\ug] != :g]x jf cfTdLotf hgfpg s;}nfO{ b'j} xftn] Rofk]® cfˆgf] 5ftLdf 6fF:g] sfdÙ cfTdLotf jf lgs6tf hgfpg Psn] csf{sf] jf Ps–csf{sf] sfFwdf xft ®fVg] sfdÙ cflnª\ugÙ cª\sdfnÙ cª\ufnf] . @= b'O{ xft km}nfP® RofKg ;lsg] kl®df0fÙ afxfFel®sf] kl®df0f (Ps cFufnf] bfp®f, Ps cFufnf] 3fF;, cFufnfel®sf] ¿v O)) . ~ lbg'— 6') le8\g' . (pbf)— lgwf{n] alnofnfO{ cFufnf] lbg ;Qm}g .) ~ dfg{ '÷xfNg'— 6') cª\sdfn ug' { .
 cFu'7L— gf)x]) cf} F7L .  cFu'7f]— gf) [k|f) c+u'Ýf] < ;+) cª\u'i7] != xft jf v'§fsf] b'O{
cfFVnf ePsf] df]6f] cf} Fnf]Ù a" 9L cf} Fnf]Ù cf} F7f] . @= cFu'7fsf] 5fkÙ NofKr] ;xL .
 c“u]7L— gf) [k|f) cluÝf] < ;+) clUgli7sf] cfuf] tfKgfsf lglDt k|of]u x'g], af]s]® rfx]sf 7fpFdf nlug] df6f] jf wft'sf] efF8f]Ù af];L{Ù dsnÙ c6n .
 c“u]®— gf) kf]y|f] xf]rf], kft ®ftf]®ftf] tyf ;fgf] ® u]8f ®ftf] x'g] Ps k|sf®sf] ljiffn' jg:kltÙ s]xL dfqfdf u'lnof], tdtdfpFbf] ® a];L dfqfdf vfFbf ljiffn', j:t'efpn] vfFbf c;® ug] { jg:klt ® jg:kltsf] kmn .
 c“u]®L— gf) r}tdf kfplng], kfpnf] nfUbf ®ftf] efjsf] b]lvg] ® kl5 xNsf xl®of] kft x'g], Njfªsf cfsf®sf bfgf kmNg], j:t'efpn] kfn'jf vfFbf k]6 9fl8g] ® To;sf] c;®n] dg{ klg ;Sg] jg:klt .
 c“uf]5f— gf) z®L® k'5\g] jf s5f8h:tf] u®L a]l®g] ?dfnÙ uD5fÙ pkgf{Ù cªf]5f .
 c“r]6\–g'— ;) lqm) != s;}dfly bafa lbg'Ù jzdf Nofpg' . @= s'g} nlrnf] j:t'nfO{ a];®L lyRg'Ù 3r]6\g'Ù 7]Ng' . >
 c“r]6fO— gf) cFr]6\g] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof . c“r]6fOg'— s) lqm) cFr]6\g nfOg' .  c“r]6fpg'— k|  ]) lqm) cFr]6\g nfpg'Ù Roflkg] kfg' { . c“r] l6g'— s) lqm) cFr]6\g] sfd ul®g'Ù
 c !— != b]jgfu®L j0f{dfnfsf] :j®j0f{dWo] klxnf] :j®j0f{Ù k®Dk®fut ¿kdf s07:yfgaf6 pRrf®0f x'g] x|:j :j®j0f{ dflgPsf] ® efifflj1fgcg';f® cfwfv'nf, s]Gb| Lo :j®j0f{Ù n]Vo ¿kdf ;f] :j®j0f{sf] k|ltlglwTj ug] { lnlklrXg . @= n]vfOsf qmddf ljifoj:t'sf] juL{s®0f jf ljefhg– pkljefhgsf lglDt :j®j0f{sf] k|of]u ul®Fbf lbOg] qmdaf]ws klxnf] lrXg .
 c @— [;+)] gf) != ç leq cGtlg{lxt dflgPsf c±p±d\ tLg WjlgdWo] lji0f'nfO{ a'emfpg] klxnf] Wjlg . (p tyf d\ Wjlg qmdzM lzj tyf a|XdfnfO{ a'emfpg] dflgG5g\ .) @= ;+:s[t PsfIf®L sf]zcg';f® d"ntM lji0f'nfO{ hgfpg] dª\unjfrL zAb . #= k" );) zAbsf cufl8 nfuL cefj, leGgtf, ljk®Lttf cflb cy{ a'emfpg] k" j{;u{ (cult, c1fg, ckmfk, cof]Uo O)) .
 c #— lg) emsf] {, ufnL, a]jf:tf, c:jLsf® cflb a'emfpg cfj]usf cj:yfdf k|of]u ul®g] lj:doflbaf]ws zAbÙ cf . (pbf)— c, lagl;lQ slt rn]sf] < c, d olt a]nf ahf® hfGgF .)
 c“— lg) [k|f) cfd < ;+) cfd\] :jLsf®, ;Demgf, cfZro{, pk]Iff, k|;Ggtf, kL8f cflb efj hgfpg], k|foM jfSosf cufl8 cfpg] zAb . (pbf)— cF, dnfO{ ;Grf] 5}g . cF, To:tf] klg xf]nf . cF, ltdLn] eg]® x'G5 Û)
 c“sfO— gf) [√  cf“s\ (±cfO)] cfFSg] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof . [ > ] c“sfOg'— s) lqm) cfFSg nfOg' . c“sfpg'— k|  ]) lqm) cfFSg nfpg'Ù cfFSg] kfg' { .
 c“u®vf÷c“uvf{— gf) [k|f) cª\u®vf]3fF6Lb]lv 3' F8fdlGt®;Ddsf] nfdf] j' mtf{h:tf] k|foM ;fw';Gtx¿n] ® ljz]if cj:yfdf ®fhf, dGqL cflbn] klg nufpg] j:q .
 c“uf®— gf) [k|f) c+uf®f] < ;+) cª\uf®] bfp®f cflb HjngzLn j:t' an]® sf]Onf eO{ lge]sf], t® v®fgL eOg;s]sf] k|fª\ufl®s, sfnf] j:t'Ù uf]nÙ cª\uf®Ù cªf® . >  c“uf®]— lj) cFuf®h:tf] sfnf]Ù Hofb} sfnf]Ù cª\uf®] .
