А.А. sharepo, a.o. shatohina

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А.А. Sharepo, A.O. Shatohina GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY PRACTICE

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Page 1: А.А. Sharepo, A.O. Shatohina

А . А . Sharepo, A.O. Shatohina

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY PRACTICE

Page 2: А.А. Sharepo, A.O. Shatohina
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TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

A.A.Sharepo A.O.Shatohina

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY PRACTICE

Recommended for publishing by the Editorial Board of the Tomsk Polytechnic University

Tomsk Polytechnic University Publishing House

2012

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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

A.A. Шарепо А.О. Шатохина

ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПРАКТИКУМ ПО СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ «РЕГИОНОВЕДЕНИЕ»

Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия Редакционно-издательским советом

Томского политехнического университета Издательство Томского политехнического университета

2012

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УДК 811.111 '36(076.5) ББК Ш143.21-923

Ш257

Шарепо А.А., Шатохина А.О. Ш257 Лексико-грамматический практикум для студентов 1-2 курса специальности «Регионоведение»/Шарепо А.А., Шатохина А.О.; Том-ский политехнический университет. - Томск: Изд-во Томского политех-нического университета, 2012. - 96 с.

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса Гуманитарного фа-культета Национального Исследовательского Томского Политехнического Универ-ситета, обучающихся на специальности 032301 Регионоведение (Востоковедение).

Учебник включает 6 разделов, соответствующих рабочей программе «Ино-странный язык» для студентов 1 - 5 курсов специальности «Регионоведение», а именно 1. Appearance and Character; 2. Food and Eating Habits; 3. Accommodation и т.д. Каждый раздел соответствует следующей структуре: Lead-in, Reading, Vocabu-lary and Grammar Practice, Tests. Наличие тестов в каждом из разделов позволяет ис-пользовать данное пособие не только для отработки материала, но и для контроля.

В пособие включены задания и тексты уровня Intermediate и Upper Intermedi-ate, а так же задания, соответствующие формату экзамена FCE, что позволяет ис-пользовать его для подготовки к данному экзамену.

УДК 811.Ш'36(076.5) ББК Ш143. 21-923

Рецензенты: Кандидат исторических наук, доцент ТГУ

О. С.Ульянова

Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент ТГПУ О.Н.Игна

© ГОУ ВПО «Национально исследовательский Томский политехнический университет», 2012

© Шарепо А.А., Шатохина А.О., 2012 © Оформление. Издательство Томского политехнического университета, 2012

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CONTENTS:

1. CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE 6 2. FOOD AND EATING HABITS 16 3. ACCOMMODATION 26 4. SPORTS AND HOBBIES 37 5. TRAVELLING AND MODES OF TRANSPORT 50 6. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS 61

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MODULE 1 CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

Lead-in

1. What does the term "stereotype" mean? 2. Can you tell about stereotypes contributed to any nation and well-known all over the world? 3. What stereotypes do you know about Russia?

Reading Racial Stereotypes

Sticks and stones will break my bones, but names will never hurt me. Our era has moved beyond this proverb, which parents teach vulnerable children. Forget sticks - we worry now about deadly weapons. Forget names - we all have to deal with racial and eth-nic stereotypes. Stereotypes are proverbial generalizations broadcast by the powerful me-dia of the modern era.

The term stereotype, now used with reference to our society's old problem with nas-ty names, was developed when, at the outset of the modern industrial age in 1798, two Eu-ropean printers invented a new way to reproduce images that would fix them permanently. The image-setting process was called stereotyping, and in time the word stereotype came to apply to the fixing of intellectual, as opposed to printed images. One's stereotype of a jet, for instance, wipes away the marks of specific makes in order to stand in for all jets. Stereotypes simplify real images in order to make a generalization. All peoples produce stereotyped ideas in order to create a shorthand form of communication among them.

All peoples also produce racial stereotypes about themselves and others. That is, people simplify the intellectual images they maintain of specific ethnic groups, including their own, often in cruel or damaging ways. Stereotypes simplify real images in order to make a generalization. Immigrant Italians ("Wops") are said to be short, oily, and hot-tempered. Upper-class whites ("WASPs') are said to be greedy, emotionally cold and haughty. Negroes ("Niggers") are said to be stupid, promiscuous, and happy. These gener-alizations are not accurate, but they are spread widely- not only by word of mouth but also through images in television, movies, newspapers, music, comic books, talk shows, and even textbooks. These media make stereotypes, whose dissemination was once confined to oral transmission from one person to another; seem more like factual knowledge than per-sonal opinion.

Perhaps the most chilling aspect of racial stereotyping is that members of groups be-ing characterized sometimes come to believe the generalizations' damaging simplifica-tions. Members of target groups may even try to fulfill the stereotypes. The media regular-ly depicts people of African descent as drug dealers and teen mothers, and so it is not sur-prising when young black artists also adopt the roles of thugs. Even stereotypes that in-clude positive human attributes can warp people. For instance, if the dominant culture em-phasizes that men of African descent are excellent athletes or entertainers, the glamour associated with these professions may influence the youth of that group. They may try to fulfill a simplified stereotype of their potential rather than develop other traits. That is the force of stereotypes. 1. Read the statements and mark them as True or False. 1. Stereotypes are proverbial generalizations broadcast by people of the modern era. 2. The term stereotype was developed in 1798.

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3. Stereotypes simplify unreal images in order to make a generalization. 4. Immigrant Italians ("Wops") are said to be short, oily, and hot-tempered. . 5. Afro-Americans are said to be clever, promiscuous, and happy. 6. The generalizations are very accurate. 7. Even stereotypes that include negative human attributes can warp people. 8. Stereotypes may try to fulfill a simplified stereotype of their potential rather than develop other traits. Vocabulary Practice 1 Match the synonyms. 1. fat A. mixed 2. red-necked B. feelingless 3. hot-tempered C. not fast 4. greedy D. obese 5. emotionally cold E. quick - tempered 6. haughty F. silly 7. stupid G. with a red neck 8. promiscuous H. cheerful 9. slow I. envious 10. happy J. insolent 2. Match the words with the description. bad-tempered reliable frank selfish punctual determined cheerful mean considerate honest 1. You always arrive on time. 2. You are always happy. 3. You do what you say you will do. 4. You say exactly what you say. 5. You don't think about the needs of others. 6. You have a strong wish to get what you want. 7. You are unkind, or not willing to spend money. 8. You easily become angry with others. 9. You think about the needs of others. 10. You tell the truth and obey the law.

3. Choose the most suitable word. 1. People don't push. It's very bad-tempered/rude/ kind. 2. Jack hates spending money. He is rather frank/cheerful/mean. 3. Our teacher is very strict/proud/selfish and won't let us talk in class. 4. Helen never does her homework. She is rather gentle/lazy/honest. 5. I didn't talk to anyone at the party because I felt ambitious/ shy/punctual. 6. John won the lottery and I felt jealous/lazy/brave. 7. I don't like people who are noisy and aggressive/courageous/sociable. 8. Thank you for bringing up a present. It was very shy/thoughtful/mean of you. 9. Ann never gets angry with children. She is very brave/patient/selfish. 10 Nick always pays for everyone when we go out. He is so cheerful/honest/ generous.

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4. Fill in each space with an appropriate word from the list. Nervous embarrassed enjoyable bad-tempered usual ordinary anxious Formal amusing typical shy afraid tiresome ashamed sympathetic

Culture shock Penny, a friend of mine, has just got back from a trip to Japan. She had a very ... (1)

time but there were occasions, she says, when the rather ... (2) behaviour of her hosts led to moments of cultural confusion, and at times she even felt ... (3) by some of the mis-takes she made. For example, it is ... (4) for Europeans to call each other by their first names, but this is not the ... (5) way of addressing people in Japan. Now, because Penny was . (6) to show everyone how friendly she was, she called everyone by their first name. Most people were . (7) because she was obviously a foreigner but some became quite ... (8) and showed little sympathy.

At first, Penny found bowing to people quite . (9) - she is, after all, an actress - but after a while it became a bit ... (10) having to bow everyone you met.

Penny is not at all ... (11) - she loves meeting new people- but after the first few misunderstandings she was ... (12) to open her mouth in case she offended someone. I myself am quite an experienced traveler, but I would feel . (13) about putting my foot in it in Japan because there even ... (14) people observe the most elaborate rules of social behaviour - silence for example is nothing to be ... (15) of in Japanese culture, but in the West we get very worried if there are even short periods of silence at social gatherings. 5. Fill in: for, at, of, in, about, to, by, with. Then make sentences. 1. afraid ... sth; 2. amused . smth; 3. angry . sb; 4. annoyed . sb . smth; 5 . anxious . sth; 6. ashamed . sb; 7. bored ... smth/sb; 8 . brilliant . smth; 9. close . sb; 10. delighted ... sth; 11. disappointed ... sth/sb; 12. excited ... sth; 13. faithful . sb; 14. friendly . sb; 15. frightened . sth; 16. furious . sb . smth; 17. grateful ... sb ... sth; 18. jealous ... sb; 19. nervous . sth; 20. pleased . sb; 21. proud ... sth; 22. rude ... sb; 23. sensitive ... sth; 24. upset ... sth.

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6. Word formation Suffix Meaning/use Example FUL "careful" paying attention She's careful about what she

eats. LESS. "careless" not paying

enough attention You shouldn't be so careless when you drive.

ABLE "drinkable" safe to drink. Is the water drinkable here? IBLE "sensible" reasonable I think that's a very sensible

suggestion. IVE "active" doing things It was an active holiday in

the mountains. OUS "famous" well known She's a famous singer. IC, Y, ISH. economic, healthy, childish

quality of adj ectives He is a healthy person.

AL, ANT, ENT. national, arrogant, dependent,

quality of adj ectives She is rather arrogant.

Complete the second sentence, using an appropriate form of the underlined words.

1. It was an evening I will always remember. It was a ... evening. 2. We had a marvelous time. I will never forget it. It was ... 3. She's always forgetting things. She's very ... 4. That water is. good enough to drink. It is ... 5. I find her novels easy to read. Her novels are ... 6. His ideas are practical and they make sense. His ideas are ... 7. This injection will cause you a little pain. This injection will be a little ... 8. I can understand her reaction. Her reaction was ... 9. He easily tolerate other people's opinions. He is ... 10. She showed such courage, didn't she? She was . , wasn't she?

7. Complete the text with the correct derivative of the words in bold. The first one has been done as an example.

Bruce is definitely a (0) sociable (social) man. He has a lot of friends because he is always (1) . . . (cheer), (2) . . . (rely) and ready to help anyone in need. When it comes to (3) ... (danger) situations. For example, a few weeks ago he saved a little boy's life by pulling him out of the path of a speeding truck. When it comes to giving advice, he is always very (4) . . . (help) and (5) ... (support). However, he can be rather (6) . . . (aggression), especially when he is driving - sometimes he drives so (7) . . . (care) that his friends are too (8) . . . (fright) to get in the car with him. On the whole, Bruce is very (9) .... (act) and (10) ... (sense) ... 8. Key Word Transformation Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold. "I feel very ill", he said to her. complained. He complained of feeling very ill.

1. "I promise I'll send you a postcard", Julie said to Mike. promised Julie Mike a postcard.

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2. "I will send you to your room if you don't apologise", she said to him. threatened She to his room if he didn't apologise.

3. "Would you like to come to dinner on Friday? «they said to us. invited They to dinner on Friday.

4. "What an amazing garden!" said Marie. exclaimed Marie an amazing garden.

5. "I'm sorry I interrupted the meeting", he said to her. for He the meeting.

6. "You must finish that report by five o'clock", she said to me. on She the report by five o'clock.

7. "No, I won't give you any more pocket money", Dad said to Steve. refused Dad any more pocket money.

8. "Let's go for a picnic this afternoon", Mum said. going Mum that afternoon.

9. "I didn't leave the tap on", she said. denied. She the tap on.

10. "Don't forget to pack your swimming costumes", Mum said to us. reminded. Mum our swimming costumes.

TEST. 1 VARIANT 1. Read the text and mark the sentences as true, false or doesn't say. 1. Christianity played an important role in the emergence of new family pattern. 2. The Christian Church didn't want young people to remain unmarried and to enter reli-gious orders. 3. It was very popular for women to get married and borne children. 4. The Church approved the exposure of infants and opposed concubinage, polygyny, ar-ranged marriages, marriages with close kin, and divorce. 5. The inhabitants in Europe included such nonrelatives as pages and servants. 6. Relatives often didn't share beds and used different rooms for working, entertaining, cooking, eating, storage, and sleeping. 7. Women only brought up children. 8. Family life was strong. 9. People never remarried. 10 Protestant countries recognized a right to divorce with remarriage only for men.

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Development of the Western family

Christianity played a critical role in the emergence of new family pattern. Western European families placed an emphasis on the bond between husband and wife, as opposed to broader kinship relationships.

The Christian Church encouraged young people to remain unmarried and to enter re-ligious orders. During the early Christian era, a growing number of women in Western Eu-rope never married or bore children. The Church also condemned the exposure of infants and opposed concubinage, polygyny, arranged marriages, marriages with close kin, and divorce.

During the Middle Ages in Europe the wealthiest households could contain forty or more people. These inhabitants included such nonrelatives as pages and servants. But the average medieval household was much smaller, containing about four or five members. Most families lived in cramped houses. Relatives often shared beds and used the same rooms for working, entertaining, cooking, eating, storage, and sleeping.

Medieval households were productive units. Wives cooked, preserved food, made textiles, clothes, tended gardens. In addition to farming, many husbands engaged in such crafts as carpentry, ironworking, and barrel-making.

Family life was unstable. Famine, plagues, and other calamities caused a radical de-cline in population. Economic pressures forced many parents to send their children away from home at young ages, often before the age of eight. Because of the high death rate, many people remarried. Consequently, numerous medieval families contained stepparents and stepchildren.

During the 1500's, Protestant reformers often criticized the Roman Catholic Church for permitting certain family practices. These practices included allowing young people to marry without parental consent, forbidding clergy to marry, and prohibiting divorce and remarriage when marriages broke down. Protestant countries recognized a right to divorce with remarriage in case of abandonment, adultery, and extreme physical cruel ty.

2. For questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

FENG SHUI Recently, the Feng Shui business has been 0) booming as more and more people 1)

... an interest in Asian culture and lifestyles. Whether people are 2) ... Feng Shui experts or simply buying books and trying it out for themselves, there is no 3) ... that, in the West, in the last few years the idea of Feng Shui has really 4) ... off.

So what exactly is Feng Shui? Well, it is a Chinese art form that is concerned 5) ... the way you arrange the rooms and the furniture in your house. It is believed that organiz-ing these things correctly will 6) . you happiness and good luck.

In the UK there are currently about 300 Feng Shui consultants. They will 7) ... to your house or office and give you advice 8) ... on your lifestyle and date of birth. Accord-ing to one such expert, I 9) ... install an aquarium with six black and one red goldfish in my living room in order 10) ... absorb bad vibes. He also told me to 11) ... attention to one of my windows. He advised me to put plants on the window sill to 12) ... the loss of positive energy. The real "weak spot" in my house, however, was the cooker. He reas-sured me that hanging some dried vegetables above it would solve the 13) ...

Whether you 14) ... in the power of Feng Shui or not, it is certainly having a major impact on the 15) ... thousands of people organize their homes.

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0 A. starting B. booming C. opening D. enriching 1 A. take B. do C. make D. give 2 A. requesting B. asking C. consulting D. advising 3 A. worry B. fear C. problem D. doubt 4 A. taken B. driven C. made D. started 5 A. in B. of C. with D. through 6 A. carry B. bring C. make D. give 7 A. call B. come C. visit D. look 8 A. based B. put C. held D. carried 9 A. ought B. need C. must D. have 10 A. for B. as C. that D. to 11 A. give B. have C. pay D. put 12 A. keep B. delay C. finish D. prevent 13 A. fault B. error C. problem D. mistake 14 A. believe B. accept C. agree D. rely 15 A. point B. manner C. style D. way

3. Word Formation Tom Hanks is a very 1) ... actor and has starred in. FAME

many popular films, including Sleepness in Seattle and Philadelphia.

Although he is in his early forties, his 2) ... YOUTH good looks make him appear younger than he is. Tom hanks is a 3) ... person who likes being. CHARM around people. He is also 4) ... and is not afraid. CARE to show his feelings for those who are close to him. His love for his family is apparent when he talks about them.

In his free time, Tom Hanks enjoys doing many 5) ... INTEREST things. He is quite a 6) ... person who likes to be busy REST all the time. For example, he loves writing scripts as well as directing films.

He has many fans who admire him a lot because he is a 7) ... man who hasn't let success change him. TALENT 4. Key Word Transformation

1. "No, I won't tell him," he said. refused. He him.

2. "You stole the money from my bag," she said to Mark. accused. She the money from her bag.

3. "Did you enjoy yourself at the party?" he said. if He asked me at the party.

4. "Yes, I broke the vase", he said. admitted. He the vase. 5. "Would you like me to open the door for you?" he asked.

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offered He the door for me.

6. "I'll wash the dishes later", she said. promised She the dishes later.

7. "Could you pass me those books?" she said to him. asked She her the books.

8. "Don't touch the wet paint", he said to them. warned He the wet paint.

9. "I'm sorry I shouted at you", he said. apologised. He at me.

10. " Where did you put my jacket?" she said to me. had. She asked me j a c k e t .

TEST. 2 VARIANT 1. Read the text and mark the sentences as true, false or doesn't say. 1. Non-Western families were only nuclear. 2. All kinds of societies have produced several extended family traditions. . 3. The three major kinds of societies are known as patrilineal, matrilineal, and bilateral kinship. 4. All kinds of societies had the same origin. 5. India, China, and various African countries had the patrilineal kind of society. 6. In cultures with a bilateral kinship system, such as that of the Inuit (Eskimos), a couple might join only the husband's father's family. 7. Forms of marriage and responsibilities have also differed across cultures and traditions. 8. A child marriage was supposed to be the most popular type. 9. Not many cultures permitted divorce and remarriage long before Western countries le-galized such practices. 10 It was possible to have arranged marriages in China and India.

Non-Western families.

Traditionally, non-Western societies have attached less importance to the nuclear family than to the larger family network. People in this network, which is often called the lineage, clan, or tribe, trace their descent to a common ancestor. In many parts of the world, kinship ties determine whom one can and cannot marry and where one lives after marriage. Different kinds of societies have produced different extended family traditions. three major kinds of societies are known as patrilineal, matrilineal, and bilateral kinship. In patrilineal societies (India, China, and various African countries), husband and wife commonly reside with the husband's father and his kin after marriage. In matrilineal, such as the Navajo and the Pueblo of the American Southwest, a husband joins his wife's mother's household. Within matrilineal societies, a mother's older brother often has re-sponsibility for disciplining children and offering advice about marriage. In cultures with a bilateral kinship system, such as that of the Inuit (Eskimos), a couple might join either the

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husband's father's family or the wife's mother's family, or form an independent house-hold.