 
2
Roflkg' .  c“r]nf— gf) [;+) c~rn] v]tsf u®fsf 5]pdf df6f] y'kf®L
agfOPsf] cfnLsf] dflyNnf] efu .  c“h'n\–g'— ;) lqm) [cFh'nL±g'] != cFh'nLn] kfgL, cGg cflb
j:t' x'Œofpg' . @= s'g} j:t' cFh'nLdf eg' { . #= b'O6f k;® hf]8\g'Ù cFh'nL kfg' { . >  c“h'nfO— gf) cFh'Ng] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof . c“h' lng'— s) lqm) cFh'Ng] sfd ul®g' .
 c“h'nL— gf) [;+) c~hln] != b'O{ pQfgf xTs]nf hf]8L cf} Fnfx¿ s]xL s'Ko|fP® vf]rL jf a6'sf]h:tf] vf]laN6f] kfl®Psf] l:ylt . @= k|fy{gf ubf{ pko' {Qm lsl;dn] b'O{ xTs]nf hf]8\bf x'g] d'b|f . #= b'O{ xTs]nf hf]8L agfOPsf] vfN6fel®sf] s'g} j:t'sf] kl®df0f (Ps cFh'nL kfgL, Ps cFh'nL k"  mn O))Ù c~hnLÙ s®;Dk'6 . ~ hf]8\g'— 6') laGtLefp ug' { . ~ yfKg'— 6') g]xf]®f u®L dfUg' . ~ lbg'— 6') d[To';+:sf®cGtu{t d®]sf JolQmsf] ;Demgfdf cFh'nLel® ltns'z;lxt kfgL lbg' .
 c“6fO— gf) [cfF6\±cfO] cfF6\g] sfd jf k|lqmof .  c“ l7–g'— c) lqm) [cfF7 ±O±g'] != csf{sf] kGhfleq k'Ug'Ù
k®jz x'g' . @= s'g} aGwgn] Roflkg', sl;g' jf dl:sg' .  c“ l7of— gf) u'bLdf d®Lr h:tf sfnf bfgf ® af]qmfdf skf;sf]
laofFdf x'g] h:tf] e' m; nfUg] Ps hftsf] s]®f .  c“7ØfO— gf) [√  c“7Øfp -± cfO_] cF7Øfpg] lqmof jf k|lqmof .
[ > ] c“7ØfOg'— s) lqm) cF7Øfpg] sfd ul®g'Ù s®]lkg' .  c“7Øfp– g'— ;) lqm) [cfF7] ±ofp ±g'] != gpDsg] u®L
bx|f];Fu ;dfpg'Ù hf]8n] lgrf]g' { jf lyRg' . (pbf)— efOrfn] ;fyLsf] 3f]qmf] cF7Øfof] .) @= c¿ s;}nfO{ cfˆgf] kGhfdf kfg' {Ù s®]Kg' (pbf)— bfh'n] s'®fdf cF7ØfPsfn] pgL s]xL af]Ng ;s]gg\) .
 c“ l8®— gf) [;+) P®08] sYo) cFl8n . != ;fts'g] kft ePsf], e' mKkfdf kmn kmNg], ®ftf] jf ;]tf] 8fF7 ePsf], kmnaf6 t]n lgsflng] ® kftrflxF ®];dsf sL®fnfO{ v'jfOg] Ps hftsf] af]6 . @= To;} jg:kltsf] kmn . (o; kmnsf] t]n h'nfkmsf lglDt k|of]u ul®G5 .)
 c“8'jf— lj) [;+) c08±pjf] != hx®jft eO{ jf :jtM 7" nf cfF8f x'g]Ù 7" nf] c08sf]if ePsf]Ù cfF8fjfnÙ cfF8] . @= v;L gkf®]sf]Ù g;'d®]sf] (;fF9], ax®, af]sf], 3f]8f] cflb) .
 c“t]®\–g'— ;) lqm) != s;}nfO{ nv]6\t} 5]St} nuL leQf], s'g' jf cK7Øf®f]df k'¥ofO{ jzdf kfg' {Ù s;}nfO{ n8fO{ z®L®sf vf;vf; efudf 3' F8fn] 6]sL xnrn ug{ glbO{ sfon kfg' { . @= oftgf lbO{ cTofpg' . >  c“t]®fO— gf) cFt]g] { efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof .  c“t] l®g'— c)lqm) cFt]g] { sfd ul®g'Ù cFr]l6g' .
 c“w]®— gf) [√ cFWof®] k|sfzsf] cefjdf j:t'sf] oyfy{ 1fg gePh:t} ;dfhdf jf ®fHodf ljj]sljrf®z" Go eO{ cGwsf®
ePsf] cj:yfÙ Gofo–lg;fkm x'g g;s]sf] / st{Jo–cst{Jo jf c;n– v®fasf] 5Øfg–ljrf® geO{ hyfefaL ePsf] l:yltÙ ljleGg k|sf®n] ePsf] cGwsf®sf] JoflKtÙ b[li6ljxLgtfÙ cGw]® (pbf)— oxfF lbp;} cFw]® eof] . o:tf] cFw]® ;xg ;lsFb}g .) . lj) @= cFw]®f]Ù cGwsf® . >  c“w]®L— gf) != ;lwPsf xfQL, 3f]8f cflbsf] cfFvfdf nufOg] kbf{ . lj) @= s[i0fkIfsf]Ù sfnf]Ù 3fd gl5®L cFWof®f] x'g] (cFw]®L ®ft, cFw]®L vf]nf, cFw]®L kfvf, cFw]®L jg O)) .
 c“w]®f]— gf)÷lj) [√ cFWof®f]] cGwsf®Ù cFWof®f] .  c “Wo f®— gf)÷lj) [;+) cGwsf®] cFWof®f ] .
— vfp8]÷vfp8f]— lj) cFWof®d'v] . — d'v] — lj) cFWof®f] d'v ePsf] jf cFWof®f] d'v nfpg]Ù 3f];] .
 c“Wof®f]— gf) [k|f) cGwsf®f] < ;+) cGwsf®] != k|sfzsf] cefjÙ pHofnfsf] cefjÙ dlngtf . lj) @= pHofnf] gePsf]Ù lg:t]hÙ pHh® gePsf]Ù d8\lsnf] . (pbf)— cFWof®f] d'v nfpg'Ù dg cFWof®f] x'g'Ù of] n'ufsf] ®ª cFWof®f] 5 O).)  c“Wof®fsf] sfd, vf]nfsf] uLt (pvfg) . c“Wof®fsf] h“3f®— 6') e]p gkfO{ ul®Psf] sfd .
 c“k— gf) != dbf{kbf{ bfg ul®g] cDvf]®fsf] cfsf®sf] efF8f] . @= df6fsf] efF8f] .
 c+z— gf) [;+)] != efuÙ lx:;fÙ v08Ù 6'qmf . @= bfh'efO jf cGo c+l;of®sf aLr x'g] hfoh]yfsf] efuaG8fÙ ;f] efuaG8fcGtu{tsf] Ps v08 . #= ul0ftdf leGgsf] ;ª\Vof jf cª\sÙ j[Qsf kl®lwsf] #^) efudWo] Ps efu . $= d]if, j[if cflb ®flzsf ef]Uosfnsf] tL; efusf] Ps efu . %= rGb|dfsf] ;f]x| v08dWo] Ps v08 . ^= ;+:yfg, lgud, sDkgL cflbdf clws[t k' FhLcGtu{t lglZrt ®sdsf] Ps lx:;f . &= ;ª\uLtdf ®fusf] lj:tf® jf yf6 k|s6 x'g] :j® . — tM— lqm)lj) s]xL c+zdfÙ s]xL xb;DdÙ s]xL dfqfdfÙ ck" 0f{ ¿kdf . (pbf)— pxfF sljtfeGbf gf6sdf c+ztM ;kmn x'g'x'G5 . tkfO{ +sf] s'®f c+ztM ;To xf] .) ljk) k" 0f{tM . ~ bfg— gf) s'g} :yfgLo, If]qLo, ®fli6«o jf cGt®f{li6«o ;fdflhs, wfld{s cflb ;+:yf jf sf]ifdf cfˆgf clwsf®sf] c+z ck{g] sfdÙ cfk"  mn] kfPsf c+zsf] bfg . — w®— gf) s'g} pBf]uJoj;fo jf cGo k|sf®sf cfly{s sf®f]af®;Fu ;DalGwt ;+:yf cflbdf k' FhL nufpg] JolQmÙ lx:;]bf®Ù ;fem]bf®Ù c+l;of® . ~ kq— gf) c+zaG8fsf] sfutÙ aG8fkq . ~ av]8f— gf) c+zsf] afF8kmfF8 jf efuaG8f– ;DaGwL slrª\un . — aG8f— gf) c+l;of®x¿sf aLrdf ®x]sf] ;uf]nsf] >L;DklQsf] afF8kmfF8 . — efuL— gf) c+zsf] xsbf® . >  c+zfjtf®— gf) eujfg\sf] jf dxfk'?ifsf] c+z lnP® hGd]sf] JolQmÙ cjtf®L JolQm .