Forms of marriage have also differed across cultures. Many societies, such as those of China and India, also practiced arranged marriages and child marriage (marriage at or before puberty). Numerous non-western cultures permitted divorce and remarriage long before Western countries legalized such practices. As societies allow more personal choice, child marriage, arranged marriages, polygyny, and concubinage have become less common. 2. For questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Colour and Communication Colour, although only a small 0) part of our communication system, plays a large

role. Whether you are designing Web 1) ..., buying clothes or decorating your kitchen, your 2) ... of colours sends a definite message to other people, and they will respond to it in a 3) ... way. Every colour has a different 4) on people, and the practice of correct colour selection is a delicate 5) ... To further complicate matters, the effects of colours change, as times and fashions change.

Certain colours also mean different things in different cultures. For example, in the United States, blue is thought to be a relaxing colour. Tests reveal that the colour blue 6) ... blood pressure, calms viewers and gives them a sense of 7) ... In Middle Eastern coun-tries, however, blue is believed to be a protective colour and people 8) ... their front doors blue to ward off. 9) ... spirits.

Colour communication is an essential part of how we see the world. In western soci-eties, we know that a jester is comical and playful because he 10) ... In bright red, green, blue and yellow. The colour black, however, is 11) ... with boredom or evil, and white with purity and light. The colour orange is friendly, relaxing and peaceful, whereas 12) ... yellow is a happy colour. Research. 13) ... That all human beings make a subconscious judgments about a person or item within the first 90 seconds of 14) ... it, and 62% to 90% of that assessment is 15) ... on colour alone.

0 A. portion B. part C. piece. D. factor. 1 A. covers B. papers C. pages D. sheets 2 A. choice B. option C. decision D. pick 3 A. separate B. certain C. clear D. obvious 4 A. idea B. sense C. force D. effect 5 A. method B. talent C. art D. ability 6 A. lowers B. drops C. sinks D. lessens 7 A. caution B. security C. guarantee D. defence 8 A. shade B. decorate C. coat D. paint 9 A. mean B. evil C. cruel D. wicked 10 A. outfits B. clothes C. dresses D. wears 11 A. associated B. matched C. joined D. grouped 12 A. strong B. powerful C. loud D. bright 13 A. exhibits B. displays C. shows D. uncovers 14 A. viewing B. seeing C. watching D. looking 15 A. established B . constructed C. based D. balanced

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3. Word Formation The secret of being happy

I've spent years studying happiness and one of the most 1) SIGNIFY conclusions is that there is hardly any connection between the circumstances of people's

lives and how happy they are. We all know people who have a 2) ... easy life, yet are RELATE

always 3) ... , and others who have suffered great hardships. MISERY but remain happy. The first secret is gratitude. 4) ... people. GRATEFUL can't be happy. We think that being unhappy leads people to complain. It is truer to say that finding cause is more 5) VALUE and it leads to unhappiness. The second secret is a 6) ... CARE realization that happiness is a by-product of 7) ... people. ACT that gives the life meaning. 4. Key Word Transformation 1. "Stop fighting or I'll take you to the headmaster", the teacher said to them. threatened The teacher to the headmaster if they didn't stop fighting.

2. "I have a headache", Mum said. complained. Mum a headache.

3. "You should exercise regularly", the doctor said to him. Advised The doctor regularly.

4. "No, I didn't read your diary", Chris said. denied. Chris my diary.

5. "Can I see the manager?" he said. whether He asked the manager.

6. "Don't forget to pay the bills", she said to Tom. reminded. She the bills.

7. "Let's bake the cake at the weekend", she said. suggested. She at the weekend.

8. "Stand up!" the general said to the soldier. ordered. The general stand up.

9. "Yes, I'll drive you home", he said. agreed. He me home.

10. "Don't touch those wires!" she said. warned. She the wires.

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MODULE 2. FOOD AND EATING HABITS Lead-in

1. What are your preferences in food? 2. What are your favourite dishes/fruit/vegetables/drinks? 3. Should people eat meat or become vegetarians? Give your ideas. 4. Do European and Asian cuisines differ? What are the basic peculiarities of eating habits in Asian countries?

Reading Southeast Asian Cooking

The food is truly art in Southeast Asia: tastes mingle with subtle complexity, and presentation is spectacular. The region stretches east from India and Bangladesh to the southern border of China, encompassing the mainland countries of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and the island countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Phil-ippines. Each country has its history cooked into its dishes. For example, in Indonesia and Malaysia the prevalence of Islam has virtually eliminated pork from the diet; Vietnamese food retains the flavors of centuries of French occupation; and Filipino food enhances a local palate with Spanish and American accents. While the countries maintain distinct identities, they also have a great deal in common, and their cuisines share histories as well as many staple ingredients and methods of cooking.

The food of any region is not only the result of what ground and climate will pro-duce, but also of who has been there, what powers have influenced it, how poor or wealthy the people are, and what its sensibilities prefer. The major influences on Southeast Asian cuisines have been exerted by China from the East (the wok, noodles) and India (curries) from the West. Perhaps the most profound impact on the religion's cooking was made in the 16th century, when the Portuguese brought the chile from the Americas. Today the fiery chile provides signature heat in a Southeast Asian meal.

A standard Southeast Asian meal has no courses. All the parts of a meal are present-ed at once and eaten together. As in Chinese cuisine, the cook (who is, in most homes, a woman) strives for a harmonious balance of textures, temperatures and flavors: sweet, sour, salty, bitter. In Thailand, people eat with a spoon, knife, for; in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, people eat with their (right) hands, and spoons are used for serving. Vi-etnam is unique in the region for eating with chopsticks. 1. Read the statements and mark them as True or False.

1. The food is an ordinary thing in Southeast Asia. 2. Indonesia and Malaysia have expelled pork from the diet. 3. Vietnamese food has the flavors of centuries of French occupation. 4. All these countries have nothing in common in cuisine. 5. The food of any region depends on its ground and climate. 6. The major factors in Southeast Asian cuisines have been exerted by China from the East. 7. A standard Southeast Asian meal has no obligatory dishes. 8. The cook (who is, in most homes, a woman) doesn't pay attention to a harmonious bal-ance of textures, temperatures and flavors.

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Vocabulary Practice

1. Fill in the blanks. The first letter of each missing word has been given.

A vegetarian is someone who eats only 1) v . . . , bread, fruit, eggs, and doesn't eat 2) m . . . However, some do eat 3) f . . . which I find strange. Others eat chicken but not 4) r . . . meat. A vegan doesn't eat meat, fish, or any 5) d . . . products such as eggs, milk and. 6) c They do eat fruit and 7) n . . . A 8) g . . . knows a lot about food and enjoys good food and 9) w . . . A 10) c . . . is someone who prepares and cooks food in a hotel or restaurant ... 2. Complete the chart below by adding the words in the list.

Nectarine thyme salmon apple mussel lamb Satsuma trout squid lettuce plaice oregano Mackerel rosemary mutton courgette basil plum Coconut fig shrimp cabbage bacon cauliflower Mincemeat smoked salmon chives liver chicken chop Spinach cucumber beef strawberry grape joint Prawn watermelon lobster cod parsley sausage Aubergine pork sardine salami mango octopus

Vegetables Fish Herbs Seafood Fruit Meat

3. Complete the chart with the words from the list.

roast beef hot dog curry spaghetti Bolognese prawn crackers bocadillo shepherd's pie apple crumble and custard tapas ciabatta kebab hamburger tiramisu paella chop suey tagliatelli popcorn moussaka pumpkin pie onion bhaji samosas souvlaki biryani sweet and sour houmous tortilla spring roll fish and chips

Spain Britain Greece China Italy India USA

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4. Match the dishes (1-8) with a set of ingredients (a-h). 1. shepherd's pie a. mincemeat, onion, tomato paste, red wine, pasta 2. paella b. apples, walnuts, celery or lettuce , mayonnaise 3. pizza c. mincemeat, sliced aubergines, tomatoes, onions, cheese sauce 4. moussaka d. chicken, onion, spices, chilli, rice 5. spaghetti Bolognese e. bread dough, tomato, onion, cheese, anchovies, olives 6. spring roll f. mincemeat, carrots, onions, gravy, mashed potato 7. Waldorf salad g. bean sprouts, chopped vegetables, pork, pancake, hot oil 8. biryani h. seafood, rice, chicken, onion, saffron

5. Put the correct form of the verbs in the list into the sentences. bake roast barbecue boil casserole grill steam fry.

1. It's best to ... an omelette in a deep pan. 2. Potatoes are delicious if you ... them in their jackets. 3. ... vegetables are healthier than boiled ones. 4. ... meat tastes better if you cook it slowly in the oven. 5. Put butter on trout before you ... it under a strong heat. 6. Tough meat is easier to cook if you ... it in the oven with vegetables. 7. Do you think the British ... their cabbage for far too long? 8. I love the smell of ... lamb chops from next-door's garden. 6. Match the food (1-10) with words from the list. You may use the words more than once

Minced chopped spiced mashed grated sliced 1. meat 6. curry 2. onions 7. bananas 3. potatoes 8. tomato 4. cheese 9. carrots 5. bread 10 apple 7. Find out the odd word in each line. 1. meal. food. cuisine. feast. corkscrew 2. wine. starter. main course. appetizer. dessert 3. boil. fry. bake. bowl. grill 4. slice. boil. chop. grate. peel. 5. salty. savoury. pan. sweet. bitter 6. dish. meal. bowl. plate. cup 7. courgette. mushroom. bean. plum. broccoli 8. bill. tip. receipt. menu. cheque

8. Read the text and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. The Low-Down and Low-Fat Labelling

When you walk around a supermarket 0) these days you can easily be dazzled 1) . . . all the food labels claiming to be "fat-free" or "light", but are these foods as healthy 2) . . . they claim to be? Unfortunately, when you look more closely, 3) ... becomes clear that they are not. For example, a product that claims to 4) ... 80% fat free is simply a product that contains 20% fat, actually quite a high fat content. The 5) ... goes for so-called light foods.

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Products 6) ... as sausages and mayonnaise that are naturally high 7) ... fat can be labelled "light" even if 8) ... fat content is only slightly reduced. Another problem is that. "low in fat" 9) ... sometimes also mean low in taste.

So, to make 10) ... for this, some manufacturers add a lot 11) ... salt and sugar to their low-fat products than is needed. This makes them 12) ... bad as, if not worse than, the full fat equivalent. In the UK, the government is preparing the guidelines that would strictly control 13) ... use of phrase like "low-fat" and "light" on food packaging, but until these come 14) ... effect don't believe everything you read on the label.

If something looks 15) ... good to be true, it probably is. 9. Word formation

-ed adjectives -ing adjectives have the same form as past participles. The - ed adjective tells us how a person feels:

The worried parents waited anxiously for n e w s .

These adjectives don't end in - ed if the past participle is irregular:

She died of a broken heart.

have the same form as the present partici-ple. The - ing adjective tells us about the effect that something or someone has on our feelings:

It was a disappointing film. That was a satisfying meal.

Choose the correct - ed or - ing adjectives in the following text.

School report shocks parents Teachers are finding it increasingly difficult to control classes of young pupils, says

a report published yesterday. The evidence from the 100 schools which were involved in the study is not (1) encouraged/encouraging. The report paints a (2) depress-ing/depressed picture of schools up and down the country, with teachers feeling (3) disap-pointed/disappointing not only by students' results in tests but by the (4) worry-ing/worried increase in violent behaviour in class and in the playground. "I am worn out at the end of the day; my job is (5) exhausted/exhausting, I can tell you", complained one teacher. One of the most (6) disturbed/disturbing revelations is the use of drugs by young-sters. Although teachers were not totally (7) surprised/surprising by the findings, parents are (8) worried/worrying; some even described the report as (9) shocked/shocking and demanded immediate action. Pupils who were asked to comment on the report said they found school (10) uninterested/uninteresting; they blamed teachers for teaching (11) bor-ing/bored lessons. The report is particularly (12) embarrassed/embarrassing for the Min-ister of Education who claimed recently that British education is "the best in the world»

10. Answer the following questions using. - ed or - ing adjectives. Write about your own ideas.

1. What do you think about the destruction of the rain forests? 2. How would you feel if you climbed Mount Everest? 3. If you failed the exam, how would you feel? 4. What do you think of people who drop litter? 5. What do your parents think of your parents?

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6. If you were flying to New York tomorrow, how would you feel? 7. Whenever you see a beggar, how do you feel? 8. What do you think of sport on television? 9. When the bus or train is late, how do you feel? 10 How would you feel if someone found you cheating? 11. Key Word Transformation

1. You will be late for school unless you leave now. if You will be late for school now.

2. If you touch the iron, you will burn your fingers. else Don't touch the iron. burn your fingers.

3. I don't think it's a good idea to buy that jacket. were. If I wouldn't buy that j acket. 4. I want to have a party, but my flat isn't big enough. wish I big enough for me to have a party.

5. You shouldn't go out tonight: you have to go to school tomorrow. better You out tonight: you have to go to school tomorrow.

6. John would prefer to eat pizza rather than chips. rather. John pizza than chips.

7. Jane regrets spending all that money on new clothes. wishes. Jane all that money on new clothes.

8. It's a pity I didn't make it to your wedding. wish. I it to your wedding.

9. Colin wishes he hadn't missed the bus; now he is late for work. missed. If Colin the bus, he wouldn't be late for work.

10 If the weather gets better, we'll go on sailing trip tomorrow. provided. We'll go on a sailing trip, better tomorrow.

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TEST. 1 VARIANT 1. You are going to read a newspaper article about unhealthy food. Six para-

graphs have been removed from the article. Choose from paragraphs A-G the one which fits each gap. 1-5. There is one extra paragraph which you don't need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Junk Food • today's fast -moving wor ld, people have less and less t ime to

; : e n d eating, let a lone cook ing . It is p robab ly for this reason -at junk food has b e c o m e so popular , and there's no doub t •at it's here to stay. In fact, it seems that you s imply can' t get •.ay f rom it. One Brit ish hotel g roup recently a n n o u n c e d that

: guests are able to order fast f ood th rough room service, a •ove wh ich is seen by many as s igni fy ing a new era in the

: o u c h po ta to lifestyle. So what exactly is junk food?

Tsviously, a diet of junk food is not the best th ing for your " ra l th , part icularly as it is high in sa tu ra ted fat. In 1993. the . :urnal of the National Cancer Institute reported this type of fat : be assoc iated with a greater risk of cancer.

best advice, then, for those w h o cannot live wi thout their -amburge rs or choco la te bars, is to limit the amoun t of junk • : od they eat. A little now and then will probably do no harm. But

ny have our eat ing habits changed? "It's lack of t ime and loss : ' tradit ion," says one expert.

-no ther a l a r m i n g th ing about people 's lifestyles today is that nile the amount of junk food we eat has i nc reased , the

i m o u n t of exercise we do has actually decreased. Exercise э ays an impor tant part in keeping the body fit and healthy: it ~elps to c o n t r o l our we ight and. if taken regularly, can also :ecrease our chances of having a hear t a t tack in later life.

E^en t hough peop le nowadays are actually far more aware of :ne impor tance of exercise and a healthy diet than they were a ; ew years ago. the new unheal thy way of life is surpr is ingly pop-.. ar. This is i l l us t ra ted by statistics gathered by researchers j ve r the past two decades .

Researchers suggest that the new generat ion will be much •riore likely to suffer f rom heart and liver disease. What can' t be emphasised enough is the fact that a ba lanced diet and regular exercise br ing signif icant hea l th benef i ts .

'onical ly, if they were to make t ime to exercise and i m p r o v e n e i r eat ing habits, they wou ld probably f ind that they were far setter equ ipped to deal wi th their s t ress fu l lifestyles than they

A Recent research has shown that y o u n g French people, w h o prefer burgers and ch ips to rich g o u r m e t d ishes, t end to b e c o m e overwe igh t . Weight ga ined in ado lescence is ext remely hard to lose in later life, so researchers are pred ic t ing that the new French generat ion are not go ing to be admi red for their s l im f igures as the French have tradit ional ly been.

В Basically, it is anyth ing that is h igh in ca l o r i es but lacking in nutrit ion. Hamburgers , cr isps, chocolate bars and hot dogs fall into this category. Pizzas, a l though they can have vegetable and c h e e s e top -p i n g s , are also inc luded as they contain a lot of fat.

С Not all junk f o o d is bad for your health, however . S o m e hamburgers , for example , are very h igh in nutr ients and low in fat. It is just a ques t ion of f ind-ing ou t what goes into the f o o d before y o u dec ide to eat it,

D Apar t f r om the risk of cancer, another s ide effect of c o n s u m i n g highly fat tening junk food is that y o u are likely to ga in weight . This is especial ly t rue because y o u tend to eat more, as junk f o o d is less s a t i s f y i n g and lower in v i ta l nutr ients than health-ier food .

E You can gain anyth ing f rom g low ing sk in to an all-round feel ing of g o o d health. One way or another , the vast major i ty of peop le seem to be miss ing out on this, d u e mainly to the pressures of m o d e r n life.

F What is more, y o u don ' t have to exercise m u c h to ga in v i s i b l e bene f i t s . Doctors say that twenty min-utes' exercise three t imes a week is all that is nec-essary.

G He expla ins that peop le are t oo busy to cook and eat proper meals, so they g r a b whatever is avail-able and that is usual ly junk food. Also, the style of life represented on TV, especial ly in mus ic v ideos, is fast. Y o u n g peop le p i ck u p t h e idea that speed means exci tement, whereas anyth ing tradi-t ional is s low and bor ing. As a result, they tu rn d o w n tradi t ional f o o d and g o for junk f o o d instead.

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2. Error correction

Read the text below and look carefully at each line. If the line is correct, put a plus (+). If it has a word which should not be there, write out this word, as in the ex-ample.

Did you know that what you eat can have been a drastic effect on how you feel? We all know that what we eat it affects us physically but did you know some foods affect us mentally, too? Studies have been shown that chocolate can lift your spirits and make you feel happier. However, the effect 1 lasts only for a short time. The high fibre foods | on the other hand can be make people feel positive, energetic and think quicker. Research shows that people who they eat a high fibre diet tend to be less stressed, less tired and less depressed than people are who don't. Also, they are able to think lots more quickly. Nevertheless, other foods can that have a negative effect on us such as coffee, eggs, sugar and foods that they contain a lot of artificial flavourings and preservatives. These all foods can make us feel sad, anxious and prone to panic attacks. Foods that have been proven to lift up your spirits are oily fish, salads, fruit, cereals and nuts.

3. Word formation Complete the following sentences with the correct - ed or - ing adjective, using the verbs in the list. interest. relax surprise confuse bore annoy embarrass frighten. depress irritate.

1. The instructions in the exam were very complicated and left the students feeling totally. 2. I don't find horror films at all ... - in fact, I find them quite funny. 3. Would you be ... in coming to the theatre this evening? I have a spare ticket. 4. Can't you fix that dripping tap? It's getting on me nerves- it's really ... 5. I didn't expect to see Peter at the party. I was really ... to see him there. 6. He's had a lot of bad news recently and is feeling a bit ... .Let's go and cheer him up. 7. I find it ... to lie on the sofa and listen to music after a hard day's work. 8. I was told the film was really good but I felt utterly ... by it. 9. I get really ... when people throw rubbish down in the streets. It makes me furious. 10 If I said anything as stupid as he did in front of the thousand people, I'd feel really ...

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4. Key Word Transformation 1. You should write a letter to your pen-friend. better. You ... to your pen-friend. 2. Samantha wants to be a model, but she isn't tall enough. wishes. Samantha ... to be a model.

3. Why don't you wipe your feet when you come back from the park? would I . your feet when you come back from the park.

4. If you don't stop to be naughty, I will tell the headmaster. else Stop being naughty, ... the headmaster.

5. Sam would prefer to go out rather than stay at home. rather. Sam ... than stay at home.

6. It's a pity I didn't go to the party. wish. I ... that party.

7. I didn't know your address: that's why I didn't send you a postcard. would. If I had known your address, I . you a postcard.

8. He wouldn't have finished his report if you hadn't helped him. for But ... he wouldn't have finished his report.

9. If you exceed the speed limit, you will have to pay a fine. else. Don't exceed the speed limit, ... have to pay a fine.

10 If you don't practice daily, you will never learn to play the piano. unless. You will never learn to play the piano . daily.

TEST. 2 VARIANT 1. You are going to read the article about some different types of food and

drink. For questions 1-13, choose from items A - F. Each item may be chosen more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A Chocolate B. Sugar C. Meat D. Cheese and Cream E. Butter F. Coffee and Tea

Which type(s) of food or drink: 0 is quickly turned into energy? 1, 2 can keep you awake if consumed late in the day? 3 can improve your mood? 4. feels you up and keeps you from eating too much?

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5,6,7. may lead to weight gain if eaten in excess? 8. can help to prevent a disease of the bones? 9. may cause a type of cancer? 10. 11. may help you to concentrate? 12. may lead to heart problems? 13. has no nutritional value?

Eat, drink and don't be sorry In Ancient Greek times, Epicurus lived by the philosophy, "Eat, drink and be merry,

and let tomorrow take care of itself!" Sadly, nowadays our instinct to enjoy ourselves has been replaced with feelings of guilt about what we should or shouldn't eat. But just how damaging are those "harmful" foods we find so tempting. Let's look more closely at the good and bad sides of some of our favourites.

Chocolate contains mild stimulants which help concentration and boost the brain's level of serotonin, the chemical that makes us feel good. Chocolate is also rich in iron, magnesium, and potassium. On the down side, it is high in fat and calories and can inter-rupt sleep if eaten in the evenings.

Sugar is converted into energy more quickly than any other food, so it is hard for the body to store it as fat. Studies have shown that it makes you feel more quickly, so you are less likely to overeat. Eating sugar at breakfast time has been shown to improve concentra-tion and memory in the morning. The bad news is that sugar causes tooth decay and con-tains no useful nutrients.

Meat is an important food as it is the major source of protein, vitamin B and essen-tial minerals. However, it also contributes a quarter of our daily fat intake. A high intake of red meat. .

Can lead to colon cancer, and beef is blamed for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, an ill-ness that affects the brain of humans.

Cheese and cream are rich in calcium and vitamin D, which help protect the system against osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting a third of all European women over 60. Un-fortunately, butter is almost pure saturated fat, and is very high in calories. Eating it is thought to lead to hardening of the arteries, which is known to cause heat attacks and strokes.

Coffee and tea contain caffeine, which increases alertness. Tea contains tannin and flavanoids which help prevent heart disease. On the other hand, since they are stimulants they can interrupt sleep and relaxation and therefore shouldn't be drunk in the evenings.

It seems, then, that we can feel free to enjoy all of these types of food, keeping in mind that moderation is the key to good health. So eat small amounts of these foods and forget about feeling guilty. .

2. For questions l-15, read the text below and think of one word which best fits in eachgap. The first one has been done as an example.

Eating out (0) has become a popular form of entertainment which (1) . . . of us enjoy. Since (2) . . . to other countries can be quite expensive, dining (3) . . . ethnic restaurants is a cheap alternative that offers you the (4) . to sample something different.

Ten years ago, the only (5) . . . of foreign cuisine that was widely available in Britain was Chinese or Indian; today, however, we (6) . . . a. wide variety to choose (7) . . . ranging from hot and spicy Mexican food to (8) . . . more delicate flavours of Japanese sushi. Fur-thermore, some ethnic restaurants now (9) . . . other forms of entertainment. (10) . . . live

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music and traditional dancing. A favourite restaurant of mine is (11) . . . by an Ethiopian family. Inside friendly waiters (12) . . . delicious dishes while musicians play cheerful Ethiopian music. Towards the (13) . . . of the evening the same waiters change (14) . . . tra-ditional costume and give short performances of energetic Ethiopian dancing before invit-ing the customers to (15) . . . in. This is just one example of the kind of entertainment eth-nic restaurant have to offer.

3. Word formation

Complete the following sentences using the appropriate - ed or - ing adjective. 1. I find science fiction stories ... . 2. I find computers such . machines. 3. People who like junk food are really ... 4. The thought of going to the moon is . . 5. It's easier to teach ... students. 6. I find lying on the beach on a hot summer day . . 7. I wouldn't be . if the economy collapsed/ 8. I agree that television is ... . 9. Football couldn't be more ... . 10 I was ... by his present.

4. Key Word Transformation 1. Why don't you listen to me? Would I wish . to me. 2. I think it would be a good idea to get a mobile phone. Were If . get a mobile phone. 3. If you go too near to the river you will fall in. else Don't go to the river ... fall in. 4. If you don't work hard, you won't get promoted. unless. You won't. ... work hard. 5. If Martin buys a car, he will be able to drive to work. provided Martin will be able to drive to work ... a car. 6. I regret arguing with my best friend. Wish I ... with my best friend. 7. You should lock all the doors before you leave. Better You ... all the doors before you leave. 8. I was upset, that's why I didn't say anything. would. If I hadn't been upset, ... something. 9. If Helen gets a grant, she will be able to continue her studies. provided. Helen will be able to continue her studies ... a grant. 10. Mary regrets not studying hard for her exams. Wishes Mary ... for her exams.

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MODULE 3. ACCOMODATION Lead-in

1. What does your house mean for you? What do you want your own house to be like? 2. What does the following proverb mean: "East or West home is best"? 3. What types of houses do you know? What types are very popular now? 4. What is a typical European house/ an Asian house/an American house?

Reading Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each paragraph 1-5.

There is an example (0) at the beginning. There is one extra heading which you don't need to use.

A. For children of any age B. A dream world for everyone C. The transformation D. Spoilt for choice E. No ordinary hotel F. Where dreams come true G. The hotel's owner

WHERE DREAMS BEGIN 0. E

The Sparkles Hotel in Blackpool, England is a family hotel with a difference. What makes it stand out from all the other hotels in town, is that each room has its own individ-ual theme. There is the Cinderella lounge, where the chairs are giant silver slippers and the Lost City of Atlantis dining room, especially designed to be the perfect place for you to enjoy your fish and chips. Every detail in every room of the hotel, even the bathrooms, has been carefully chosen to give it a fun and unique atmosphere.

1 In fact so much work has gone into making each of the sixteen rooms special, it is

difficult to believe that just one year before it opened the hotel was a run-down building with a huge hole in the roof. After replacing the roof and planning a whole new interior, the owner, aptly named Mrs Sparkle, began to totally transform the place. She says, "It was really hard work redecorating each room, making the curtains, painting the walls and restoring old furniture; but it was fun as well» Now that the work is finished and each room has its own make believe theme, she has no doubts that it was definitely worth the effort.

2 Mrs Sparkle always dreamt about living in a doll's house and she is very happy

that she has been able to turn this fantasy into reality. "Now I just want to be able to pro-vide a place where other people's dreams can come true too," she says.

3 There are certainly some amazing rooms to pick from. Guests can choose to stay in

the Teddy Bear's Picnic room, the Barbie room, the Ruined Castle room, the Dinosaur den, the Chocolate room or even the African den, which is designed to make you feel like you're deep in the jungle complete with toy monkeys and animal prints. All the rooms are stocked with toys and books so your children won't get bored, even if the English weather lets you down.

4

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In addition to the fantastic guest rooms, Sparkles has much more to offer its young visitors. Every time you book a room you can be sure that entertainment, most of which is organized by Mrs Sparkle herself, is included in the package. To give busy parents a break in the morning, there is the game hour in the Sparkle's den, a large play area, and in the evening, puppet shows and story-telling mean that there is never a dull moment.

5 Sparkles hotel offers a fantasy world for the whole family to enjoy. So if you want

to give your children a holiday to remember or even to relive your own childhood dreams, Sparkles is the place for you. Vocabulary Practice 1. Fill in the blanks. The first letter of each missing word is given. We live in a (1) d ... house in the old part of the (2) c ... . It has got three (3) f ... and a basement which I use as a study. It's got a small front (4) g ... and a lovely view over the bay. Many people dream of buying a (5) c ... in the country where they can escape to at weekends. Others even hope to own a (6) v ... in a beautiful location on the coast. Most people here, however, live in (7) f ... . There are a lot of students living here in rented (8) r ... and bed-sits. 2. Now read the text again and answer the questions. . Which word or phrase means . ? 1. a bedroom which is also used as a living room - ... 2. a large house in the country - . 3. a small house in the country - . 4. a house not joined to any other - . 5. a set of rooms below ground level - ... 3. Complete the sentences with one of the words given. Corkscrew lamp dressing chest. stools light-switch cushions wardrobe bulb fireplace cupboard sofa. Armchair plug iron 1. My bedroom doesn't have a ... so I don't have anywhere to hang my clothes. 2. When she home she sits in a comfortable ... in front of the fire. 3. The three children were all sitting on the ... watching television. 4. I think we've got some sugar in the ... in the kitchen. 5. The ... is on the wall just as you go into the room. Just press it. 6. Make sure your hands are dry when you put the . into the socket, otherwise you might get an electric shock. 7. There were several couples in the pub sitting on . at the bar, drinking. 8. I can't open this bottle of wine because I don't have a ... . 9. He had never used an ... before so he scorched his new shirt. 10 She sat at the ... table, looking at herself in the mirror. 11 I keep my socks and underwear in a ... of drawers in my bedroom. 12 It's too dark to read in here; why don't you get a reading ... ? 13 The ... on the landing has gone and I can't see a thing - can you put a new one in? 14 There were not enough chairs so some people had to sit on ... on the floor. 15 On cold winter days, we used to sit round the ... to keep warm. 4. Complete the chart below by putting the words in one of the three categories. Basement block of flats hall. power point terraced house cottage Bungalow remote control attic tea towel semi-detached. cellar Corkscrew washing-up liquid ground floor study table mat. landing loft. detached house bed-sit ironing board villa

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. . . types of home . . parts of a house things we find in the house

5. Which household words can fill the gaps in the following sentences? More than one answer may be possible. Example: It's dark in here - turn the light on. the stairs the staircase TV dishwasher washing machine tap electricity water supply door handle power supply radio Walkman clock. paint 1. The ... has come off. 2. She fell down ... . 3. The ... broke down yesterday. 4. My . was cut off. 5. The batteries in my ... have run out. I must get some new ones. 6. We have to put the . back one hour tonight. 6. Error correction Read the text below and look carefully at each line. If the line is correct, put a plus (+). If it has a word which should not be there, write out this word, as in the example.

An Unusual Home Why would a basketball player to have an exact copy of a 0 to pirate ship in his backyard? The basketball player is LA 00 • Laker's star, Kobe Bryant, who he has created an 1 adventure wonderland in his California home. There are 2 many of tropical gardens around the house, complete 3 with waterfalls, and the pirate ship is in one of these. The 4 ship it not only fits in with the garden, but also gives 5 to the home a fun-park theme. 6 The house is over 16,000 square feet in the size, with ten 7 bedrooms and over twelve bathrooms. A huge guest 8 house stands next to a theatre and a billiards room. Even if 9 the guests need something else to look at, apart from the 10 rest of the decor, there are so beautiful ceilings which 11 have to been carefully hand-painted. These give Kobe's 12 house a casual but elegant look. Kobe didn't want to buy 13 a ready-built home, so that he had this one specially built 14 for him - at a cost of about $13.5 million! 15

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7. Choose the right word (А, В, С or D) to fill each gap. Have you ever 0) considered applying for a job where you can live on the

premises? While 'living above the shop' 1) sound good because you don't have to commute, such a situation has its pros and 2) Bernadette Gillow, who lives and works at Ightham Mote, a medieval National Trust property, admits that it can be difficult 3) times. "It takes some getting 4) to. As you come in with your supermarket bags on your day off, you walk through showrooms to get to your 5) I once found a little old lady on my sofa. No 6) how many "PRIVATE" 7) you have on the door, if it opens, people will open it." However, she's generally happy. When she 8) the job as manager, the whole family -her husband and two children - moved in. Renting out their 9) home, they have settled in and now 10) from using the grounds on summer evenings after the visitors have gone. "You feel a wonderful 11) of history here," she says. "Although it is 12) a general management job, I'm responsible for the 13) to day running of the property: the house and garden, the shop and tearoom, the 14) and the financial administration. It does give us an opportunity to completely absorb the scenery and the property. It's a gorgeous place to be and it's a great privilege. 15) the drawbacks, I wouldn't like to go back to the way we lived before."

0 A considered В thought С supposed D assumed 1 A should В might С will D would 2 A downs в fors С backs 0 cons 3 A for в at с in D on 4 A used в felt с known D lived 5 A rooms в parts с quarters D sections 6 A point в matter с question D doubt 7 A directions в labels с messages D signs 8 A took в received с agreed D reached 9 A final в early с last D previous

10 A reward в benefit с enjoy D love 11 A idea в sense с touch D tone 12 A basically в truly с wholly D completely 13 A night в day с week D evening 14 A men в people с staff D members 15 A Spite в Although с However D Despite

< Шшф < # i l t

(jP̂

Г I 4 it

S r f§ V*

8. Word formation form use examples

Verb + er, or, er forms. a noun that describes smb's occupation, or what smb/smth does

employ- employer work - worker sharpen - pencil-sharpener

Verb/ noun + ee a nouns that describes what smb does, or who smb is

pay - payee

Verb/ noun + ing a noun that describes an example or act

draw- drawing

Noun + eer a noun that says what activity smb does

engineer, mountaineer

Noun/verb/adjective an abstract noun, a noun that ex- artist, Buddhist, flexibility,

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+ ist, ity, ness presses smb's belief or occupation. goodness, sadness Noun + hood, ship an abstract noun championship, friendship Verb + ance, ence, ment, (a)tion, (i)tion, sion

an abstract noun admittance, achievement, enjoyment, occupation, pol-lution, revision

Complete the chart with the correct noun. Underlined words will help you. Clue Noun

1. he takes photographs 2. he plays the guitar 3. it washes dishes 4. the state of being able to do something 5. the relationship you have with your friend 6. he designs roads and bridges 7. he writes for a newspaper 8. he acts in film and plays 9. the thing we make when we build 10 the quality of being important 11 the period when you are a child 12 the feeling of being excited 13 the state of being happy 14 knowledge you get when you are educated 15 the act of dividing something 16 entering a place, or the cost of entering 17 the thing we open tins with 18 he is forced to seek refuge in a new country 19 something we do when we are active 20 the state or fact of being great 9. Key Word Transformation 1. In the end, I couldn't make it to the party because I had too much work to do. Able In the end, I ... come to the party because I had too much work to do. 2. At school, she was the fastest runner in her class. Could At school, she ... than anyone else in her class. 3. Although I am good at physics, I don't think I'll manage to pass the exam. Able In spite of being good at physics I don't think pass the exam. 4. We weren't obliged to attend all the classes because some of them were optional. Have We ... to all the classes because some of them were optional. 5. If I don't find a job soon, I won't be able to pay the bills. Have I need to pay the bills so . find a job soon. 6. "All telephone calls made from the office must be paid for", said the manager. Had The manager told ... for all telephone calls made from the office. 7. I took a lot of suntan lotion with me but I didn't need it. Taken I . so much suntan with me. 8. The traffic warden said we weren't allowed to park the car outside the bank. Could The traffic warden told ... park the car outside the bank. 9. I think you can manage without a pullover in this weather. Need You ... wear a pullover in this weather. 10 Oxygen masks were essential when they got to the top of the mountain. Had They ... oxygen masks when they reached the top of the mountain. .

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TEST. 1 VARIANT 1. You are going to read an article about conserving energy in the home. For ques-tions 1-7, choose the correct answer A, B, C or D. 1. The amount of energy consumed by residential buildings is A. 45 million tons. B. 27% more than consumed by industry. C. mainly responsible for global warming. D. going to be reduced by 2010. 2. People making the laws had previously focused on A. Europe. B. residential buildings. C. industry and transport. D. private houses. 3. Blocking up draughts A. is easy. B. is expensive. C. requires planning. D. is energy saving. 4. It is recommended that loft insulation is A. 100mm thick. B. 200-300mm thick. C. made of cellulose. D. fireproof. 5. Accourding to the writer, we should use light bulbs which are A. conventional. B. efficient. C. standard. D. high energy. 6. Which sort of panels can produce electricity? A. solar panels B. glass panels C. photovoltaic panels D. thermal solar panels 7. How can individuals reduce global warming? A. By buying a new environmentally friendly house. B. By designing new buildings with energy saving features. C. By insulating new buildings. D. By making changes in our current homes.