 c+z'— gf) [;+)] ;" o{sf] ls®0fÙ k|sfzÙ Hof]lt . —dfg\— gf)
 c“r]nf—c+z'
 
3
;" o{ . — dfnL— gf) ;" o{ . — jdf{— gf) g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df lnR5ljsfnsf Ps k|l;4 zf;sÙ g]kfnsf ®fli6«o lje" ltdWo] PsÙ cf®Dedf ®fhf lzjb]j;Fu ldnL dxf;fdGtsf x}l;otn] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf ® clGtd ;dodf ®fhfsf ¿kdf g} zf;g ug] { Ps lnR5ljsfnLg zf;s .
 c+;— gf) [;+) c+z] x]) c+z . >  c+ l;of®— gf) != k'Vof} {nL ;DklQ jf ;uf]nsf] ;DklQdf c+z kfpg] clwsf® ePsf] JolQmÙ c+zsf] xsbf®Ù c+zsf] clwsf®LÙ c+zefuL . @= sfg'gL ¿kdf c+z kfpg] j+zx¿sf] ;d" x, h:tf]— c+l;of®–a+l;of® . >  c+ l;of®L— lj) c+l;of®;DaGwLÙ c+l;of®sf] . c+:ofxf— gf) s'g} ;+:yfg, lgud, sDkgL jf sf®f]af®sf] clws[t k' FhLdf lglZrt lx:;f ePsf] JolQmÙ pQm lx:;fsf] gftfn] x'g cfpg] xs ® bfloTj ePsf] JolQm .
 cp— lgkf) s;}nfO{ xftsf] xfpefp;lxt ;Daf]wg ubf{ jf af]nfpFbf k|of]u ul®g] cfXjfg;ª\s]tÙ P (pbf)— cp, sfG5f Û slxn] cfO;\ <) .
 cC0fL— lj) [;+) c±C0fL] C0f gePsf]Ù l®g ltl®;s]sf]Ù C0fd'QmÙ pC0f . ljk) C0fL .
 cs6— gf) [;+) cs[t] != u®L jf gu®Lsg kl®cfPsf] cK7Øf®f] cj:yf . @= k" ®f gu®L gx'g] vfFrf] . (pbf)— dnfO{ k};fsf] cs6 k¥of] .) . ~ ljs6— lj) ug{ jf ;FefNg ufx|f] kg] {Ù ;fx|f]ufx|f]Ù ufx|f];fF3'®f]Ù cK7Øf®f] . >  csl6nf]— lj) cK7Øf®f] k®]sf]Ù c;lhnf] .
 cs8— gf) [;+) cs[t] x]) cs6Ù cSs8 .  cs8d–as8d— gf) x]) cu8d–au8d .  cs8fO— gf) [√ cs8 (± cfO)] csl8g] efj, lqmof jf
k|lqmof . [ > ] cs8fOg'— s) lqm) cs8df kfl®g'Ù cs8ØfOg' .  cs8fpg'— c)lqm) != csl8g] x'g' . k|  ]) lqm) @= cs8df kfg' {Ù csl8g nfpg'Ù cs8Øfpg' . csl8g'— c) lqm) !=cfˆgf sfd–s'®fdf 86]® c8fg lng'Ù l9kL ug] { x'g' . @= c8\efª\u] eP® a:g'Ù 7l®{g' . #= s7Øfª\lu|g'Ù slqmg' .  cs8L— lj) cs8 lng]Ù l9kLjfn . cs8ØfO— gf) csl8g] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof .  cs8ØfOg'— s) lqm) csl8g nfOg'Ù 86fOg' . cs8Øfpg'— k|  ]) lqm) csl8g] kfg' {Ù csl8g nfpg' .
 cs06s— lj) [;+)] != sfF8f gePsf] . @= s'g} afwf–lj®f]w jf 8® cflb gePsf] . #= chftzq'Ù zq'®lxt .
 csygLo— lj) [;+)] j0f{g ug{ jf eGg g;lsg]Ù aflx® k|s6 ug{ g;lsg]Ù csYo .
 cslyt— lj) [;+)] gelgPsf]Ù j0f{g gul®Psf]Ù cg'Qm .  csYo— lj) [;+)] x]) csygLo .  csk6— lj) [;+)] != w'Tof{OF gePsf]Ù hfnem]n ghfGg] jf
gug] {Ù v'nf jf ;kmf dg ePsf] . @= xSsL .
 csa®— gf) [c)] dWosfnLg ef®tsf d'unj+zL Ps k|l;4 ;d|f6\ (zf;g— lj);+) !^[email protected] — !^^@). > csa®L— lj) != csa®sf] h:tf] cyf{t\ pDbfÙ c;nÙ pQd jf pTs[i6 . @= gDa®L (;'g) . csa®L ;'gnfO{ s;L nfpg'kb}{g (pvfg) .  csa®]— lj) != 8Nnf] vfnsf] ® Hofb} lk®f] (vf];f{gL)Ù ®fFu]Ù cAa®] . gf) @= ;f]xL hftsf] vf];f{gL .
 csafn— gf) [c) Osjfn] != P]Zjo{ . @= k|tfk . #= rsrsL . (pbf)— nª\sfsf] csafn\ ;'gf} F t klxn] s:tf] 5 t]:sf] tvt\ . —efg'eQm .)
 csds— gf) [c) d" )] != cfg]sfg]Ù bf]dg . @= bf]wf®Ù låljwf . >  csdsfO— gf) csdsfpg] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof .  csdsfOg'— c)lqm) csdsfpg] sfd x'g'Ù csdSs kl®g' . csdsfpg'— c) lqm) csdSs kg] { l:ylt x'g'Ù o;f] eg"  F ls p;f] eg"  F eP® cndlng' . csdlsg'— c) lqm) csdSs kg' {Ù ls+st{Joljd" 9 x'g' . csdSs— lqm)lj) != lhNnÙ lhNnf®fd . lqm)lj) @= bf]wf®df k®]®Ù lhNnf®fd eP® . csdSofO“— gf) csdsfO . csdSofOg'— s) lqm) csdlsg] u®fOg', csdSs kfl®g' . csdSofpg'— k|  ]) lqm) csdlsg] u®fpg'Ù csdSs kfg' { .