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2. Error correction Selling your house

0. Why do some of people find it so difficult to sell their house, 00. while other people manage to do this within hours of it going 1. on the sale market? You might be surprised how little you 2. have to do to persuade someone to buy your house 3. Always remember that the first impression count. A well-kept 4. garden and a freshly painted door will to create a positive 5. atmosphere, while a full dustbin and many junk in the garden 6. will put possible buyers off it. Make sure the inside of the 7. house will gives the feeling of space, and don't leave your

of V

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8. clothes lying around. Hang up clothes, tidy away books and 9. newspapers, and never leave a pile of dirty plates in the sink 10 Scent is such important, too. Avoid cooking fish or curry 11 before someone is views the house, but the aroma of fresh 12 coffee or newly baked bread does creates the right effect 13 Also soft lighting with lamps will give a cosier atmosphere 14 Touches like these are could be the difference between you 15 making a quick sale or no sale at all. Good luck! 3. Word formation

4. Key Word transformation

10 it w a s n 1 n e c e s s a r y t o r h i m t o h e l p m e , b u t h e d i d . have H e m e ,

1 I ' m s u r e t h e b o o k s a r e in t h i s c u p b o a r d

3 It i s n ' t n e c e s s a r y f o r y o u t o w o r k o n S a t u r d a y ,

4 I a d v i s e y o u t o o p e n a b a n k a c c o u n t ,

5 It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s h e h a s f o r g o t t e n t o c a l l ,

6 It w a s n ' t n e c e s s a r y f o r h i m t o b u y a g i f t , b u t h e d i d .

7 P e r h a p s A l i c e is a t t h e h a i r d r e s s e r ' s .

8 I a d v i s e y o u t o h a v e y o u r c a r s e r v i c e d .

9 I ' m s u r e S y l v i a d i d n ' t m e a n w h a t s h e s a i d .

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TEST. 2 VARIANT 1. Read the article and choose from the sentences (A-I) the one which fits each gap. There is one sentence which you don't need to use.

Going Underground. A S o c i e t y is g o i n g t o h a v e t o l o o k a t e n e r g y u s a g e , a n d

u n d e r g r o u n d h o m e s c a n b e s p a c e - s a v i n g i n a c r o w d e d c o u n t r y . В T h e l i g h t c o m i n g i n t h r o u g h t h e m s h o u l d c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n g

l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s i n t h e c e n t r a l l i v i n g a rea - a n d r e d u c e t h e n e e d

С A c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t o f m o n e y is s a v e d o n e n e r g y a n d m a i n t e n a n c e b i l l s , a n d e a r t h - s h e l t e r e d h o m e s a r e f r e e f r o m m o s t

D A l s o , s o m e p e o p l e f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o p e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y w i t h l i v i n g i n a n e a r t h - s h e l t e r e d d w e l l i n g , b u t t h i s u s u a l l y a p p l i e s o n l y

E T h e y c a n m a k e use o f s t e e p s l o p e s a n d c a n h a v e a t t r a c t i v e w i d e

F T h e f i r s t t i m e t h e c o u p l e c l i m b e d d o w n a d a n g e r o u s o l d i r o n l a d d e r t o i n s p e c t t h e i n s i d e o f t h e reservo i r , t h e y e x p e c t e d t o

G T h e c o u p l e h a v e s i n c e u s e d a spec ia l d r i l l t o c u t t h r e e l a r g e s q u a r e h o l e s in t h e r o o f , w h i c h w i l l s o o n s u p p o r t t h r e e g lass

H Because a n e a r t h - s h e l t e r e d h o m e is s o e f f e c t i v e l y i n s u l a t e d , t h e r e is v i r t u a l l y n o loss o f h e a t i n g a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s i g n i f i c a n t l y

I A f e w m o n t h s l a te r , a l o n g w i t h h i s w i f e . Sa rah , h e is a b o u t t o b e c o m e o n e o f t h e f e w B r i t s w h o l i ve b e l o w t h e e a r t h .

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Timothy Scott w a s leisurely leafing through a local newspaper when he s a w a small advert for a "concrete reservoir for sale". 10 | / | The couple, known locally as 'the moles', have decided to go underground not just because they want one of the most unusual homes in Britain, but for good ecological reasons too.

[~1 | | Instead, they found a sweet-smelling 10m by 2 0 m space, 4 m high. The massive concrete roof, and the earth above it, was supported by eight large original brick pillars.

'We knew immediately that it would make a wonderful home,' says Timothy. 12 | | These will be the main source of light and heat for the house. Natural light will spread through glass walls to the three bedrooms, two bathrooms and kitchen off the central area.

'We expect virtually no heating bills,' Timothy says. 'The surrounding earth and the inside of the walls should provide an ample storage area for the solar energy we gain through the pyramids during the day. 13 | | W e estimate that this will cut our electricity bills by at least a third.'

The couple's belief in the benefits of living underground is genuine. Living underground, which is quite common in America, in parts of Spain and in China, has many advantages for families. |4 | | What's more, they are

2. Error correction

naturally protected from wind and draughts. Earth sheltering also provides greater security and at the same time a building that will last a good 500 years. There are fewer than a dozen earth-sheltered homes in Britain, which makes their inhabitants into pioneers of a sort.

Building this way is also compatible with the new conservationist methods. | 5 | | To avoid living in 'shoe boxes' and to keep agricultural land green, there is really only one way of building: underground. 'In 100 years' time, or less,' says Timothy, 'I believe that large numbers of people will be living in earth-sheltered homes in Britain.'

Earth-sheltered homes don't have to be like Timothy's reservoir. | 6 | A patio is also possible, as long as there is enough space in front of a house.

However, according to Peter Carpentier, secretary of the British Earth Sheltering Association, who lives in his own underground home, there are a few disadvantages. For instance, because there are so few earth-sheltered homes in the UK, it is usually hard, although not impossible, to get planning permission. 17 | | When a lot of excavation is needed, building costs can be higher than for conventional homes, although savings can be made in other ways.

35

40

A House with a Difference This a m a z i n g w i n d m i l l , s t a n d i n g up o n a hi l l , is all m o s t ce r ta in ly a 0 all house w i t h a d i f f e rence . The 1 9 t h cen tu r y w i n d m i l l has a u n i q u e pos i t i on 0 0 / is o v e r l o o k i n g t h e t o w n , w i t h v i ews o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g coun t r ys ide . The 1 w i n d m i l l w a s been c o n v e r t e d in 1 9 7 8 by a local bu i lde r i n t o a luxur ious f am i l y 2 house a n d has recent ly been e x t e n d e d t o i nc lude f o u r d o u b l e b e d r o o m s . The 3 p r o p e r t y also has fu l l gas cen t ra l h e a t i n g a n d is doub le -g l azed . O n t h e o n e g r o u n d 4 f l oo r t h e r e is a spac ious e n t r a n c e hal l w i t h l o t s t o r a g e space a n d w i n d o w s l o o k i n g 5 o n t o b e a u t i f u l ga rdens . A t t h e s ide o f t h e house t h e r e i t is a p a t i o area f o r ba rbecues 6 a n d a smal l p o n d had bu i l t o f C o r n i s h s tone . There are t w o d o u b l e ga rages a t t h e back 7 o f t h e p r o p e r t y a n d p a r k i n g space f o r an a p p r o x i m a t e l y seven cars. The h u g e 8 l o u n g e o n t h e f i rst f l o o r leads o n t o a ba lcony w i t h p a n o r a m i c v iews o f f a r m l a n d . 9 In a d d i t i o n t o , t h e r e is also a fu l l y f i t t e d , o p e n - p l a n k i t chen w i t h p a t i o doors , 10 are l ead ing t o an o a k - b e a m e d d i n i n g r o o m . A large spiral s ta i rcase 11 gives access t o t h e f o u r d o u b l e b e d r o o m s o n t h e second f loor . A p a r t f r o m th i s t h e 12 mas te r b e d r o o m , w h i c h inc ludes an en-su i te b a t h r o o m a n d f i t t e d w a l k - i n 13 w a r d r o b e s , t h e r e are t w o a d d i t i o n a l b a t h r o o m s o n th is f loor . This m u c h unusua l 14 f am i l y h o m e o f fe rs re laxed, h igh qual i ty , sty l ish l iv ing. 15

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3. Word formation Superlative Vacuum Cleaners

We all know how (0) exhausting housework can be and EXHAUST sweeping the carpet must be one of the most (1) TIRE of (2) . . . chores. We think we have come up with HOUSE a (3) . . . to back-breaking carpet cleaning - our new SOLVE range of state of the art vacuum (4) . . . provide a quick CLEAN and (5) . . . answer to dust, however deeply ingrained EFFECT We would be happy to send you (6) . . . about our new INFORM vacuum cleaners; our leaflets contain a complete (7) DESCRIBE of the latest models, and if you would like a (8) . . . of DEMONSTRATE how they work why not take up our free (9) . . . offer today TRY with no (10) . . . to buy. Just send off the form below or OBLIGE ring us on 101 243768 now! 4. Key Word Transformation

1. It's forbidden to take your bag into the building. mustn't You into the building.

2. I'm sure she understood what I was saying. have She what I was saying.

3. Perhaps he took the train to work this morning. may He the train to work this morning.

4. Running in the corridors is forbidden. allowed You in the corridors.

5. Is it possible that Jane is leaving school at the end of this week? be Could at the end of this week?

6. We'll probably have a party for Simon's birthday. likely It's a party for Simon's birthday.

7. I'd better start studying for my exams soon. ought I for my exams soon.

8. It is possible that they will sell their house. may They their house.

9. Everyone is supposed to pay taxes to the government. should Everyone taxes to the government.

10. Let's discuss this over lunch. can We this over lunch.

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MODULE 4 SPORTS AND HOBBIES Lead-in 1. All these are extreme sports: extreme kayaking, snowboarding, bungee jumping, free

fall parachuting. Can you name any other extreme sports? 2. Have you ever participated in any of these sports? If so, how did you feel? 3. Which of these sentences best describes your feelings about the sports above?

I wish I could do it more often. If I weren't so scared, I would give it a try. If only I could turn my fear into positive energy. I'm not sure if I could do it. I've never wanted to do it.

4. Which of these qualities should people have in order to do high-risk sports?

fear ability to evaluate risks mental energy positive energy sense of adventure determination courage physical strength survival instinct quick reactions

Reading

1. The people who do extreme sports are called "daredevils» What does it mean? Do you think what they do is sheer lunacy? How do you think these people feel?

2. Read the article and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D, then explain the words in bold.

Shaun Baker has two equally crazy ways of descending through the torrents of a waterfall in a small kayak. He either paddles through a series of boulders that could smash him and his boat to pieces, or pushes his boat out into the air so that he free-falls through the air into the water below.

He calls this extreme kayaking. Others may be tempted to translate as sheer lu-n acy. However, everyone agrees that it is a high-risk sport.

When Baker, a 32-year-old professional white water rodeo champion from just outside Maidenhead, explains what he does, it sounds impossible. When he actually shows you, it is truly amazing how, each time he emerges from the waters below, a little bruised, but in one smiling, triumphant piece.

One of his favourite areas to perform the daredevil feats is in a valley of water-falls on the edge of the Black Mountains in central Wales. A breath-takingly beautiful but dangerous spot, it provides Baker with as nerve-wracking a challenge as any he has faced in the twenty years he has been in some kind of canoe.

"It's in my blood", he explains, preparing himself both physically and mentally for the challenge ahead. "I don't do this for any macho reasons, I do it for myself. If I'1m honest, it scares the life out of me especially when I start to tip over the edge and I know there is no turning back."

"The trick is to turn the fear into positive energy. You are frightened at the top of the fall, but it changes into a survival instinct. You need every ounce of mental energy and reaction to survive. The real kick is when you hit the bottom and reappear from under the water. That's when you know you've made it, and that is the moment

4

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when you have a sense of elation." Apart from various national white water rodeo championship wins, Baker also

holds the record for the highest free-fall waterfall drop in a kayak, as well as the world speed altitude drop of 50 metres. He is just about the only regular extreme kayaker in the world.

"The reason why I still do this," he says, "is that I have the ability to work out whether I can survive or not. If I think something is too risky, I won't do it»

"Too risky" in Bakers language is, of course, totally different to my or your in-terpretation. As he steadies himself for his first descent, a slide down a fall of around 60 feet, with dangerous rocks at the bottom, you are left wondering just how he is going to succeed. In his tiny, 2.2-metre-long "Eskimo" kayak, the smallest in the world, Baker begins.

It is all over in a few seconds. He drops, like a stone, down the fall, and is then forced to his left and onto a totally different route than he had planned.

He then moves downstream to his second challenge in order to perform an ac-tual free fall.

"The trick here is to punch the water with the nose of the kayak," Baker ex-plains. "If you have a flat landing, it could kill you."

Baker holds his arm in the air, shoots his thumb up, and then leaps out into the sky before falling down and under the river. There is the second's silence before he emerges again - wet, a little bruised, but safe.

"It's a whole way of life for me," he explains, as we climb our way out of the valley and back to the cars. "It's not that I go out to impress anyone, or try to say I'm better. It's just the wonderful experience of testing myself against nature and the ele-ments. And each night I look back on a day like today and realize there's nothing I would rather be doing with myself." (Upstream Intermediate)

1. What does the passage suggest about the two methods Shaun uses to kayak down waterfalls? A. One is much safer than the other. B. Both involve free-falling from the top of the waterfall. C. One is called "extreme kayaking» D. Both are very dangerous. 2. Why does Shaun enjoy kayaking in the waterfalls on the edge of the Black Mountain? A. It is very beautiful there. B. It offers him a great challenge. C. He has lived there for 20 years. D. Kayaking is very easy there. 3. What does "it" in line 17 refer to? A. Shaun's kayak B. A waterfall C. Extreme kayaking D. Feeling frightened 4. When does Shaun feel best about a descent? A. Before he starts kayaking B. At the top of the waterfall C. During the descent D. When he emerges at the bottom of the fall

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5. Shaun still does extreme kayaking because... A. He doesn't take any risks. B. He is always able to work out if a descent is too dangerous. C. He will do anything no matter how dangerous it is. D. He doesn't care if he survives or not. 6. Shaun enjoys his sport because . A. He is very good at it. B. It impresses other people. C. It doesn't scare him at all. D. He enjoys testing himself. 3. Read the article again and list the reasons why Shaun does this sport and how this makes him feel. Then, in pairs, talk about whether you would like to try this sport, and explain why/ why not. Vocabulary and Grammar Practice

1. Match the highlighted words to their synonyms. Pure, come down, jump, hit, appear, victorious, thrill. 2. Complete the sentences using the words in the list. Lunacy, nerve-racking, instinct, elation, altitude, interpretation, steadied, torrents, pad-dles, high-risk. 1) He always his canoe carefully along the dangerous rivers. 2) Some people think that doing extreme sports is sheer . 3) His survival keeps him safe even in the most dangerous situations. 4) of water gushes into the river. 5) It was the most experience I've ever had. 6) She has never been at such a high before, I think she's going to faint. 7) I feel a sense of whenever I do something well. 8) His of the problem is quite different to mine. 9) He himself at the top of the ski slope before pushing himself off. 10) Extreme kayaking is a sport. 3. Use the adjectives and sports given below to act out dialogues, as in the example.

• Hang-gliding V Exciting • Tennis V Challenging • Snowboarding v ThriUmg • Cycling V R e l a x i n g • Scuba diving V C o m p e t i t i v e

• Rock climbing V D a n g e r o u s

• Fly fishing V F r i g h t e n i n g

v Risky V Exhausting V Nerve-racking V Demanding

A: I'd love to try hang-gliding B: Really? Why? A: I'm sure it would be exciting. What about you? B: No, I wouldn't like to try hang-gliding. I think it would be too frightening. A: What would you like to try than?

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B: Scuba diving...etc 4.Fill in the correct word Competitive, accurate, co-operative, daring, graceful, careful, determined, courageous. 1) A footballer needs to be to play as part of a team. 2) A person needs to be to try sky surfing because it is quite a dangerous sport. 3) An archer needs to be to hit the centre of the target. 4) A long distance runner needs to be to finish the race because they get very tired. 5) A racing driver needs to be very because he has to drive very fast and take a lot of risks. 6) You need to be when you are rock climbing because you could fall and serious-ly injure yourself. 7) A successful sports person has to be and do their best to beat other athletes. 8) An ice-skater needs to be so that they can glide across the ice with style and ease. 5. For Questions 1 - 10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an ex-ample at the beginning (0).

Example: (0) interested THE TRAINING P R O G R A M M E

If y o u a re 0) interested in ge t t i ng fit, t h e n w h a t y o u n e e d is a t r a i n i ng p r o g r a m m e . A l t h o u g h a i m e d at i m p r o v i n g p h y s i c a l 1) , t h i s p r o g r a m m e c a n a l so b e 2)

in s u c h a w a y t h a t it he l ps in t h e 3) of pa r t i cu la r a th le t i c ski l ls . T h e r e is a r a n g e of

d i f f e ren t 4) t o c h o o s e f r o m a n d a g r o w i n g a m o u n t of sc ien t i f i c 5) t o e x p l a i n t h e e f f e c t s of e a c h o n e .

W h e n y o u b e g i n t ra in ing , it is i m p o r t a n t to s ta r t 6) , ra i s ing t h e 7) o f t h e p r o g r a m m e

in a g r a d u a l w a y . A l t h o u g h it is i m p o r t a n t to w o r k su f f i c i en t l y h a r d to m a k e a n 8) o n y o u r p h y s i c a l cond i t i on , t h e ac t i v i t ies s h o u l d n ' t b e 9) . It is 10)

t he re fo re , t o i g n o r e w a r n i n g s y m p t o m s s u c h a s s h a r p o r p e r s i s t e n t pa in in pa r t i cu la r m u s c l e s . Grammar Practice 1. Put the following verbs into the correct category.

avoid decide promise hope mind finish enjoy detest let sb expect can't claim regret stand miss agree want fancy

INTEREST

FIT DESIGN DEVELOP ACTIVE KNOW

GENTLE, INTENSE

IMPRESS

PAIN, WISE

deny resist consider refuse can should make sb

verb + to - inf verb + bare inf verb + -ing form

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form. 1. John was unable (play) in the tennis tournament as he was about

(have) an operation on his knee.

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2. I'm sorry (say) that his recent car accident has made it impossible for John (qualify) for the race. 3. "I've never seen such a fast horse in my life! It's worth (bet) on it; it's sure (win) the race. 4. I would prefer (go) to the football match instead of (watch) it on TV last night. 5. I can't help (think) how graceful Julie is as a gymnast. I think she ought (take) it up professionally. 6. It's no use (try) to make her put on her skates. She'll start (fall) over the moment she steps onto the ice. 7. He claims (be) the best figure skater in the world, but he's never won a medal in his life! 8. He seems to (train) hard these days. 9. James was looking forward to (exhibit) his skills in a chess match against the leading champion. 10. As Bob was going to enter the judo competition he spent all his time (practise) for the finals.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form. Football is the most popular sport in the world. While some children prefer (1 ) (watch) their much admired footballers, others are more keen on (2 ) (take part) in the action. They look forward to the school day (3 ) (end) so they can (4) (play) a game of football in the street or on the school field. Young boys imagine themselves (5) (become) famous footballers. They dream of (6) (score) the winning goal for the cham-pionship as well as (7) (see) fans (8) (applaud) for the victory with great enthusiasm. Boys are not the only fanatics. Men are no different. They wait for Sunday afternoons (9) (come) so that they can (10) (enjoy) the day by (11) (sit) in front of the TV and (12) (cheer on) their fa-vourite team. 3. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold.

1 I'm sorry but we have decided not to accept your application. Regret I we have decided to reject your application.

2 Funnily enough, I'd prefer a pizza for a change. Rather Funnily enough .

3 We were not allowed to drink too much Coke when we were children. Let Our parents .

4 I think it would be a good idea to take the train. Suggest I .

5 She succeeded in persuading her parents to let her go. Managed She .

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6 It looks as if this door's locked after all. Appears This .

7 One of the things I hate is people eating popcorn in the cinema. Stand One of the things I .

8 The singer arrived two hours late but I 'm glad I waited for him. Worth The singer .

9 Jack said he had to catch the early flight. Insisted Jack .

10 I can't wait to get your next letter. Forward I .

11 "No, I didn't move the files," she said to him. Denied She the files.

12 This jacket is so small that I can't wear it. Too This jacket is wear.

13 I think it's good to have lots of hobbies. Having I think good.

14 I have trouble starting the car when it's cold. Difficult I the car when it's cold.

TEST. 1 VARIANT 1. You are going to read a magazine article about a young sports person. For Ques-tions 1 - 8 choose the correct answer A, B, C or D.

Wakeboarding K n o w i n g t h a t T o m F i n c h , a j u n i o r

c h a m p i o n in t h e r e l a t i v e l y n e w s p o r t o f w a k e b o a r d i n g , h a d w o n s o m a n y c o m -p e t i t i o n s , I w a s m o r e t h a n a l i t t le t a k e n a b a c k t o s e e h o w s l i gh t h e w a s . W a k e -b o a r d i n g , y o u s e e , i n v o l v e s b e i n g p u l l e d a l o n g a t h i g h s p e e d b e h i n d a p o w e r b o a t , r a t h e r l i ke in w a t e r s k i i n g , t h a n l a u n c h i n g y o u r s e l f i n to t h e a i r t o p e r f o r m a s e r i e s o f c o m p l i c a t e d t r i cks , a s in s k a t e b o a r d i n g o r s n o w b o a r d i n g . N o w , t h a t is a f e a t y o u ' d t h i n k r e q u i r e d b i g b o n e s a n d b u l g i n g m u s c l e s . B u t T o m is j u s t 1 . 4 4 m ta l l a n d w e i g h s 3 8 k i los .

"I t h u r t m y f o r e a r m s at f i rs t , b u t n o w I g u e s s I 'm u s e d t o it", T o m t o l d m e . A t

1 4 y e a r s o ld , T o m h a s b e e n p r a c t i c i n g t h e s p o r t f o r j u s t t w o y e a r s , b u t h a s a l r e a d y f o u n d c o m p e t i n g in h i s a g e g r o u p a l -m o s t t o o e a s y . H e d i d n ' t s a y t ha t , o f c o u r s e . M a y b e b e c a u s e h e d i d n ' t w a n t t o s e e m b i g h e a d e d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h h i s D a d s i t t i ng j u s t a f e w m e t r e s a w a y , o r m a y b e b e c a u s e h e j u s t d o e s n ' t t h i n k i t 's i m p o r t a n t . "I w a k e b o a r d b e c a u s e i t 's f un " , h e t o l d m e w i t h a s m i l e , " a n d s c a r y ! "

H e k n o w s h e ' s g o o d t h o u g h a n d o n e l o o k a t h i s r e s u l t s c o n -f i r m s t h a t t h i s is j u s t i f i e d . Y e t

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w h e n T o m s t a r t e d , t h e o r g a n i z e r s t r i e d t o p e r s u a d e h i m n o t t o e n t e r h i s f i r s t c o m p e -t i t ion , t h i n k i n g h e ' d b e u p s e t w h e n h e c a m e last . T o m w o n b y a m i l e a n d s i -l e n c e d t h e m al l . S o , w h a t m a k e s h i m s o g o o d ? P e r h a p s , p u t t i n g o n a w e t s u i t , w h a t e v e r t h e w e a t h e r , a n d p r a c t i c i n g f o r a t l eas t t w o h o u r s e v e r y d a y . F o r that is w h a t T o m d o e s . H e a l s o b u y s a n d s t u d -ies e v e r y n e w w a k e b o a r d i n g v i d e o a n d s p e n d s h o u r s w o r k i n g o n e v e r y n e w t r i ck , f i n d i n g n e w w a y s t o t w i s t a n d t u r n h i s s m a l l b o d y .

H e ' s a l s o n o t a f r a i d t o t a k e a d v i c e f r o m p e o p l e b e t t e r t h a n h i m . "I w o u l d n ' t b e w h e r e I a m w i t h o u t m y t r a i ne r " , T o m s a y s . "It t a k e s s o m u c h l o n g e r t o l e a r n w i t h o u t h i m ; h e c a n s p o t w h a t I 'm d o i n g w r o n g in a s e c o n d a n d p u t m e r igh t . H e g i v e s m e lo ts o f t i p s o n s o m e o f t h e r ea l t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s t o o »

A l t h o u g h t h e s p o r t is r e l a t i v e l y u n -k n o w n c o m p a r e d t o s u r f i n g a n d s n o w -b o a r d i n g , w h i c h e v e r y o n e ' s h e a r d of , T o m r e c k o n s i t 's on the up. " E v e r y o n e a t s c h o o l is w e l l a w a r e o f it, t r y i n g it a n d l o v -i ng it", h e s a y s . H e ' s n o t w r o n g e i t he r . E v e n o n t h e ra iny , w i n d y d a y t h a t I m e t h i m , t h e r e ' s a q u e u e o f e a g e r b o d i e s in w e t s u i t s g e t t i n g i n to t h e f r e e z i n g w a t e r a t t h e w a t e r s p o r t s c e n t r e n e a r L o n d o n w h e r e T o m t r a i ns .

I t w i l l t a k e a f e w y e a r s un t i l t h e o v e r a l l s t a n d a r d r e a c h e s t h a t o f t h e U S A t h o u g h . T o m t o l d m e t h a t e v e r y t h i n g is t w i c e a s f as t , t w i c e a s b i g t h e r e , w h i c h m a k e s it r e a l l y s c a r y a n d d a n g e r o u s . T o m k n o w s n o f e a r t h o u g h a n d w a n t s o n e d a y t o b e a p r o f e s s i o n a l . H e m i g h t o n l y b e 1 . 4 4 m tal l , b u t le t ' s n o t f o r g e t t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s w e r e a l l f o u r t e e n - y e a r -o l d a t o n e t i m e t o o .

First Certificate Practice Tests Plus

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1. What surprised the writer most on first meeting Tom Finch? A. His height B. His strength C. His skillfulness D. His bravery

2. When asked about his success in competitions, Tom appeared to be A. Embarrassed B. Proud C. Modest D. Nervous

3. When Tom started entering competitions, people thought A. He hadn't been trained. B. He might hurt himself. C. He was below the age limit. D. He would be disappointed.

4. What does "that" in line 39 refer to? A. Studying hard B. Practicing daily C. Buying videos D. Working on new tricks

5. Tom is particularly grateful when his trainer A. Points out his mistakes. B. Makes him work hard. C. Stops him being afraid. D. Spends long hours with him.

6. What does Tom mean by the phrase "on the up" in line 56? A. Becoming better understood B. Getting more practice C. Getting easier for people D. Becoming more popular

7. In the future, Tom hopes to A. Train others in his sport. B. Go and live in the USA. C. Get over his remaining fears. D. Make the sport his career.

8. In general, what does the writer think of Tom? A. He's very determined. B. He's easily persuaded. C. He's overconfident. D. He's underachieving.

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1. Choose the best alternative to complete the gaps in this summary. 'The Captain and the Enemy' is a novel (1) was written by Graham Green in

1988. It is a story (2) a boy, Victor Baxter, (3) father (4) he calls 'the Devil') loses him in game of backgammon to a man (5) is only known as 'the Cap-tain'. The Captain, (6) real name is never revealed, appears to be some sort of crim-inal. (7) the boy has been taken away from his boarding school, he is brought up by a woman called Lisa, (8) is the Captain's mistress. From time to time the Captain re-turns to visit them, (9) for months on end they are alone together. (10) this time a close relationship develops (11) them, and Lisa treats Victor as if he is her son. Eventually, the Captain goes to live in Panama, (12) tells them that they cannot join him there (13) he has made enough money. (14) he is 18, Victor leaves Lisa and gets his own flat but (15) her death in a road accident, he flies to Panama to meet the Captain...

1 A which B what C who D it 2 A about B by C on D of 3 A who B whose C his D without 4 A which B who C whose D him 5 A who B whom C whose D his 6 A who B whom C whose D his 7 A Before B After C Although D Now 8 A she B who C because D that 9 A because B but C when D so 10 A Before B While C During D On 11 A among B over C between D to 12 A still B but C though D he 13 A after B by C Until D if 14 A When B So C Then D Why 15 A because B while C as D after

2. For Questions 1 - 10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an ex-ample at the beginning (0).

Example: 0 beneficial

EXERCISE - THE CASE AGAINST W e a r e a l w a y s b e i n g to ld a b o u t t h e 0) beneficial o f

r egu la r a n d 1) p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . B u t h o w o f t e n d o y o u h e a r p e o p l e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e 2) a s p e c t s of th i s m o d e r n 3) w i t h h e a l t h a n d f i t n e s s ? It is t i m e p e o p l e rea l i zed t h a t e x e r c i s e is a n 4) . T h e ac t of e x e r c i s i n g r e l e a s e s a c h e m i c a l in t h e b ra in w h i c h h a s t h e 5) e f f ec t of m a k i n g y o u f ee l b o t h r e l a x e d a n d 6) . It is, in fac t , a d rug . T h a t is w h y rea l f i t ness -f r e a k s fee l t h e n e e d to w o r k o u t 7) o f ten , a n d be -

BENEFIT VIGOUR HARM OBSESS ADDICT

PLEASURE ENERGY

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c o m e 8) a n d d e p r e s s e d if t h e y a re kep t a w a y INCREASE f r o m t h e g y m fo r t oo long. NERVE

S o be fo re y o u s ign up for a y e a r ' s 9) at y o u r local hea l th c lub, a s k you rse l f if y o u a re rea l ly 10) MEMBER to sacr i f i ce y o u r f r e e d o m a n d se l f - r espec t fo r t he s a k e of "fit- WILL ness" .

3. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold. 1 Why travel so far to go shopping?

Worth Is so far to go shopping?

2 Can you please speak louder? I can't hear you. Mind Would louder? I can't hear you.

3 His mother doesn't let him go out during the week. Allowed He out during the week.

4 Danny would rather read magazines than novels. Prefers Danny novels.

5 They don't let people talk during the meeting. Allow They don't during the meeting.

6 Helen's father made her tidy her room yesterday. Was Helen her room yesterday.

7 The water is so cold that I can't swim in it. Enough The water is not swim in it.

8 That problem was difficult to solve. Difficulty I that problem.

9 I heard them ask the policeman for directions. Were They the policeman for directions.

10 I wish I'd seen a comedy rather than a horror film. Rather I'd a comedy than a horror film.

TEST. 2 VARIANT 1. Y o u a r e g o i n g t o r e a d a n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e a b o u t t h e s p o r t o f i n l i n e s k a t i n g . F o r Q u e s t i o n s 1 - 8 c h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r A, B, C o r D.

Inline Skating Tracy Winters is on a mission to change the image of inline skating in this country. In her skates there is no stopping Tracy Winters. She spends most of her time teach-

ing, consulting, examining or campaigning on behalf of this country's ever-growing num-ber of inline skaters.

Busy as she is, Tracy did manage to spare an hour early one Saturday morning to give me a lesson in the local park. The slight unease I felt at never having used the inline

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skates before was not helped, however, by her emphatic disapproval as I pulled a pair of brand-new skates from my bag.

"Oh dear", she said with a frown. "You've been sold what we call "aggressive" skates, which are no good for the sort of skating that you want to do. They're too heavy for twists and turns and the wheels are too small. And you've no brake."

"But I was told that all I need to do to stop was drag my leg behind me", I protested. "No, no, no", said Tracy. She explained how she was currently helping a girl who

has been off work for a year with a damaged leg after following similar advice. Tracy is drawing up a list of guidelines for selling inline skates based on ability, budget and type of use, which she wants to see all retailers use. She has seen the purchase of inappropriate skates all too often before. "What you should have been sold is recreational skates", she told me.

Ordinarily, those who turn up with the wrong skates suffer the added annoyance of missing out on a lesson because Tracy will not teach them. I was mare fortunate and, after a small ticking off for not having knee pads, my lesson began.

Away from the critical eyes of more experienced skaters, she started me off gently, simple skating up and down a track on the edge of the park.

"Hands out", Tracy told me repeatedly. This was not just to help break a fall, but to prevent my tumbling altogether. Ice skaters, Tracy pointed out, keep their arms in front not only to look elegant: it actually keeps them balanced.

To help get rid of my fear, Tracy insisted that a fall would be good for me, but that I would have to relax for this to reduce the chances of injury. I was not so keen, but obeyed each time she reminded me to keep my back straight and my chin up. "You don't look at the ground when you're riding a bike", she said.

Apart from ice-skating and bicycle- riding, inline skating has similarities with ballet and skiing, which makes it attractive to a wide range of people. An estimated sixty percent of inline skate owners use them every week and more than half are recreational skaters. In this country the sport is regarded as something for the young and as potentially dangerous. Tracy, together with the National Inline Skating Association, is trying to change this im-pression, in the first instance by emphasising the importance of insurance and the wearing of protective clothing in case of accidents. She would also like to see the sport more wide-ly catered for in sports centres and health clubs, possibly through the building of indoor skating arenas.

Having been on wheels almost every day of her life since the age of five, Tracy is well-versed in the virtues of skating and, she claims, she never tires of the sport. "It is the feeling of moving, of gliding, I can't quite pin it down, but it makes me feel good", she says. Like the hundreds who start skating every week, I now know what she means.

First Certificate Practise Tests Plus 1

1. How did the writer feel before her inline skating lesson? A. A little nervous B. Quite confident C. Very frightened D. Extremely excited

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2. What was wrong with the skates the writer bought? A. They were of poor quality. B. They were not suitable. C. They did not fit her well. D. They didn't work properly.

3. Why is Tracy writing a set of guidelines? A. To help people who have been injured B. To advise people who are buying skates C. To provide information to sales staff in shops D. To tell her students what to bring to lessons

4. "Ticking off" in line 17 means A. Checking something B. Waiting for something C. Giving someone a reward D. Telling someone they are wrong

5. What does "this" in line 21 refer to? A. Simple skating B. Repeated instructions C. Use of the hands D. Avoiding falls

6. Tracy compares skating and cycling in terms of A. The fear people feel at first B. The need to learn how to fall C. The need to relax to keep balanced D. The correct body position to adopt

7. How would Tracy like to change the idea people have of inline skating? A. By encouraging older people to do it B. By discouraging recreational skating C. By stressing the need for safety D. By forming a national association

8. After the lesson, the writer agrees with Tracy that inline skating is A. Is easy to learn. B. Is rather tiring. C. Is hard to teach. D. Is rather satisfying.

1. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. Someone once said that there are three kinds of people who are (1) in sport:

people who (2) part, people who watch, and people who watch (3) televi-sion. It's very easy to make fun of stayOat-home sports (4) , but on the other hand, television does enable us to enjoy all kinds of (5) events. We can watch a racing

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car (6) another, see a cyclist (7) the finishing line, or enjoy the goals of our favourite football (8) . The first time I watched a tennis (9) was on televi-sion, and I found it (10) interesting. It's not always easy to (11) long dis-tances to football (12) , and television is a good solution. Of course, you can (13)

used to sitting indoors all the time, and this is dangerous. We should all try to (14) fit, and have other interests and (15) .

1 A playing B really C interested D succeed 2 A take B have C make D get 3 A on B with C by D from 4 A people B centres C programmes D fans 5 A the B future C sports D athlete 6 A cross B overtake C or D from 7 A overtake B and C cross D professional 8 A group B class C band D team 9 A match B it C which D that 10 A valuable B imaginatively C unexpectedly D real 11 A trip B tour C pass D travel 12 A areas B grounds C teams D fans 13 A or B which C get D is 14 A keep B make C do D have 15 A customs B habits C pastimes D leisure

1. For Questions 1 - 10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example: (0) memorable

THE OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSUTY BOAT RACE

T h e f i rs t B o a t R a c e w a s a 0) memorable o c c a s i o n a n d t o o k p l a c e in 1 8 2 9 . O n e o f t h e 1) o f t h e r a c e w a s C h a r l e s W o r d s w o r t h , w h o h a d 2) e s t a b l i s h e d t h e u n i v e r s i t y c r i c k e t m a t c h in 1 8 2 7 . T o d a y , a l m o s t t w o c e n t u r i e s la ter , o n e o f t h e m o s t 3) t h i n g s a b o u t t h e R a c e is i ts 4) w o r l d w i d e . In f ac t , t h e r e is e v e n a B o a t R a c e s o c i e t y w h i c h is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a n n u a l 5) o f v i d e o s o f t h e R a c e t o a l l i ts m e m b e r s .

T h e R a c e is r o w e d o n t h e R i v e r T h a m e s in L o n d o n o v e r a 6) o f a b o u t f o u r m i l e s . T h o u s a n d s s t a n d o n t h e b a n k s t o w a t c h , h o w e v e r 7) a n d c o l d t h e w e a t h e r m i g h t be . J u s t 8) if t h e w e a t h e r is v e r y w i n d y , a b o a t m a y fi l l w i t h w a t e r a n d s i nk , a 9) s i g h t a n d o b v i o u s l y a g r e a t 10) t o t h e b o a t ' s c r e w .

MEMORY FOUND SUCCESS

AMAZE POPULAR DISTRIBUTE

LONG PLEASE OCCASION DRAMA EMBARRASS

1. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold. 1 She wasn't well enough to go to school that day.

Ill She to school that day.

2 We found the concert rather disappointing.

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Were We by the concert.