 cslDkt— lj) [;+)] != gsfDg]Ù l:y®Ù gxlNnPsf]Ù g8u]sf] . @= g8®fPsf] .
 cs®!— lj) [;+)] != ;®sf®L jf u}®;®sf®L s®, kf]t, z'Ns cflb gnfUg]Ù s® ldgfxf ePsf] . @= xft gePsf]Ù xft®lxt . #= ;' F8 gePsf] .
 cs®@— gf) != c;lhnf] jf cK7Øf®f] l:yltÙ cSs® . @= vfFrf]Ù ;fx|f]ufx|f] .
 cs®s®f÷cs®snf— gf) [;+) cfs®s®e] lk®f] ® k®k¥ofpg] :jfb x'g], udL{ a9fpg], bfFt b'v]sf], jft, lkgf; h:tf ®f]udf cf]vtLsf lglDt k|of]u ul®g] jg:kltljz]if .
 cs®0f— gf) [;+)] != lqmofkbsf] s®0f cy{sf] ljk®Lt lgif]w cy{ [email protected]= lqmofkbsf] s®0f ¿ksf] ljk®Lt lgif]wfTds ¿k . #= jfSosf] p2]Zo;Fu ;DalGwt ljw]osf] cy{sf] v08g jf lgif]w (h:tf]— s®0f M ®fd 3® hfG5Ù cs®0fM ®fd 3® hfFb}g O)) .
 cs®0fL— gf) ul0ftdf ju{d" n gx'g] ;ª\Vof . ~ cª\s— gf) ul0ftdf ju{d" nsf] lx;fadf z]if ®xg] cª\s (h:t}– *, !), !%, !&, @$, @^ O)) .
 cs®0fLo— lj) [;+)] ug{ cg'lrtÙ ug{ gx'g]Ù cst{Jo .  cs?0f— lj) [;+)] s?0ff jf bofsf] efjgf gePsf]Ù lgi7'®LÙ
lgb{oL .  cs0f{ — gf) x]) csg{ .  cst{Jo— lj) [;+)] != g}lts ;Ldf jf dof{bfn] ug{ g;'xfpg]Ù
ug{ gx'g]Ù cg'lrt . gf) @= g®fd|f] sfo{Ù s'st{Jo .
 c+;—cst{Jo
4
 csg{— gf) [kmf)] != d'n'sLvfgf cflbdf s'g} s'®f lglZrt ;dodf a'emfpFnf egL ;t{;lxt c•fn] u®fPsf] sa'lnotsf] sfut . @= sfof{nodf ;flasjfnf sd{rf®Ln] xfnjfnf jf axfnjfnf sd{rf®LnfO{ cfˆgf] lhDdfsf] ;®;fdfg, sfuhft cflb a'emfpFbf a'‰g]n] n]lvlbg] sfuhÙ Ps lsl;dsf] e®kfO{ .
 csd{— gf) [;+)] != sd{sf] cefj . @= ug{ cof]Uo sfd . #= v®fa sfdÙ s'sd{ . $= If'b| sd{Ù gLr sd{Ù b'isd{ .
 csd{s— lj) [;+)] Jofs®0fsf cg';f® csd{s wft' jf lqmofsf] ;ª\s]t ug] { . ~  lqmof— gf) cy{ k" ®f x'gfsf lglDt sd{sf] cfjZostf gkg] { lqmofÙ stf{sf] sfo{Jofkf®sf] kmn stf{df g} 6'ª\lug] lqmof .
 csd{0o— lj) [;+)] != s]xL klg sfd gug] {Ù lgsDdfÙ cN5LÙ lglij| mo . @= s'g} klg pNn]vgLo jf ;fy{s sfd ug{ g;Sg]Ù a]sf®Ù Joy{ . — tf— gf) csd{0o x'g] rfn, cj:yf jf l:yltÙ lgliqmotf .
 csn— gf) [c) cSn] s'g} klg sfd l56f]5l®tf] ¿kdf ug] { jf tfTsflns ;d:of 6fg{ ;Sg] ;'ema'emÙ s'zntfk" 0f{ ;demÙ h'lStÙ cSsnÙ clSsn . — u'd— lj) != xf]; x®fPsf]Ù ;'ema'em gePsf] . gf) @= xf]; x®fPsf] jf ;'ema'em gePsf] cj:yf . (pbf) cr]n pgsf] csnu'd ePsf] 5 .)  — bf®— lj) != csn ePsf]Ù a'l4 k'¥ofP® sfd ug] { . @= l;kfn' . — dGb— lj) csn ePsf]Ù csnbf® .
 csn' lift— lj) [;+)] != lgd{nÙ :jR5 . @= s'g} k|sf®sf] b'ef{jgf gePsf]Ù ;kmf x[bosf] .
 cslNkt— lj) [;+)] != sNkgf g} ug{ g;lsg]Ù sNkgftLtÙ lrtfpFb} glrtfOPsf]Ù ;f]Rt} g;f]lrPsf] . @= csfNklgs .
 csNof0f— gf) [;+)] csf{sf] s'enf] lrtfpg] jf ug] { sfdÙ si6 jf b'Mv lbg] sfdÙ s'enf] .
 cs:dft\— lqm)lj) [;+)] s]–s;®L ePsf] xf] yfxf gkfO{Ù crfgsÙ PsfPsÙ ckem{6 .
 csf6Ø— lj) [;+)] != v08g ug{ g;lsg] . @= c;To g7xl®g] . #= sf6\g g;lsg] .
 csfd— gf) [;+)] != ug{ gx'g] sfdÙ s'sd{Ù v®fa sfd . lj) @= ®fu, å]if cflb s'g} klg kIfsf] rfxgf gePsf]Ù jLt®fuLÙ j}  }®fuLÙ lgisfd .
 csfo— lj) [;+)] != z®L® gePsf]Ù lg®fsf® . gf) @= cgª\uÙ sfdb]j .
 csf®— gf) [;+)] …cÚ :j®j0f{ . @= …cÚ :j®j0f{sf] pRrf®0f .  csf®0f— lqm)lj) [;+)] != s'g} klg sf®0fljgfÙ lagl;lQ .
lj) @= sf®0f gePsf]Ù lg®fwf® . gf) #= sf®0fsf] cefj .  csf®flb— lj) [;+)] ;'?df …cÚ ePsf]Ù …cÚ af6 k|f®De
ePsf] . — qmd— gf) j0f{dfnfdf …cÚ b]lv …xÚ ;Ddsf j0f{x¿sf] qmdzM cfpg] qmd .
 csf®fGt— lj) [;+)] cGTodf …cÚ :j®j0f{ x'g] -zAbÙ h:t} — s[i0f, j;Gt O)_ .
 csfy{— gf) [;+) csfof{y{] != sf®0fsf] cefjÙ k|of]hgsf] cefj . lqm)lj) @= ljgfsf®0fÙ Joy} {df .