3 Tom is too short to join the basketball team. Enough Tom to join the basketball team.

4 I prefer to eat out rather than to cook my own meals. To I prefer my own meals.

5 The boy could hardly understand the instructions. difficulty The boy the instructions.

6 My parents let me go to the party. Was I to the party.

7 Painting the whole house took us a week. Paint It took the whole house.

8 He made me rewrite the essay. Was I the essay.

9 Could you speak a bit louder? Speaking Would a bit louder?

10 It was difficult for John to complete the project. Found John complete the project.

MODULE 5. TRAVELLING AND MODES OF TRANSPORT Lead-in

1. Are you fond of traveling? 2. Which places have you already visited? Which did you like most? 3. Where would you like to go? 4. What's your favourite transport? 5. What are the famous sights of China, Korea and Japan?

Reading

1. Look at the headline below and say what you think the article is going to be about. 2. Read through the first paragraph to find out if you are right. 3. There are four gaps in the text. Each one should contain a quotation. Choose a quotation from the list (A - D) below to fill each gap. Write the correct letter in the space.

A "No, she was angry because the cows used to stop and look in at her as they went past the window." B "particularly suitable for families with children" C "they should try and sort it out with a holiday company representative there and then." D "The fact that their hotel is next to a road. How do they expect to get to their hotel if it's not next to a road?"

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Dear travel agent, please stop the cows staring at me...

For the next few weeks, tour operators will be sorting through the annual deluge of complaints. Ron Wheal, head of customer relations for Britain's biggest holiday company, which took more than a million abroad this summer, says, "Holidaymakers are complain-ing about petty, silly, little things." Such as? 1

Perhaps one of the most common complaints is that the holiday fails to live up to brochure promises. A family from Berkshire with two young children were attracted by a two-week package in a tree-star hotel that was described as "friendly" and 2 . It of-fered "cots, baby minding, high chairs and early suppers." When they arrived, the hotel was not up to three-star standard, the staff were rude and the promised facilities were prac-tically non-existent.

An initial complaint which have been sent to the holiday company by the family was answered with an "ex-gratia" payment of £30. With the help of a consumer magazine, the family issued a summons claiming £500 - which the holiday company eventually met in full.

One of the big travel successes of recent years has been the "gite" holiday; a gite is self-catering accommodation in France often on a farm. The director of the Gite de France's London office recently received a telephone call from one client furious about the cows that passed in front of her gite. Was she complaining about a mess? 3

Britain's biggest seller of long-distance holidays says that the majority of its com-plaints come from people who have chosen the wrong sort of holiday. People who fail to. do their research could find themselves in the Caribbean during the hurricane season.

Mr. Wheal says that if someone really wants action over a spoilt holiday, 4 . Those who complain to. the tour operator on their return and are unhappy with the re-sponse can take their case to the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) which will provide conciliation facilities free of charge.

Focus on FCE 4. Now read the article again and mark the following statements as either true or false. Underline the word or phrase which gives you your answer. 1) Ron Wheal thinks that the most of the complaints his company receives are reasona-ble. 2) The most frequent complaint is that a holiday is of a lower standard than expected. 3) The family from Berkshire expected that someone would be available to look after their young children. 4) The first thing they did was to write a letter of complaint to the company. 5) The company paid £500 as soon as they received the letter. 6) If you stay at a gite, you have to prepare your own meals. 7) The long-distance holiday company suggests that holidaymakers should find out about the area they intend to visit. 8) Mr. Wheal suggests that people with complaints should contact ABTA as soon as they return home.

5. Find the word or phrase in the text. which means the same as the following: 1) Large quantity (usually of water) (para 1) 2) Unimportant (1) 3) Holiday including travel and accommodation (2)

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4) Beds for small children (2) 5) Almost unavailable (2) 6) Sent out an order to appear in court (3) 7) Paid completely (3) 8) Very angry (4) 9) Storm with strong wind (5) 10) A service which helps to bring agreement between people or groups of people (6)

6. Work with another student and find out if they: 1) Have ever had a journey or holiday when something went wrong. If so, what? 2) Have ever complained to a travel agent, tour company or hotel? If so, why? 3) Have ever complained in a restaurant? If so, why? 4) Have ever wanted to complain but felt too embarrassed. If so, when? 5) Would prefer to complain in person, by telephone or in writing, and why?

4. Report back any interesting stories you have heard, and discuss these questions: 1) What can a customer hope to achieve by complaining? 2) Is the customer always right to complain if they are dissatisfied with service?

5.Complete the following sentences with the correct prepositions. All ten prepositions come from the text "Dear travel agent, please stop the cows staring at me..." on of about for with in as to by

up 1) Many people were attracted the shop's special opening offers. 2) The insurance company has agreed to meet our claim full. 3) The shop repaired the clock completely free charge. 4) The course was described suitable complete beginners. 5) his return to England, he set about trying to find a job. 6) I didn't think his work was to standard so I asked him to do it again. 7) He made a search of the cellar the help of a torch. 8) The neighbours are always complaining us our dog.

Vocabulary and Grammar Practice

1. Read this extract from an encyclopedia and then fill in the column for Japan in the chart, using information from the text.

JAPAN A country of eastern Asia in the North Pacific Ocean. Japan is made up of a chain of more than 1,000 islands, but the main ones are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The capital, Tokio (population: 16 million), is in Honshu. Japan is separated from its nearest neighbor, Korea, by the Sea of Japan.

About 80% of Japan is mountainous, and the country is crossed from the north to the south west by a mountain range. The highest peak in this range is Fujiyama (3,778 m). Ja-pan has a large number of volcanoes, 67 of which are considered active. There are many rivers and lakes. The longest river is the Ishikari (645 km) in Hokkaido. Earthquakes, usu-ally harmless, are common.

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Japan is a long country north to south, so the weather and climate vary widely. In the northern island of Hokkaido several metres of snow fall in the winter, and the summer is pleasantly warm, while in the southern island of Okinawa it is as hot and as humid as the tropics most of the year. In Honshu summers are hot and humid, but the mountains are usually fresher than the cities. The rainy season is in June and July. In the east, autumn typhoons are frequent. Most people consider the most beautiful seasons to be spring with its cherry blossoms, and autumn with its fiery autumn leaves.

The traditional products of Japan used to be rice, silk and fish. But since the 1960s Japan has been one of the leading industrial nations: steel, ships, cars, cameras, etc. are produced.

Japan Korea China Russia 1 Position 2 Bordered by 3 Capital city 4 Type of scenery 5 Important geographical features 6 Climate 7 Main products • Use your notes to tell about Japan. • Now fill in the columns for Korea, China and Russia. • Use your notes to tell about the countries. • What are the main tourist destinations in these countries?

2. There are several compound adjectives, explain what they mean as in the example. Example: A three-day course (a course which lasts three days) A radio-controlled boat (a boat which is controlled by radio-waves) 1. A four-mile walk 2. A sad-looking baby 3. A happily-married woman 4. A blue-eyed boy 5. A style-conscious Englishwoman 6. An over-ambitious enterprise 7. A well-behaved child 8. A badly-injuredfootballer 3. Complete the second sentence using a compound adjective. 1. The child behaves well. He is a well-behaved child. 2. That man dresses in a scruffy manner. He is a . 3. This film star is very conscious of his image. This film star is very . 4. It takes five minutes to walk from my house to your house. It is a from my house to your house. 5. They planned the attack in a very clever way. It was a very . 6. My cat has got short legs. It is a . 7. That woman always looks rather angry. She is a rather . 8. Her degree course took four years to complete. It was a . 9. What is the name of that perfume that smells horrible? What is the name of that

?

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9. Only members who carry their cards are allowed inside. Only are allowed inside.

4. Complete the sentences with a comparative or superlative form, adding any words that are needed. You may use some words twice.

boring. warm. simple. good. wonderful. lucky. intelligent. comfortable. hot old. far. diffi-cult. cheap. bad. interesting

1. This exercise is too easy - can't we try a one. 2. England's too cold in the spring - let's go to Spain where it's . 3. She comes top in all the exams - she must be girl in the class. 4. The temperature in July reaches 44 degrees - it's month of the year. 5. Let's buy this video - it doesn't cost that much - it's the other one. 6. This pen's not very good - I'd like a one, please. 7. When I passed my driving test, it was the day of my life. 8. Lying down in bed is sitting on a hard chair. 9. Our youngest son doesn't want to be a teacher unlike brother. 10. Australia is much from Europe than I thought. 11. I could hardly keep awake - it was film I've ever seen. 12. The rules of this game are too complicated. Can we play something ? 13. She's person I know - she is always winning the prizes in lotteries. 14. A couple of miles is I can walk. Then we'll have to catch the bus. 15. I have a headache today than I did yesterday. 16. This is restaurant in town; I'm never coming here again. 17. I can't do this test - can you give me one? 18. She was the person at the party and I sat next to her all evening. It was awful.

4. Some of the following are in the wrong order. Tick those which are correct and rewrite the others in the correct order. 1. A young black man 2. A dark tall man 3. A wooden big spoon 4. A long wooden spoon 5. A birthday big delicious cake 6. A big fat Italian opera singer 7. A frying large old pan 8. A pair of black leather. riding boots 9. A pink silk beautiful blouse 10. A round large ball 11. An old big brick factory 12. An old wooden ugly desk

5. Complete the following sentences with too, enough, very, so or such. 1. It's much hot in here - turn the heating down. 2. If you've had food, I'll take the plates away. 3. She doesn't speak Spanish well to order a meal on her own. 4. The food was much salty to eat. 5. That's a beautiful piece of music. What is it?

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6. I don't understand native speakers because they speak quickly. 7. You are not writing quickly - the test is nearly over. 8. I don't have room in the house to put you up. 9. The film was good. I wouldn't mind seeing it again. 10. We're different characters I don't know how we'll manage to get on.

6.Complete the second sentence, using an appropriate form of the underlined words. I.It was an evening I will always remember. It was a evening. 2.We had a marvelous time. I will never forget it. It was . 3.She's always forgetting things. She's very . 4.This water is not good enough to drink. It is . 5.I find her novels easy to read. Her novels are . 6.His ideas are practical and they make sense. His ideas are . 7.This injection will cause you a little pain. This injection will be a little . 8.We haven't given up hope of finding survivors. We are still that survivors will be found. 9.I can understand her reaction. Her reaction was . 10. The villages greeted us with hostility. The villagers gave us a reception. II. He does not easily tolerate others people's opinions. He is . 12. She showed such courage, didn't she? She was , wasn't she? 7. Fill in each space in the following sentences with an appropriate adverb using the words in the list.

day. soft. well. occasion. early. beauty. month. easy. careful. noise 1. The orchestra played the symphony , I thought. 2. John spoke so I could hardly hear him. 3. Hold the baby , please. 4. The children played in their bedroom and kept their father awake. 5. In Britain, some people have their newspaper delivered . 6. The magazine is published so we get twelve issues a year. 7. I go to the theatre - I just don't have time to go more often. 8. You could pass the test with a bit more work. 9. Come if you want to find a good seat. 10. I hope you do in your driving test. 8. Complete the sentences using the correct adverb form of the adjective or noun in brackets. 1. He treats his dog . (terrible) 2. If the phone doesn't work, you get your money back . (automatic) 3. She touched him on the arm . (gentle) 4. She turned up at the party . (unexpected) 5. It is too late to catch the plane now. (probable) 6. The exam was easy and everyone passed. (surprising) 7. "I have a question", she said, raising her hand . (shy) 8. She has to take the medicine . (hour) 9. There was a beautiful view from the bedroom. (true) 10. The firemen fought to put the fire out. (heroic)

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TEST. 1 VARIANT 1. This article describes how Gatwick Airport in the UK has made traveling easier for business passengers. Decide which of the extracts A-G match the numbered gaps in the text. There is one additional extract which does not belong in any of the gaps.

i i

j A. Looking at what London Catwick Airport has done, the solution now, j j in hindsight, seems obvious. j i B. But Fast Track has other benefits for the business traveler. i i C. The best ideas in business are quite often the most obvious. i i D Even at the busiest times of the day, it now takes business passengers i i only a minute or two to pass through the barriers to go airside. i ! E Many airlines offer attractive incentives such as free limousine and | ! helicopter transfers, advance seat reservations and priority baggage han- | | dling. j j F For the busy executive, it is not so much that time means money, rather j j that he or she usually cuts it fine when getting to the airport. j j G This system, called Fast Track, enables First and Business Class pas- j j sengers from all airlines using North and South Terminals to use a special j i dedicated route through passport control and security checks. i

1 = C For example, business travelers passing through Europe's airports have constantly

bemoaned the fact that however much their ticket cost, or however much they were pam-pered in-flight the real hold-ups always came when passing through passport control and security, or waiting in duty free.

2 That last-minute report to finish, or taking just one more phone call, has spelt disas-

ter for many business travelers suddenly finding themselves at passport control behind a plane-load of holidaymakers who are quite happy to take their time - after all they are go-ing on holiday.

3 However, it is a simple fact that no other airport appeared to have tackled the prob-

lem successfully until London Gatwick became the first airport in the UK or Europe to implement a "red carpet" priority system especially for First and Business Class travellers.

The special entry gates to the departure lounges, however, only operate up until 2 p.m. The airport's research has shown that the bulk of business travel flights were before this time, with only a handful afterwards when the regular control points had no queues. However, it is a position that is regularly reviewed by the airport.

6 For instance, those who have hurried to the airport without the time to pick up any

foreign currency can collect pre-ordered currency from a special Fast Track desk at the airport's bureaux de change. Or if they travel to the airport via the Gatwick Express, they can use the credit-card phone on the train to order the currency on the way from Victoria. Forgotten to buy a present for that important contact you are going to meet on arrival? In-stead of queuing up with the leisure travelers at the duty free counters, Fast Track pass-

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holders can take advantages of their own check-out. Not surprisingly, Fast Track has been a smash hit with London Gatwick passengers (numbers using it have increased from 40, 000 a month when it first started, to 65, 000 a month at present). Perhaps the fact that oth-er European airports are looking at emulating the Fast Track idea shows how big a step forward it is in taking the hassle out of business travel. 1. Fill in the gaps using one of the variants below

A GOOD START TO A HOLIDAY I had never been to Denmark before, so when I set out to (0).a ... the ferry in early

May, I little (1) ... that by the end of the trip I'd have made such lasting friendships. Esjberg is a (2) ... port for a cyclist's arrival, where tourist information can be (3) ...

and money changed. A cycle track (4) ... out of town and down to Ribe, where I spent my first night. The only appointment I had to (5) ... was a meeting with a friend who was fly-ing out in June. I wanted to (6) ... my time well, so I had planned a route which would (7) ... several small islands and various (8) ... of the countryside.

In my (9) ..., a person traveling alone sometimes meets with unexpected hospitality, and this trip was no 10) ... On only my second day, I got into conversation with a cheerful man who turned (11) ... to be the local baker. He insisted that I should (12) ... his family for lunch, and, while we were eating, he contacted his daughter in Odense. Within minutes, he had (13) ... for me to visit her and her family. Then I was (14) ... on my way with a fresh loaf of bread to keep me (15) a wonderful holiday.

and the feeling that this would turn out to be

1 A wondered В suspected С doubted Djudged 2 A capable В ready С favourable D convenient 3 A met В united С established D obtained 4 A leads В rides С moves D connects 5 A do В support С keep D maintain 6 A take В serve С exercise D use 7 A include В contain С enclose D consist 8 A sectors В parts С zones D places 9 A experience В knowledge С observation D information 10 A difference В change С exception D contrast 11 A up В out С in D over 12 A greet В see С join D approach 13 A arranged В fixed С settled D ordered 14 A passed В sent С begun D put 15 A doing В making С being D going

1. For Questions 1- 10, read the text below. Use the word given in ca end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an ex-ample at the beginning (0). Note the tips below the text. Example: explorer

EXPLORE LAY VISIT BELIEVE CONNECT POSSIBLE SELECT ATTRACT SAND POINT DIFFICULT

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4. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold. 1 I had some exciting news from my cousins in Belgium.

Cousins The news I had from exciting.

2 Not much evidence was found by the police. Little The police evidence.

3 Very few people attended the ceremony. Not The ceremony people.

4 The day was so lovely that we decided to go on a picnic. Such It was that we decided to go on a picnic.

5 It was such an exciting film that we watched it twice. So The film we watched it twice.

6 She always smiles very sweetly when I see her. Way She always smiles when I see her.

7 Tim was the hardest working employee in the company. Than Tim any other employee in the company.

8 Lulu is the best dancer of all. As No one else Lulu.

9 Can you find a better photograph than that? The Is that you can find?

10 James isn't as sociable as Mark. Than James Mark.

TEST. 2 VARIANT

1. You are going to read a magazine article about the Hebrides Islands in Scot-land. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A - H the one which fits each gap (1 - 6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

BRITAIN'S. WILDEST PLACE. by Jon Orchard-Smith

It was just after 5 a.m. and the summer sun was rising over the mountains as Marguerite Explorer sailed out of the loch into the calm waters of the sea. I was at the wheel - under the watchful eye of the captain. A few of the other dozen passengers and crew were on deck, clutching mugs of coffee. 0). H. In the morning light, a dozen dol-phins, grey and graceful, were swimming straight towards us.

The Hebrides, a group of islands off the Scottish coast, offer tourists a diversity of wildlife and scenery with few equals in the UK. 1) In places it is possible to see

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such marine animals from the shore, but to have the best views, you need to be on. a boat.

2) The Marguerite Explorer was the first boat to offer whale-watching holi-days throughout the Hebrides. Under the command of Christopher Swann, the crew of theMarguerite have worked with some of the world's leading sea-life scientists. They are very knowledgeable guides to the islands.

The Hebridan archipelago stretches nearly 250 miles from top to bottom, covers over a hundred miles from side to side, and has about 2,500 miles of coastline. 3) This relative lack of people, together with freedom from pollution, helps to make the Hebrides a haven foe rare flowers and plants.

4) Some of the islands are under threat from mining and throughout the is-lands, developments such as farms, which are vital for local economy, affect the envi-ronments too.

The Hebrides have their share of problems, but they are unbelievably beautiful. Why, then, aren't they packed with tourists? While visitors are an increasingly im-portant part of the island economy, tourism is still low key, compared with some other parts of Britain. The answer may be that the prevailing Hebridan climate is wet and windy. 5)

Another discouraging factor is the wildlife the tourists least want to see - the in-sects, especially the mosquitoes. Particularly, between July and September, visitors can expect to be severely bitten. Like so many wild places, the Hebrides can be gard on vis-itors. 6) ___ And you will feel you will want to return to them, as I felt when I ap-proached the end of my journey in the Marguerite Explorer.

First Certificate Practice Tests Plus 1

A. There are now a number of such companies offering such trips. B. However, only about 40 out of the hundreds of islands are permanently inhabited. C. This is more than enough to put off the casual guest. D. And in the waters around them you can find not only dolphins but whales and the mighty sea eagle as well. E. But once you've watched dolphins leap through the dazzling water around your boat, you'll think they are paradise. F. Moreover, the fate of the islands and their people are bound together. G. Despite being relatively unspoilt, the Hebrides are also pressing many pressures. H. Suddenly someone shouted: a splash in the water, half a mile away. 2. Choose the most suitable word for each space.

In most capital cities, which were built (1) ... before the heyday of the private car, there is rarely enough (2) ... for moving traffic, and certainly not enough for parked (3) ... Buses move slowly because of the volume of (4) ... thus encouraging more commuters to abandon public (5) ... Banning traffic from some areas may help, but such a (6) ... may not actually diminish the number of cars coming into the city. What has happened in effect is that the (7) ... of the private car have become the number one priority, and the older functions of the city centre as meeting (8) ... and focus for social life have been lost. The new city cannot (9) ... without a series of ring roads. Giant car parks are. its new palaces and cathedrals. During the working hours of the day, there is the constant (10) ... of traf-fic, but at night the centre is almost empty, apart from a few homeless in doorways. Most people have (11) ... back to the suburbs, and very few of those who live in the centre have

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cars, for often there is nowhere to park them. The old city, with its narrow streets, may still retain a lively (12) ... but that may be because it exists as an island, where no cars are (13) ... Unless the local authorities have not yet plucked up the courage to (14) ... most traffic from the streets, in which case the city centre is (15) ... by day, and a gigantic car park by night.

1 A far B long C much D even 2 A area В roads C space D speed 3 A vehicles В pedestrians C drivers D areas 4 A this В noise C congestion D traffic 5 A means B transport C order D restrictions 6 A area В issue C solution D way 7 A numbers В. needs C car parks D uses 8 A people B others C place D this 9 A build В survive C plan D construct 10 A din. В amount C parking D filling 11 A parked B left C commuted D got 12 A activity B role C air D population 13 A going B permitted C banned D entering 14 A leave B direct C ban D regulate 15 A surrounded B sparse C congested D deserted

3. For questions 1-10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

IS A GOOD HOLIDAY WHAT I NEED? It is two hours before 1 time and I still haven't set

off for the airport, although the ticket 2 says I am sup-posed to be there at least one and a half hours before the 3 is due to take off. I have always considered this poli-cy totally 4 and so tend to arrive at the airport as late as I can. This habit of mine was almost 5 the last time I set off for the airport by train. Everything was going 6 and I was feeling quite relaxed, when suddenly the train stopped and an 7 was made that we had to change trains for what they referred to as 8' ' reasons. Of course this was another way of saying the train had broken down and it meant a delay of about twenty minutes. As if that wasn't enough, on 9 at the airport there was a huge queue at the check-in counter. There had been a 10 bomb threat and everyone had to go through a thorough se-curity check before finally boarding the plane. ARRIVE

TERROR 4. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold.

1 You need flour to make pancakes. Needed Flour pancakes.

2 The story was very sad and I almost cried. That The story was I almost cried.

DEPART INFORM FLY

NECESSA RY

DISASTER SMOOTH

ANNOUN CE

TECHNIQ UE

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3 There aren't many eggs left in the fridge. Are There in the fridge.

4 Many students consider physics a difficult subject. Considered Physics a difficult subject by many students.

5 Not much information was given to us by the travel agent. Gave The travel agent information.

6 As he practices more, he becomes better. The The he becomes.

7 Italian and Spanish are thought to sound alike. To Italian is thought Spanish.

8 I have never stayed at such a comfortable hostel. The It's I've ever stayed at.

9 I work the same number of hours as Vicky. Many I work Vicky.

10 She's the most imaginative chef I've ever met. As No other chef she is.

MODULE 6. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS Lead-in

1. Are you a superstitious person? Discuss with your partner your lucky number, colour, day, pen, item of clothes, name, animal. 2. Discuss in groups different superstitions and answer the following questions to find out who of you is the most superstitious?

How superstitious are you? 1 Would you sleep in a hotel room numbered 13? 2 Would you be happy to sit for an important exam on Friday 13th? 3 Would it be important for you to have a "white wedding"? 4 Have you ever said, "Touch wood'? 5 Do you ever cross your fingers as a sign of good luck? 6 If there were a ladder on the pavement, would you avoid walking under it? 7 Do you believe that if you praise someone too much, you bring him or her bad luck? 8 How would you feel if a black cat crossed your path just before you went in to take

an important exam? 9 Do you believe that anybody can put the evil eye on you? 10 Would you return home again without looking at yourself in the mirror? 11 Would you talk about the deceased people at night?

Reading 1. Read the following texts about different superstitions all over the world. For the questions below, choose your answers from the names of the occasions. (When more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order. Some choices may be required more than once.)

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A Breaking a mirror B Thirteen C Cats D The bride's dress E Rice F The evil eye G Touching wood Which superstition or superstitions (s):

is to do with getting married? 1 2 involves a specific period of bad luck? 3 ... involves saying something? 4 ... 5 .. involves people wearing something? 6 ... 7 .. involves your hand? 8 ... involves an accident? 9 ... will affect which room people sleep in? 10 . encourages people to be modest? 11 . involves throwing food at someone? 12 . can affect important days in your life? 13 . involves an animal? 14 . may be found only in Christian countries? 15 . involves eating together? 16 . has connections with the soul? 17 . is connected with a special colour? 18 . may be found only in Mediterranean countries? 19 . may bring you good or bad luck? 20 . wishes you a lot of children? 21 . is connected with a Scandinavian myth? 22 .

-VHE ROOTS OF THE SUPERSTITIONS A Breaking a mirror The superstition that if you break a mirror, you'll have seven years' bad luck, comes

from the belief in ancient times that a person's reflection was part of his soul. As a result, people used to think that if you broke anything with this reflection on it, such as a mirror, you would harm the soul.

B Thirteen In most hotels all over the world, you will not find a room with the number thirteen,

and if the hotel is a skyscraper, it will go from twelve to floor fourteen. The superstition that thirteen is unlucky can be traced back to a Scandinavian myth. There were originally only twelve gods and then along came the god Loki to make thirteen. Loki was a mischie-vous god who brought suffering to people. Nowadays, people avoid planning important events on Friday 13 (or Tuesday 13 h in some cultures), and if things go wrong that day, like the loss of a wallet or a key, they blame it on the date.

C Cats Cats have always been surrounded by superstitions. In ancient Egypt cats were con-

sidered sacred, but in medieval Europe many people believed cats were witches in dis-guise. A popular superstition about cats is that a black cat, crossing your path from left to

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right, will bring you bad luck. However, in some cultures a black cat is thought to be a good omen rather than a bad one.

D The bride's dress There are some customs connected with the marriage ceremony, which go back

thousands of years. When the bride puts on her white dress, she is wearing the sacred col-our of the Greeks, which represents purity and innocence. Like a modern bride, the ancient Greek bride wore a veil and a crown and was carried over the threshold by the groom. On the day she gets married, a woman is supposed to wear "something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue". Blue in the rhyme stands for truth.

E Rice In certain primitive tribes the act of eating rice together was the way people got mar-

ried. This was probably because eating together symbolized living together and rice hap-pened to be the local food. In some cultures rice is thrown at weddings to protect the cou-ple from evil spirits. It was believed that evil spirits appeared at weddings and had to be fed to keep them from doing harm to the newlyweds. Rice is also thrown at weddings be-cause it represents fertility and is a symbolic way of wishing the couple many children.

F The evil's eye In some Mediterranean countries, the "evil eye" refers to the fact that if you say

something good about someone, you might bring them bad luck. This probably began when people believed that if you praise someone a lot and give them pleasure, the devil becomes envious and finds ways of spoiling that pleasure. Saying a baby is beautiful may bring bad luck, so superstitious people often pretend to be secretive and say to the child "Let me not give you the evil eye". People also think they can protect themselves from the evil eye by not boasting about their success.

G Touching wood In many Christian countries, "Touch wood" is a superstitious expression that is sup-

posed to prevent bad luck. Often people actually touch wood as they say it, and if there is nothing made of wood within reach, they touch their head or someone else's head instead. If someone asks "Have you ever had a car accident?" you might reply "No, touch wood", meaning "I hope it never happens» The origin of this custom dates almost certainly from the time when people wore a crucifix made of wood and touched it as if to say "May Christ protect me»

(taken from: www. tellallproductions. coml./superstition)

2. Find words/phrases in the article, which mean the following. 1 from a long time ago 2 an image you see in a mirror or water 3 badly behaved 4 dressed as someone else 5 a sign that something is going to happen in the future 6 injury, damage 7 jealous 8 to stop something from happening 3. Fill in the correct word (s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

by, go, over, come, with, back to, puts, at, stands, from

1 from the belief 4 be surrounded superstitions 2 from floor 5 some customs are connected 3 be traced 6 bride on her white dress

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7 be carried the threshold 8 the rhyme for the truth 9 rice is thrown weddings 10 they can protect themselves _

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4. Discuss with your partner the following questions. 1. Do you believe in superstitions? 2. What for, in your opinion do they exist? 3. Do you have some friends or relatives who strongly believe in superstitions? (give some examples of their superstitions) 4. Do most people in the world have similar superstitions or not? (prove your pinion) Vocabulary and Grammar Practice 1. Guess the meaning of the following proverbs, and then fill in the gaps in the sen-tences below. A. give a dog a bad name. C. a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. B. after dark all cats are leopards. D. curiosity killed the cat. 1 If I were in your shoes I'd not try to know their secret. As a proverb says . 2 It doesn't matter how they'll look at night as . 3 You can't cry for the moon. To my mind,. . 4 If you don't want anybody give your puppy the evil eye, you should . 2. The following words are related to superstitions. Decide which ones bring good or bad luck. 1 a clover with four leaves; 2 burning cheeks or ears; 3 a horseshoe over the door of a new house; 4 to spill salt; 5 to walk under the ladder; 6 to meet or pass someone on the stairs; 7 to see two magpies; 8 Friday the 13 th.

3. Use the prepositions below to complete the sentences that follow. on. with. of. in. to. at. as. against. after. from. except. between 1. Unfortunately, this festival is quite different the previous one. 2. I'm pretty keen British culture. 3. She is not very fond fireworks, but her son is. 4. All of us look forward New Year's Day coming. 5. These Christmas cards are the same the ones I bought. 6. This holiday is usually celebrated night. 7. David is always interested traditional British holidays. 8. We were not his birthday celebration. 9. I could not imagine my life without holidays all. 10. Are there any common holidays Great Britain and the USA. 11. Everything is ready a wedding cake.

4. Choose the most suitable word underlined in each sentence. 1 Their traditional suits/costumes are covered with beautiful embroidery. 2 The religious procession/process made its way through the narrow streets of the town. 3 The crowd composed/gathered to watch the acrobat perform. 4 I'll always remind/remember their beautiful wedding. 5 Let's meet at the entry/entrance of the concert hall. 6 I'm afraid I don't find this festival very interested/interesting.

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7 Participating in the housewarming party is John's favorite leisure/occupation/pastime. 8 I think the celebration/celebrity of this holiday was great. 9 Celebrating this holiday requires wearing masks/marks. 10 The ceremony usually takes pride/takes place in a church. 5. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (o).

In fact, our (0) knowledge about Native American is not full. KNOW On the Plains of North America, tribes such as the Sioux roamed on horseback, (1) buffalo. The buffalo gave them

everything they needed to live. They ate its meat and used its skin and fur for (2) and for their teepees, also carved buffalo bones into knives and tools. The clothes of the Plains Indians were (3) with beads, and their hair - with eagle feathers. These (4) Indians were depicted as savages in TV dramas and films about the American West. The Sioux gave (5) for the wagon trains of settlers heading west to pass through their lands. But then the whites began to settle in the Plains. At first, the Sioux made treaties with the (6) , giving up large pieces of their land. In return, the government promised them peace, food, schools and fair (7) to all conflicts. It signed an

(8) that the vast lands between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains were to remain Sioux territory, on which the whites were (9) to settle. Six years later came the

(10) of gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota, a land the Sioux considered sacred.

6. Join the sentences using who(m), which or whose, as in the example. 1 I am reading a novel. It is very interesting.

I am reading a novel which is very interesting. 2 She lives in a block of flats. It has twenty floors.

3 Mr. Lawrence is retiring. His daughter graduated from university last year.

4 My father works in a shoe factory. He is forty years old.

5 Edward broke the vase. It was on top of the piano.

6 He is getting married to a woman. She is a firefighter.

7. Fill the relative pronoun or adverb. Put commas where necessary.

1 Our dog, whose name is Butch, is a two-year-old Alsatian. (NI, cannot be omitted) 2 Manuel works at the bakery is Spanish. 3 I'll never forget the year I won my first medal.

HUNT

CLOT H

DECO RATE

PRIDE

PERMI T

GOVE RN

SOLVE AGRE

E FORBI

D

DISCO VER

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4 The playroom has recently been redecorated is on the ground floor. 5 The restaurant Jake and I had dinner last night is very expensive. 6 He doesn't know the reason she didn't phone him. 7 Uncle Tom speaks six languages is coming to visit next week. 8 My favourite day of the week is Friday the weekend begins. 9 Mrs Harris was the secretary I spoke to the first time I called your office. 10 The man car was stolen has gone to the police station. 11 People park here will be fined. 12 The CD you lent me last week is scratched. 13 She doesn't know the reason she failed the test. 14 People have any information should contact the police. 15 The hospital I had my operation has a very good reputation.

7. Fill the correct relative pronoun.

Hy-on-Wye is a charming town (1) lies on the river Wye in South Wales. The town, (2) has existed since Roman times, is known throughout Wales for its colour-ful wellkept gardens. The people, for (3) gardening is more than a hobby, take part in a national competition (4) decides which town has the best gardens. The town is also popular with people (5) enjoy fishing, especially for the trout and salmon (6)

swim in the river. The Bull Inn, (7) you can find a wide selection of fish, is ideal for those (8) like to eat fish but don't enjoy fishing. The owner, (9) grandparents opened the inn in 1920, only serves fish (10) have been caught that day. 8. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold. 1 The woman wearing the blue hat is Joana's mother.

Who The woman hat is Joana's mother.

2 Pete is getting married. He is my favourite cousin. Who Pete, , is getting married.

3 You were introduced to a man. He is my boss. Whom A man ios my boss.

4 This is MRS. Philips. Her flat got burgled last night. Whose This is MRS. Philips last night.

5 This is the shirt. I bought it from Harrods. That This is the shirt Harrods.

6 The car parked outside is my brother's. Which The car is my brother's.

7 The building where I work is on Lake Avenue. Which The building is on Lake Avenue.

8 She helped me do the washing-up. That was kind of her. Which She helped me do the washing-up, of her.

9 I have two watches. Both of them are solid gold. Which

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I have two watches solid gold. 10 The man carrying the briefcase is the headmaster.

Who The man briefcase is the headmaster.

TEST. 1 VARIANT 1. Read the following texts about social rules in the United Kingdom. For the ques-tions below, choose your answers from the names of the occasions on the right. A Harrods B English parties C Time for English people D Acquaintance E Meeting people F Entertainments In which situation or situations (s) should you make a small talk? 1 . should you keep an eye on the time? 2. . 3 . should you keep your distance? 4 . is a small gift appropriate? 5 . should you wait in a queue? 6 . should you not ask about people's political beliefs? 7 .... might you have to buy someone a drink? should you ask permission from your host? 8 . . where can you buy something to eat? 9 . . . when should not you ask about people's 10 ... 11 ... age and weight? 12 . . should you kiss women on the cheek? should you pay attention to hosts' pyjamas? 13 should you wear anything unusual at 14 .... English parties? when is your food free of charge? 15 .... where can you have a snack? 16 ... where do you use first names? 17 ... 18 ... where can you find common expressions 19 . . . for meeting people? 20 . 21 . where should you arrive on time?

22 . AVOID CULTER SHOCK

Harrods Harrods is a tourist attraction, but for shopping in London try other big department

stores, such as Selfridges, Lewis's and Debenhams. A good place for clothes is Marks and Spencer. Take a stroll along Oxford Street, the main shopping centre. When there are sales on, you are allowed, and even expected, to bargain with the shop assistant to try and get a better price for goods. If there are a lot of people, you should wait your turn to be served. Most large stores also have restaurants where customers can have lunch or a quick snack.

English parties

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If you are invited to dinner at someone's home, you should take some flowers or a box of chocolates. If you are invited to an informal party, it is quite common to take a bot-tle of wine or even a few bottles of beer. At English parties men are expected to wear a suit and tie. If you wish to bring a friend along, that's fine, but it is polite to ask first. You are not expected to turn up with very expensive presents.

Time for English people People in Britain are generally quite careful about time. When you are invited to

someone's house, you should either arrive on time or no later than fifteen minutes after the time arranged. If in doubt, give your hosts a ring. You should be careful about overstaying your welcome. Look out for signs of tiredness in your hosts. The best time to leave is when they appear with their pyjamas on. You can say, 'Well, I think it's time we were go-ing ...'

Acquaintance Usually in Britain we introduce people by their first name or their first name and

surname together. Most people use first names at informal parties. It is usual to shake hands with men and to kiss women on the cheek when you are introduced to them. Do not embrace, however, on this first encounter, and do not stand too close to the other person. As you are introduced to someone you say, 'How do you do?' or 'Pleased to meet you.' You need not wait to be introduced - just introduce yourself.

Meeting people You can 'break the ice' with strangers by talking about the weather: The same about

the weather.' 'Is it still raining?' or 'Bit chilly today, don't you think?' When you have bro-ken the ice like this, you can then go on to ask the person you are talking to how much money they earn. Another good topic for conversation is work. However, people do not like talking about politics except in a general way, and you should avoid asking them what political party they vote for. On first meeting someone, it is also not appropriate to ask about their age or how much they weigh.

Entertainments A pub is where you drink beer or other alcoholic drinks, but light refreshments are

also available. Pubs serve drinks at fixed times and generally accept last orders at about 11 pm. It may be difficult to get a drink after this time. At lunch-time and sometimes in the evening, food is served. If you order more than three pints of beer, the food is free of charge, so drink as much as you can and then ask (politely) for your free meal. People may pay for their own drinks or take it in turns to buy a 'round', in other words, to pay for the whole group.