 csfn— gf) [;+)] != clgsfn . @= v®fa ;do . lj) #= ;do gk'u]sf]Ù b'3{6gf cflbdf k®]sf]Ù c;fdlos . ~
d®0f÷d[To'— gf) ;do gk'uL jf b'3{6gfdf k®L ePsf] d®0fÙ cfsl:ds d[To' . (pbf)— p;sf] csfn d®0f jf d[To' eof] . )
 csf;— gf) [;+) cfsfz] != a|Xdf08sf] k[YjL, t]h, hn ® jfo'®lxt cj:yfÙ cGtl®IfÙ cfsfzÙ geÙ ;u®Ù uug . @ :ju{Ù b]jnf]s . — sf] r®f v;fNg'— 6') c;Dejh:tf] sfd klg k" ®f ug{ ' . — sf] kmn— gf) b'n{e j:t'Ù c;Dej s'®f] .  csf;sf] kmn, cf“vf t®L d®\ (pvfg) . ~ kQfn— gf) != cfsfz ® kftfn . @= k' mtL{kmftL{ ldl;Psf] syg . ~ aQL— gf) sflt{s s[i0f k|ltkbfb]lv sflt{s k" l0f{df;Dd t'n;Lsf] lnª\ufdf aflng] bLkÙ cfsfzaQL . ~ a]nL— gf) cfsfza]nLÙ ;'gnx®f] .
 csfl;–g'— c) lqm) [csf;±Og'] != csf;df dflydfly p8\b} hfg' . @= ;tx jf hLjgsf] oyfy{af6 axlsg' . #= ;DklQsf] dfqf, j:t'sf] df]n cflb j[l4 x'g' .
 csf;]— lj) [csf;±P] != csf;;DaGwL . @= lxF8\bf cfFvf dfly kfg] { . #= cfsfzaf6 k®]sf] kfgL jf em®Ldf cfl>t (v]tL) . $= gLnf] ®ªsf] . ~ v]tL— gf) csf;af6 k®]sf] kfgLsf] e®df x'g] v]tL . ~ j[ lQ— gf) lglZrttf;fy cfo jf hLljsf gx'g] l:yltÙ clglZrt k];f .
 csf:ofO— gf) [√  csfl;(± ofO) csfl;g] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof . [ > ] csf:ofOg'— c) lqm) csfl;g] kfl/g' .  csf:ofpg'— k|  ]) lqm) csfl;g] kfg'{Ù csfl;g nfpg'Ù csf;df p8fpg' .
 cls~rg— lj) [;+)] != wgljxLgÙ bl®b| . @= :jf:Yo, ;fwg, zlQm cflbn] xLgÙ c;xfoÙ aa'®f] .
 cs'07f— gf) [;+)] dfgl;s cj®f]w jf s'l07t x'g] cj:yfsf] cefjÙ afwfJojwfg gx'g] l:ylt jf ;f] l:yltsf] af]w . > cs'l07t— lj) != s'07f®lxt . @= afwf®lxtÙ lg®j®f]wÙ lgaf{w .
 cs't— lj) ljk'nÙ ckl®ldtÙ olt g} 5 eGg] cg'dfg ug{ g;lsg]Ù e®k" ® .
 cs'n— gf) [;+)] a]7]ufgsf] s'nÙ gLr s'nÙ ck|ltli7t s'n .  cs'nfO— gf) [√  cs'nfp (± cfO)] cs'nfpg] lqmof, k|lqmof
jf l:ylt . [ > ]  cs'nfOg'— s) lqm) cfs'n kfl®g' .  cs'nfpg'— c) lqm) [;+) cfs'n±cfp±g'] cfs'n x'g'Ù cflQg'Ù
x8a8fpg' . >  cs'nfx6— gf) cfs'n x'g] ® kfg] { l:ylt,
 csg{—cs'nfpg'
5
efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof .  cs"t— lj) x]) cs't .  cs[t1— lj) [;+)] csf{n] nufPsf] u'g jf pksf®k|lt cfef®L
gx'g]Ù a}u'gLÙ s[t£g .  cs]nf— lj) [ ;+) Psn] ;fydf sf]xL gePsf]Ù PSnf]Ù km§f .  cSs8 !— gf)[ ;+) cs6] s'g} s'®fdf Psf]xf]®f] lsl;dn]
lnOg] lh2LÙ l9kLÙ x7Ù cs8 .  cSs8 @— k|To) ljz]if0f agfpgsf nflu cfpg] Ps s[t\–
k|Too (3'dSs8, a]fnSs8 O)) .  cSs g aSs— lqm)lj) [(lå)) g±aSs] cSsnu'dÙ OGt' g
lrGt'Ù csdSsÙ lhNnf®fd .  cSs®— gf) != otfplt hfg g;lsg] cK7Øf®f] 7fpFÙ eL®,
kx®f] cflb ePsf] ljs6 7fpFÙ cs® . @= s] ug] {, s;f] ug] { eGg] cK7Øf®f] l:yltÙ sl7gfO . >  cSsl®nf]— lj) hfg k'Ug g;lsg]Ù cSs® k®]sf]Ù cK7Øf®f] .
 cSsn— gf) [c) cSn] s'g} cK7Øf®f] l:ylt jf ;d:of ;'Nemfpg] bIftfÙ hl6neGbf hl6n sfd klg kmQ] kfg] { v'aLÙ a'l4Ù rt'¥ofOFÙ ;dem . — bf®— lj) cSsnL . — dGb— lj) cSsnL . >  cSsnL— lj) cSsn ePsf]Ù l;kfn'Ù a'l4dfg\Ù csnL .
 cS6f]k;— gf) [cª\)] nx®fh:tf cf7j6f v'§f x'g], ;f9] c7f® k'm6;Dd nfdf], u'nfkmL ®ªsf] lx+;|s hnr® .
 cS6f]a®— gf) [cª\)] c;f]hsf] cfwfcfwLb]lv sflQssf] cfwfcfwL;Dd kg] {, u|  ]uf]®L kfqf]cg';f®sf] PstL;lbg] dlxgfÙ pSt kfqf]cg';f® b;f} F dlxgf .
 clStof/— gf) x]) clVtof/ .  cqm–g'— c) lqm) != s'g} s'®f] sqmSs kg' {Ù s7Øfª\lu|g' . @=
3dG8 ug' {Ù cledfg ug' { .  cqmd— lj) [;+)] qmd gldn]sf]Ù l;nl;nf gePsf] .
— tf— gf) 7fpFdf gk®]® kbsf] qmd gldNg] x' Fbf x'g] Ps k|sf®sf] sfJobf]ifÙ qmdljxLgtf . >  cqmdfltzof] lSt— gf) cnª\sf®zf:qcg';f® sfo{ ® sf®0fsf] Ps};fy cyjf klxn] sfo{ kl5 sf®0fsf] pNn]v x' Fbf kg] { Ps cnª\sf®Ù cltzof]lQm cnª\sf®sf] Ps e]b .
 cqmfO— gf) [√ cqm (± cfO)] cqmg] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmofÙ sqmSsk®fO . [ >]  cqmfOg'— s) lqm) cqmg] kfg' {Ù sSo|fOg' .  cqmfpg'— k|  ]) lqm) cqmg] kfg' {Ù sSo|fpg' . cqmfx6— gf) cqmfO . clqmg'— c) lqm) cqmg'Ù slqmg' .
 cqm"®— lj) [;+)] != qm" ® jf lgi7'® :jefj gePsf]Ù bof ePsf]Ù bofn' . gf) @= s[i0fsf sfsf tyf ;Nnfxsf®sf] gfd .
 cIf— gf) [;+)] != kf;f . @= kfª\u|fsf] Kjfndf xfNg] 8fF8LÙ w'®f . #= k[YjLsf] pQ®L w| 'jb]lv blIf0fL w| 'j;Dd lvlrPsf]
slNkt ljefhs ®]vf . — qmL8f— gf) kf;fsf] v]n .  cIft— lj) [;+)] != st} 3fprf]6 gnfu]sf] . @= glalu|Psf]Ù
Ifo gePsf] . #= cIftfÙ c5]tf . ~ of] lg— lj) of]lg Ift gePsLÙ k'?ifl;t ;dfud gePsLÙ s'df®L .
 cIftf— gf) [;+)] != rfdnsf ;Unf u]8fÙ b]jlkt[–sfo{df r9fpg, k" hf ug{ jf 6Lsf nufpg k|of]u ul®g] rfdnsf lehfOPsf u]8fÙ hf]vgf cflbdf k|of]u ul®g] rfdnsf u]8fÙ c5]tf . lj) @= ;Def]ulqmofåf®f of]lg Ift gePsLÙ s'df®L .
 cIfd— lj) [;+)] Ifdtf gePsf]Ù cof]UoÙ c;dy{ . — tf— gf) cIfd x'gfsf] efj jf cj:yfÙ c;dy{tfÙ czQmtf .
 cIfdf— gf) [;+)] != c;xgzLntfÙ Ifdfsf] cefj . @= lgi7'®LkgfÙ lgi7'®tf .
 cIfdfnf— gf)[;+)] != ufoqL jf s'g} dGq hKtf hk;ª\Vofsf] uGtL ug{ agfOPsf] dfnfÙ hkdfnf . @= ?b|fIfsf] bfgfsf] dfnf . #= jl;i7 ClifsL kTgL .
 cIfDo— lj) [;+)] != dfkmL lbg g;lsg] jf gx'g] . @= ;xg g;lsg] . ~  ck®fw— gf) Ifdf lbg gx'g] jf g;lsg] ck®fw .
 cIfo— lj) [;+)] != gfz gx'g]Ù cljgfzL . @= slxNo} g36\g] . — s'df®— gf) ®fj0fsf] sfG5f] 5f]®f] . ~ sf]if— gf) != hlt vr{ u®] klg g;lsg] vhfgf . @= vr{ gug] { egL cnUu ®flvPsf] sf]if . ~ t[tLof— gf) j}zfv dlxgfsf] z'SnkIfsf] t];|f] ltly jf ;f] ltlysf lbgsf] kj{ljz]if . ~ gjdL— gf) ;Too'u cf®De ePsf] lbgsf ¿kdf ljZjf; ul®Psf] Ps gjdL ltlyÙ sflt{s z'Sn gjdLÙ s'idf08gjdL . — j6— gf) k|ofudf uª\uf ® od'gf ldl;Psf] 7fpFdf kg] { j®sf] Ps k|frLg ® k|l;4 ¿v .
 cIføo— lj) [;+)] gfz ug{ g;lsg]Ù cIfo . >  cIføof]bs— gf) lxGb" x¿åf®f >f4df lk08bfgkl5 lkt[x¿sf] cIføo t[lKtsf lglDt r9fOg] hn .
 cIf®— gf) [;+)] != ¿keGbf ;fgf] ® WjlgeGbf 7" nf] WjGofTds PsfO . (pbf)— O, ;f®\ O)) @= zAbsf] jf zAbf+zsf cfjfhsf] Pp6} k|of;df pRrl®t x'g], k|foM Jo~hg;lxt jf ®lxt :j® ePsf] l;ª\uf] Wjlg jf Wjlg;d" xÙ cR5]® . #= O{Zj®Ù k®dfTdfÙ a|Xd . lj) $= gfz gx'g]Ù cljgfzL . —hLjL— lj) n]vk9 u®]sf e®df hLp kfNg]Ù k9\g]–k9fpg] sfd u®]® hLjgj[lQ ug] { . — Gof;— gf) tflGqs k" hfkf7df cfˆgf cª\uk|Toª\usf] ®Iffsf lglDt tL cª\uk|Toª\usf b]jtfx¿l;t ;DalGwt cIf®x¿sf] :yfkgf . ~ kQL— gf) afSnf] sfuhdf cIf® n]lvPsf] 6'qmfÙ cIf®l;sfO jf lrgf®Lsf nflu lzIf0f;fdu|Lsf ¿kdf k|of]u ul®g] cIf®cª\lst sfut . ~ ljGof;— gf) j0f{ljGof;Ù lxHh]Ù
 cs"t–cIf®
6
lvKtLÙ jt{gL . — zM— lqm)lj) != Ps–Ps cIf® u®]®Ù Ps cIf® klg g5f8Lsg . @= Ps} cIf® klg gla®fO{ . (pbf)— xg'dfg\ ®fdsf] cf1f cIf®zM kfng uy] { .) ~ ;ª\3ft— gf) != ljlrq cy{ ® kl®ldt cIf® ePsf] plSt x'g] gf6ssf] Pp6f nIf0f . @= s7f]® Wjlg pRrf®0f ubf{ cfOkg] { cK7]®f] .
 cIf®fTds— lj) [;+)] cIf®sf] ;[hgf ug] { ljz]iftf ePsf] . ~ lnlk— gf) :j®sf] ;xfotfn] dfq n]Vg ;lsg] cIf® jf j0f{ ePsf] lnlk (b]jgfu®L, a|fXdL, aª\ufnL O)) .
 cIf®f®De— gf) [;+)] != afnsnfO{ k9fpg k|f®De u®fpg] Ps wfld{s sd{Ù j}lbs k4ltcg';f® ul®g] ;f]x| ;+:sf®dWo] Ps . @= cIf® jf lnlksf cWoogsf] cf®De .
 cIf®]vf— gf) [;+ +)] k[YjL jf To;sf] dfglrqdf pQ®L w| 'jb]lv blIf0fL w| 'j;Dd tflgPsf] slNkt ®]vfÙ cIf .
 cIf®] lk— lqm) lj) [;+)] ®sd;DaGwL n]gb]gsf sfutdf cª\snfO{ k'li6 lbgsf nflu cIf®df cª\s hgfpg'eGbf klxn] k|of]u ul®g] zAbÙ cIf®df klg . (pbf)— d}n] cfhsf ldltdf ?= !))÷– cIf®]lk Ps ;o ;fk6 lnPsf] 7Ls– ;fFrf] xf] .) .
 cIfzfnf— gf) [;+)] h'jf v]nfpgsf lglDt Joj:yf ul®Psf] 3® .
 cIff+z— gf) [;+)] k[YjLsf] cIf ® e" dWo®]vfsf] ;dfgfGt®df sf]l®g ;Sg] slNkt ®]vfdWo] s'g} PsÙ e" dWo®]vf ® w' |jtf®fsf dfemsf] sf]l0fs b" ®L .
 cIff®— lj) [;+)] Iff® kbfy{ jf g'gsf] c+z gePsf]Ù Iff®leGg . ~ nj0f— gf) vfgLaf6 lg:s]sf] g'gÙ ;d'b| L g'gafx]ssf] cGo g'g (l;w]g'g, ef]6]g'g ) .
 clIf– gf) [;+)] != cfFvfÙ g]q . @= cfFVnf] .  cIfL0f– lj) [;+ +)] IfL0f gePsf]Ù glvOPsf]Ù k'i6Ù df]6f] .  cIf'00f— lj) [;+)] != g6'6]sf]Ù gv' Fl8Psf] . @= Jojwfg®lxtÙ
nuftf® . — tf— gf) nuftf® eO®xg] jf ul®g] efjÙ s'g} ®f]s6f]sljgf rln®xg] efjÙ gv' Fl8g] jf gv' Fl8Psf] cj:yfÙ cv08tf .
 cIff]e— gf) [;+)] Iff]e, l®; jf c;Gtf]ifsf] cefj . >
 cIff]Eo— lj) != 8ufpg g;lsg]Ù pQ]lht kfg{ g;lsg] . @= cljrlnt . gf) #= kfFr dxfa' 4dWo] bf];|f .
 cIff} lx0fL— gf) [;+)] != k|frLg ef®tLo ;]gfsf] ;a}eGbf 7" nf] PsfO . @= 3f]8r9L, x:Tof®f]xL, k}bn u®L hDdf !,)(,#%) of] 4f x'g] ;}lgs;d" x .
 cS;®— lqm)lj) [c)] w]®}h;f]Ù k|foM .  clS;hg— gf) [cª\)] ®ª\u®lxt, lgu{Gw ® UofF;o'Qm
jftfj®0fsf] nueu k~rdf+z dfqf ePsf], hLjhGt' ® jg:kltsf] ;f; km]g] { sfddf , k|f0fLsf] z®L®df tfk lbg] sfddf ® cfuf] aNg] sfddf ;3fp k'¥ofpg] ®;fogzf:qdf
O 2  sf ¿kdf ;+l1t x'g] tŒjÙ pb\hgÙ k|f0fjfo'Ù cd[tjfo' .
 cvr— gf) h'g;'s} j:t' jf cj:yfaf6 kg{ cfpg] cK7Øf®f] l:ylt . >  cvlrnf]— lj) ufx|f];fF3'®f] kl®®xg]Ù vfFrf] kg] { .
 cv6f]— gf) [;+) cfIft] != ¿v jf le®fnf] kxf8 r9\bf pSng ® cf]n{gsf lglDt v'§f 6]Sg agfOPsf] vf]laN6f] . @= 8f]®Lsf jf sf7sf] ln:g' .
 cv§— gf) != lgs} 7" nf] vfFrf] jf cefj . lqm)lj) @= Hofb}Ù lgs} . (pbf)— dnfO{ b; ?lkofFsf] cv§ k¥of] . ) .
 cv8f— gf) [k|f) cSvcf8f] > ;+) cIfjf6] != s;®t ug] { jf s':tL cflb l;Sg] 7fpFÙ cvf8f . @= hf]uL, kmls®, uFh8L jf h'jf8L cflb e]nf x'g] 7fpF . #= s'g} Joj;fo jf bnsf JolQmx¿ y'lk|Psf] 7fpF . (pbf)— Tof] 7fpF rf]®sf] cv8f lyof] .) . $= dgf]®~hg ug] { 7fpF .
 cv08— lj) [;+)] != g6'lqmPsf]Ù c6'6Ù l;ª\uf] . @= afwflj®f]w jf ®f]s6f]s gePsf] . — tf— gf) c6'6kgfÙ l;ª\uf] cj:yf jf ¿k . >  cv08gLo— lj) != 6'So|fpg jf cnUofpg g;lsg] . @= sf6\g g;lsg] (ts{, jfSo, syg O)) .
 cvl08t— lj) [;+)] v08g gePsf]Ù vl08t gePsf] . ~
k|tLtkq — gf) Ps Aofª\sn] csf] { Aofª\ssf gfpFdf kmnfgf cfoftstf{sf] olt ?lkofFn] vfd];Ddsf] r]s, 8«fˆ6 jf x'G8L :jLsf® ug"  { tyf lgsf;Lstf{nfO{ ®sdsf] e'QmfgL lbg" egL n]lvPsf], lgsf;Lstf{åf®f k|tLtkq vf]lnPsf] Aofª\ssf] sa'lnot;d]t uflePsf] x'g] ® lgsf;Lstf{sf] clu|d cg'dltljgf v08g jf vf®]hL x'g g;Sg] kq .
 cvg]— gf) [cvfg±P] bfOFsf] k®fn tfGg] sfd ul®g] cª\s';] nÝL .
 cvaf®— gf) [c)] b}lgs, ;fKtflxs cflb lglZrt ;dodf lgl:sg] va®sf ;fy} ;DkfbsLo, l6Kk0fL, n]v, lj1fkg cflb 5flkPsf] sfutÙ va®sfutÙ ;dfrf®kq . >  cvaf®L— lj) != cvaf®;DaGwL . @= cvaf®df lbOPsf] jf ePsf] .
 cvf8f— gf) x]) cv8f .  cvfB— lj) [;+)] != vfg gx'g] . gf) @= vfg gx'g] j:t' . #=
vfFbf z®L®nfO{ clxt ug]{ j:t'Ù s'vfB .  cvfg'÷cvfgf]— lj) [;+) cIffGt] != cldNbf]Ù ;ª\s6df
kfl®Psf]Ù csf®0f pNemgsf] l:yltdf kfl®Psf] . (pbf)— sfd laufg] { JolQm cvfg' x'g' :jfefljs 5 .) . gf) @= To:tf] l:yltdf k®]sf] JolQmÙ cleof]Ho JolQm .
 clvn— lj) [;+)] k|To]ssf]Ù ;a}nfO{ ;d]6\g]Ù ;Dk" 0f{Ù ;du|Ù ;f®f (clvn g]kfn /fli6«o :jtGq ljBfyL{ o'lgog, clvn g]kfn dlxnf ;ª\3 O)) .
 clVtof®— gf)[c)] != lgod–sfg'gåf®f lbOPsf] clwsf®Ù xsÙ clStof/ . @= clwsf®If]q . #= k|e'TjÙ ;fdYo{ . ~
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u— gf) g]kfn clw®fHosf] ;+ljwfg,
 cIf®fTds–clVtof®

@)#@ cg';f® ®fi6«;]jsx¿n] cfˆgf clwsf®x¿sf] gfhfoh ® clgoldt k|of]u u®]df sf®afO{ ugf{sf lglDt u7g ePsf] Ps ;+j}wflgs lgsfo . — gfdf— gf) s;}nfO{ cfˆgf tkm{af6 sfd ug"  { egL n]lvlbPsf] sfutÙ clwsf®kqÙ jfl®;gfdf . — jfnf— lj) != s'g} sfd ug{ clwsf® kfPsf]Ù lgod– sfg'gcg';f® lnlvt ¿kdf clVtof® kfpg] . gf) @= To:tf] clVtof® kfPsf] JolQm . >  clVtof®L— lj) != clVtof® k|fKt u®]sf]Ù clVtof®df ®x]sf]Ù clVtof®–leqsf] . gf) @= clVtof® x'gfsf] efj jf cj:yf . >  clVtof®]— lj) clVtof® k|fKt u®]sf] (JolQm)Ù clVtof®jfnf .
 cv|–g'— c) lqm) lr;f] jf leh]sf] j:t' ;'Sg'Ù yf]®} ;'Sg' . >
 cv|Ss— lj) != lehLj®L ;'s]® bx|f] ePsf] (sk8f, 5fnf O)) . lqm)lj) @= To;®L bx|f] x'g] u®L . cv|fO— gf) cv|g] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof . cv|fOg'— s) lqm) clv|g] kfl®g' .  cv|fpg'— k|  ]) lqm) cv|g nfpg'Ù cv|g] kfg' { . cv|fx6— gf) cv|fO . clv|g'— c) lqm) != cv|g' . @= cv|g] x'g' . cVo|fO— gf) clv|g] efj, lqmof jf k|lqmof . cVo|fOg'— s) lqm) clv|g] kfl®g' . cVo|fpg'— k|  ]) lqm) clv|g] kfg' { . cVo|fx6— gf) cVo|fO .
 cusNrf]— lj)x]) cwsNrf] .  cur— lj) [;+) cuTof÷cuDo] != cs®Ù hfg jf lxF8\g
cK7]®f]Ù c3r . gf) @= To:tf] cK7]®f] 7fpF jf l:ylt . >
 culrnf]— lj) cur kg] {Ù cK7]®f] x'g] .  cu8d–au8d— lj) [c=d" = cu8d (lå=)] != w]®} ;ª\Vofdf
ePsfn] jf t'R5 ePsfn] cg'Nn]vgLoÙ XofgTofgÙ km:ofªk' m;'ªÙ kmf;k' m;] . gf) @= To:tf] cg'Nn]vgLo j:t' .
 cu0fgLo— lj) [;+)] != cu0oÙ uGg g;lsg]Ù ulgg;Sg'Ù c;ª\VoÙ a]uGtLÙ cguGtL . @= u0fgf ug{ nfos gePsf]Ù t'R5Ù 5'b| .
 cul0ft— lj) [;+)] != gulgPsf] . @= uGg g;lsg]Ù w]®}Ù k|z:t .
 cu0o— lj)x]) cu0fgLo .  cult— gf) [;+)] != g®fd|f] ultÙ b'u{lt . @= gs{ . (pbf)—
To; b'i6sf] t d'v x]¥of] eg] klg cult kl®G5 .) lj) #= ult®lxt .
 cultnf]— lj) [c±ultnf]] g®fd|f]Ù a]sfd] .  cuTof— lqm)lj) [;+)] != cGo ult g®xgfn]Ù cGtdfÙ
PSsfl; . @= g®fd|f] ;+of]un] ubf{Ù b'ef{Uojz .  cud— lj) [;+)] != hfg , hfGg jf yfxf kfpg g;lsg]Ù
cyfx . @= kf® nufpg g;lsg]Ù ckf® .  cuDo— lj) [;+)] cud . >  cuDof— lj) ef]u ug{ gx'g]
(gf®L) .  cu®— gf) [;+) cu?] != lxdfndf x'g], af:gf cfpg] Ps
hftsf] w" kLÙ cu? . @= pQm w" kLsf] sf7 . #= w" kLsf] kft jf sf7 ld;fO{ agfPsf] w" k . — aQL— gf) l;Gsfdf cu®sf] n]k nufOPsf] w" kÙ l;Gs] w" k .
 cu?— gf) x]) cu/ .  cunaun— lqm)lj) [(lå)) aun] bfofFafofFÙ j®k®Ù 5]p5fp .  cu:t— gf) [cª\)] u|  ]uf]®L kfqf]cg';f® jif{sf] cf7f} F dlxgfÙ
To;cg';f® ;fpgsf] kl5Nnf] cfwf efu ® ebf}sf] cluNnf] cfwf efudf kg] { PstL;lbg] dlxgf .
 cul:t— gf) [;+)] != ldqfj?0fn] pj{zLnfO{ b]Vbf ktg ePsf] jLo{ s'Dedf kbf{ hGd]sf elgg] Ps ClifÙ s'Deof]lgÙ k'®f0fdf jl0f{t syfcg';f® ;d'b|sf] ;Dk" 0f{ hn kfg ug] { Ps ClifÙ uf]qk|jt{s cg]s ClifdWo] Ps . @= Ps tf®fÙ cul:ttf®f] . lj) #= l3r'jfÙ vGr'jf . ~ uf]q— gf) 9'ª\u]n cflb y®sf g]kfnLx¿sf] uf]q . ~ tf®f]— gf) blIf0f lbzfsf tf®fx¿dWo]sf] Pp6f tf®f] . <  cu:To— gf) != cul:t Clif . @= cul:t .
 cuxg— gf) [;+) cu|xfo0f] dª\l;® dlxgf . >  cuxgL— gf) dª\l;®df kmNg] jf x'g] (df;L{ cflb wfg jf c¿ cGg) afnL .
 cufO–g'— c) lqm) x]) c3fOg' .  cufp–g'— c)lqm) [;+) cf3|f0f] x]) c3fpg' .  cufl8— lqm)lj) [;+) cu|±cfl8] != ;fd'Gg]dfÙ xfsfxfsLÙ
clulNt® . @= klxn] g}Ù cl3af6}Ù plxn] .  cuf8L— gf) sf7L gv;f];\ egL 3f]8fsf] 3fF6Ldf nufOg] k]6L .  cufw— lj) [;+)] != ulx®f]Ù tg{ g;lsg] . @= hfg]® hfGg
g;lsg]Ù cyfx . lqm)lj) #= cToGtÙ c;f4]Ù c3f]®} .  cufj}— lqm) lj) [clu±cfj}] klxn] g}Ù cluaf6}Ù cufl8 g} .  clu— gf) of]) [;+) cu|] != ;fd'Gg]Ù d'v]GhLÙ clulNt®Ù
cl3 . lqm) lj) @= plxn]Ù klxn]Ù — clu— lqm) lj) != k|frLg sfndf . @= cufl8–cufl8Ù cl3cl3 .
 cluGg® kl5Gg®— gf) [8f])] s'g} sf7 jf afF;df ef® kf®L cl3lNt® ® kl5lNt® e'mlG8g] lsl;dn] sfFwdf af]lsg] ef®LÙ ef®åf®f af]lsg] ef®L .
 clulNt®— lqm)lj) [cluNnf]±lt®] ;fd'Gg]kl§Ù cufl8kl§Ù ;Dd'vÙ cl3lNt/ .
 cluNnf]— lj) [clu±ONnf]] != klxnf]rflxFÙ clusf]Ù cl3Nnf] . @= cufl8sf]Ù ;f