2. For questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

WEDDING CUSTOMS IN TURKEY Marriage being an important (0) B of social life, the act of wedding in the

old Turkish society was (1) with a great many ceremonies and rites. These were to prevent the future spouses (2) harm, diseases and venomous forc-es. Traditionally the wedding cycle is (3) into three stages: 1. pre-wedding

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. itself;. 3. post-wedding period. During the period;. 2. the wedding feast (4) pre-wedding period the family of a man chose a girl, matchmaker, got the (5)

of the girl and her family, then the (6) . followed. The en-in the bride's house with the bridegroom's rel-gagement ceremony was (7)

atives coming and bringing gifts for her. These gifts mainly were national sweetmeats, remnants, shoes, silk and woolen stockings and sugar-loaf. They were put on big salvers (8) in embroidered covers and were called Honcha. A ring was given (9)

a bride during the engagement. The period between the engagement and the wedding by itself could (10) from 2 months to 2 years, (11)

to current situation. This time was used to (12) the dower of a bride. Several days previous (13) the wedding such a cere-mony as (14) the wedding. dress was observed, when women of the both parties to entertain and cut (15) the wedding dress for the bride.

0 A. news B. event C. affair D. case 1 A. indicated B. enhanced C. showed D. increased 2 A. from B. with C. on D. at 3 A. formed B. combined C. consisted D. divided 4 A. with B. in C. by D. about 5 A. consent B. accord C. assent D. agreement 6 A. dance B. marriage C. engagement D. divorce 7 A. organized B. held C. made D. arranged 8 A. wrappe B. wrappers C. wrapped D. wrapping 9 A. with B. to C. for D. at 10 A. be B. continue C. go D. last 11 A. according B. besides C. due D. without 12 A. purchase B. make C. prepare D. cook 13 A. for B. to C. with D. before 14 A. cutted B. cut C. cutting D. cuts 15 A. out B. on C. off D. at

3. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the begin-ning (o).

WHAT ARE MARITAL RITUALS? Rituals are social interactions that are (0) repeated, coordinated, REPEATED

and (1) . This is the classical, or rather anthropological. (2) LY SIGNIFICA

DEFINE BEEN COORDINA

going back to van Gennep's work in 1908. Rituals can (3) everyday interactions, or they could be once a year, but

they're repeated. They're also (4) You have to know what is expected of you in a ritual; you can't

have a meal ritual together if you don't know when to (5) . up for it, and you can't. (6) together if you don't know what kind of dance you are going to do. You're not going to have (7)

of a sexual life if you don't end up in the same space at the same time. Rituals are not only repeated and coordinated, they are significant. A ritual is something that has positive (8) (9)

to both parties. This matter of significance is what distin-guishes a ritual from a routine. A (10) routine is something that you do over and over in a coordinated way, but that does not have

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much emotional meaning.

EMOTION MEANT MARRY

4. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold. 1 This cabinet cantains our old files.

Which This is our old files.

2 Leslie owns four cars. None of them is a convertible. Which Leslie owns for cars, a convertible.

3 We met several people in Bali. Most of them were holidaymakers. Whom We met several people in Bali, holidaymakers.

4 That's the hotel we stayed at last summer. Where That's last summer

5 Mary Brown is the receptionist, John was talking to her a minute ago. Who Mary Brown, a minute ago, is the receptionist.

6 Lilly is the teacher. Her class did very well in the exam. Whose Lilly is did very well in the exam.

7 It was very nice of him to invite us all to his party. Which He invited us all to his party, .

8 I spent the whole summer with the Smiths. Whom The Smiths are the people the whole summer.

9 It was a pity that we missed the beginning of the film. Which We missed the beginning a pity.

10 He gave us directions. That was helpful of him. Which He gave us directions, of him.

TEST. 2 VARIANT 1. Read the following texts about different superstitions all over the world. For the questions below, choose your answers from the names of the occasions on the right.

ANIMALS AND SUPERSTITIONS A Bats B Albatross C Birds D Bees E Cats F Rats

Which animal, insect or superstition (s):

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is connected with a good life? foretell weather conditions? involves urgent news? involve entertaining guests? is connected. with dead sailors? predicts shipwreck? involve a death sign? are connected with sea? involves getting money? are connected with a world of darkness? involve preserving an animal? may be found only in some countries? is connected with a special colour? has connections with the soul? may bring you good or bad luck?

1 ... 2 3 4

19 . 20 . 21 . 22 .

8 ... 9 . 10 . 11 . 12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 . 17 ... 18 ...

A Bats A bat means long life and happiness, a good omen, to the Chinese and Poles. If a bat

lands on your head, you should hope the Cricket sees rain coming because the bat won't get off until it hears thunder. When you see a bat, you might actually be seeing the Devil, a witch, a ghost, or Dracula. Bats have always had a connection with witches, and can have good or bad connotation, depending on the tradition. According to one, if a bat flies three times around a house, it is a death omen. Conversely, when bats come out early and fly about playfully, it is a sign of good weather to come.

B Albatross In the days of sail, an albatross flying round a ship in mid-ocean was an omen of

wind and bad weather to come. It was very unlucky to kill it because it was thought to embody the restless soul of some dead mariner.

A bird that flies into a house, foretells an important message. The white bird fore-tells death. A bird calls from the north means tragedy; from the south is good for crops; from the west is good luck; from the east, good love.

If a bee enters your home, it's a sign that you will soon have a visitor. If you kill the bee, you will have bad luck, or the visitor will be unpleasant. Bees have often been regarded as wise and even holy insects, having foreknowledge as well as knowledge of many secret matters. In antiquity they were sometimes divine mes-sengers, and their constant humming was believed to be a hymn of praise. Because of their status it is still considered unlucky in some places to kill a bee. If a bee flies into the house it is a sign of great good luck, or of the arrival of a stranger; however, the luck will only hold if the bee is allowed to either stay or to fly out of the house of its own accord. A bee landing on someone's hand is believed to foretell money to come, while if the bee settles on someone's head it means that person will rise to greatness.

C Birds

I Bees

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E Cats Cats can forecast the weather: they predict the wind by clawing at carpets and cur-

tains; rain is highly likely when a cat busily washes its ears. In mythology, the cat was be-lieved to have great influence on the weather. Witches who rode on storms took the form of cats. The dog, an attendant of the storm king Odin, was a symbol of wind. Cats came to symbolize down-pouring rain, and dogs to symbolize strong gusts of wind. This may be where the phrase "it's raining cats and dogs" originated. Some people believed that if a cat washes its face and paws in the parlor, company's coming. If a cat continually looks out a window on any day, rain is on the way. A black cat seen from behind foretells a bad omen.

F Rats It is forbidden to kill rats on a ship, this is a sign of bad luck. And of course, how

can we forget the rats? If rats desert the ship, it is about to sink. Sailors believed that if rats were seen deserting a ship even before it sails, this is a sign that if the ship sails that same day, it will never return.

(taken from: www. tellallproductions. coml./superstition)

2. For questions 1 - 15, read the text below and decide which word A,B,C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning.

FESTIVALS IN IRELAND No one knows for certain how many festivals take (0) _B _. in Ireland, but there are

more, than in almost any other country in the world. There is a story about somebody who once tried to (1) a list of all the Irish festivals, but gave (2) when they got to 2.000. I was seventeen and had just (3) college when I began photographing festivals in the (4) 1960's. in those days there were fewer festivals and people were not as interested (5) them as they are now. Some people even considered them to be silly and embarrassing. I, on the other (6)

, loved them and even now, over twenty years later, I am (7) fascinated by festivals. At different times they have moved me to laugh-

ter, tears, and pain. At a true festival, there are no (8) , only participants. Everyone from babies to (9) people take part, (10) behind everyday life to act out their fantasies. No other event can do that, and I have recorded these special (11) with my camera. Festivals also show how time (12)

and ideas change. In the 1980's many were revised or updated. Women and children demanded a (13) beside men in the Holy Week procession. This holiday grew into a 72-hour round-the-clock party (14) by more than a million people. There are also new festivals. Many of them, invented in our own time, could become the traditions of (15) . 0 A. part B. place C. time D. space 1 A. do B. make. . . . C. fix. D. form 2 A. off B. through C. up D. out 3 A. run B. abandoned C. left D. dropped 4 A. half B. central C. medium D. mid-5 A. in B. to C. for D. about 6 A. side B. hand C. end D. place 7 A. yet B. however C. still D. already 8 A. witnesses B. viewers C. spectators D. audiences 9 A. ancient B. antique C. elder D. old 10 A. leaving B. falling C. letting D. getting

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11 A. minutes B. instances C. moments D. frames 12 A. travels B. passes C. goes D. moves 13 A. part B. role C. place D. standard 14 A. visited B. attended C. presented D. done 15 A. next B. late C. following D. future

3. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (o).

SUPERSTITIONS Many people (0) believe in horoscope or 'stars' in magazines,

sometimes they may thank their lucky stars for a piece of (1) fortune. When things go wrong they may say 'Just my

luck!' (2) their own bad luck, or look back on an (3) act that has, in some (4) way, S

caused their current problem. There are many other ways, apart from reading a horoscope, of (5) out what will hap-pen in the future. Fortune - (6) . at fairs use a crystal ball or read a palm (= look at the lines on a (7) hand) to foretell the future. Other people use tarot cards (= special cards with pictures on) or read tea (8) (= look at the size and arrangement of tea leaves (9) after a cup of tea). Some people take all this (10) but many treat it as fun. Children, especially girls, have games that they believe will tell them whom they will marry.

4. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold. 1 That's the village I went to last summer

Which That's the village last summer.

2 She let us use her car, which was very kind of her. Of It was let us use her car.

3 That's Ann. Her father is the head teacher. Whose That's the head teacher.

4 1969 is the year when man first walked on the moon. In 1969 is first walked on the moon.

5 Sean has four sons: three of them are firefighters. Of Sean has four sons, firefighters.

6 That woman taught us ballet last year. Who That's ballet last year.

7 Father brought home some video tapes. All of them were adventures. All Father brought home some video tapes, adventures.

8 You were talking to a woman. She is my teacher. Whom The woman is my teacher.

9 Helen is coming to visit. She is my best friend.

BELIEF WELL

BLAMELES

LUCK EXPLAIN FOUND TOLD PEOPLE

LEAF LEAVE SERIOUS

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Who Helen , is coming to visit.

10 The bicycle leaning on the fence is Martin's. Which The bicycle on the fence is Martin's.

KEYS

MODULE 1

Reading 1F 2T 3F 4T 5F 6F 7F 8T

Ex.1 1D 2G 3E 4I 5B 6J 7F 8A 9C 10H Ex.2 1 punctual

2 cheerful 3 reliable 4 frank 5 selfish 6 determined 7 mean 8 bad-tempered 9 considerate

10 honest

Ex. 3 1 rude 2 mean 3 strict 4 lazy 5 shy 6 jealous 7 aggressive 8 thoughtful 9 patient

10 generous

Grammar and Vocabulary Ex.4 1 enjoyable 2 formal 3 embarrassed 4 usual 5 typical 6 anxious 7 sympathetic 8 bad-tempered 9 amusing 10 tiresome 11 shy

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12 afraid 13 nervous 14 ordinary 15 ashamed

Ex.5

1 of 11 with 21 of smth 2 by 12 about 22 to 3 with 13 to 23 about 4 with.. .about 14 with 24 about 5 about 15 of 6 of 16 with . about 7 with 17 to.. for 8 at 18 of 9 to 19 about 10 with 20 with

Ex. 6 Ex.7

1 memorable 1 cheerful 2 unforgettable 2 reliable 3 forgetful 3 dangerous 4 drinkable 4 helpful 5 readable 5 supportive 6 sensible 6 aggressive 7 painful 7 carelessly 8 understandable 8 frightened 9 tolerant 10 courageous

Key Word transformation

1 promised to send 2 threatened to send him 3 invited us 4 exclaimed that it was 5 apologise to her for interrupting 6 insisted on my finishing 7 refused to give Steve 8 suggested going for a picnic 9 denied leaving / having left / she had left 10 reminded us to pack

TESTS

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1 variant Reading

2 variant

1 DS F 2 F F 3 F T 4 F F 5 T T 6 F F 7 DS DS 8 F F 9 F F 10 F T Multiple Choice 1 A C 2 C A 3 D B 4 A D 5 C C 6 B A 7 B B 8 A D 9 C B 10 D C 11 C A 12 D D 13 C C 14 A B 15 D C

Word formation

1 famous 2 young 3 charming 4 careful 5 interesting 6 restful 7 talented

Key word transformation 1 variant

1 refused to tell 2 accused Mark of stealing/ having stolen 3 if I (had) enjoyed myself

significant relatively miserable ungrateful valuable careful active

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4 admitted (to) breaking/ having broken 5 offered to open 6 promised to wash 7 asked him to pass 8 warned them not to touch 9 apologised for shouting 10 where I had put her

2 variant

1 threatened to take them 2 complained of having 3 advised him to exercise 4 denied reading/ having read 5 whether he could see 6 reminded Tom to pay 7 suggested baking/ that we bake a cake 8 ordered the soldier to 9 agreed to drive 10 warned me not to touch

MODULE 2

Reading

1 F 2 T 3 T 4 F 5 F 6 T 7 T 8 F

Ex.1

1 vegetables 2 meat 3 fish 4 red 5 dairy 6 cheese 7 nuts 8 gourmet 9 wine 10 chef

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Ex.2

Vegetables: lettuce, courgette, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, cucumber, aubergine Fish: salmon, trout, plaice, mackerel, smoked salmon, cod, sardine Herbs: thyme, oregano, rosemary, chives, parsley, basil Seafood: mussel, squid, shrimp, prawn, lobster, octopus Fruit: nectarine, apple, satsuma, plum, coconut, fig, strawberry, grape, watermelon, man-

Meat: lamb, mutton, bacon, mincemeat, liver, chicken , chop, beef, joints, sausage, pork, salami

Spain: tapas, peccadillo, tortilla, paella Britain: roast beef, shepherd's pie, apple crumble and custard, fish and chips Greece: houmous, souvlaki, moussaka, kebab China: prawn crackers, spring roll, sweet and sour, chop suey Italy: spaghetti Bolognese, ciabatta, tiramisu, tagliatelli India: curry, samosas, onion bhaji, biryani USA: hot dog, hamburger, popcorn, pumpkin pie

Ex.4

1 f 2 h 3 e 4 c 5 a 6g 7 b 8 d

go

Ex. 3

Ex.5 Ex.6

1 fry 1 minced meat 2 chopped /sliced onions 3 mashed potatoes

2 bake 3 steamed 4 roasted 4 grated cheese

5 sliced bread 6 spiced curry

5 grill 6 casserole 7 boil 8 barbecued

7 mashed/chopped/ sliced bananas 8 sliced/chopped tomato 9 sliced/grated carrots 10 sliced apple

Ex.7

1 corkscrew

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2 wine 3 bowl 4 boil 5 pan 6 meal 7 plum 8 menu

Ex.8

1 by 2 as 3 it 4 be 5 same

Ex.9

1 encouraging 2 depressing 3 disappointed 4 worrying 5 exhausting 6 disturbing 7 surprised 8 worried 9 shocking 10 uninteresting 11 boring 12 embarrassing

Ex.10

1 disgusting/ shocking 2 I would feel exhausted /exhilarated 3 feel disappointed /embarrassed 4 they are appalling/ annoying 5 they are boring/ interesting / amusing 6 excited/surprised 7 depressed/ disturbed 8 it is boring/exciting 9 irritated/ annoyed 10 ashamed/ embarrassed

Ex.11

6 such 11 more 7 in 12 as 8 their 13 the 9 can 14 into 10 up 15 too

1 if you don't leave

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2 or else you will 3 I were you 4 wish my flat was/were 5 had better not go 6 would rather eat 7 wishes she hadn't spent 8 wish I had made 9 hadn't missed 10 provided the weather gets

TESTS

1 variant 2 variant Reading

1 D 1,2 A,F 2 G 3 A 3 F 4 B 4 A 5,6,7 A.C.E 5 E 8 D

9 C 10,11 A,B 12 E 13 B

Error Correction Open Cloze 1 it 1 many/most/all 2 + 2 travelling/going 3 been 3 in 4 + 4 chance/opportunity 5 The 5 type/kind 6 be 6 have 7 + 7 from 8 they 8 the 9 are 9 have/offer/provide 10 lots 10 including/ like 11 can 11 owned/ run 12 + 12 serve 13 they 13 end 14 all 14 into 15 + 15 join 16 up 17 +

Word formation

1 confused interesting

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2 frightening 3 interested 4 irritating 5 surprised 6 depressed 7 relaxing 8 bored

exciting annoying interested relaxing surprised irritating exciting amazed

fascinating

9 annoyed 10 embarrassed

Key word transformation

1 variant

1 had better write a letter 2 wishes she was/were tall enough 3 wish you would wipe 4 or else I will tell 5 would rather go out 6 wish I had gone to 7 would have sent 8 for your help 9 or else you will 10 unless you practice

2 variant

1 you would listen 2 I were you, I would 3 or else you will 4 get promoted unless 5 provided he buys 6 wish I hadn't argued 7 had better lock 8 I would have said 9 provided she gets 10 wishes she had studied

MODULE 3

Reading

1 C 2 F 3 B 4 A 5 G

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Ex.1 Ex.2 Ex.3

1 detached 2 city

1 a bed-sit 2 a villa 3 a cottage 4 a detached house 5 a basement

1 wardrobe 2 armchair 3 sofa 4 cupboard 5 light-switch 6 plug 7 stools 8 corkscrew 9 iron

10 dressing 11 chest 12 lamp 13 bulb 14 cushions 15 fireplace

3 floors 4 garden 5 cottage 6 villa 7 flats 8 rooms

Ex.4

Types of home: block of flats, terraced house, bungalow, bed-sit, detached house, semi-detached, villa, cottage. Parts of a house: basement, hall, attic, loft, cellar, ground floor, landing, study. Things we find in the house: power point, remote control, tea towel, corkscrew, table mat, ironing board, washing-up liquid.

Ex.5

1 tap, door handle, paint 2 the stairs, the staircase 3 TV, dishwasher, washing machine 4 electricity, water supply, power supply 5 radio, walkman, clock 6 clock

Ex.6

1 he 2 + 3 of 4 + 5 it 6 to 7 the 8 + 9 even

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10 + 11 so 12 to 13 + 14 that 15 +

Ex.7

Ex.8

1 photographer 2 guitarist 3 dishwasher 4 ability 5 friendship 6 engineer 7 journalist 8 actor 9 building 10 importance 11 childhood 12 excitement 13 happiness 14 education 15 division 16 admission 17 tin-opener 18 refugee 19 activity 20 greatness

Ex.9

1 wasn't able to 2 could run faster 3 I'll be able to 4 didn't have to go 5 I'll have to 6 us we had to pay 7 needn't have taken 8 us we couldn't

1 B 2 D 3 B 4 A 5 C

6 B 7 D 8 A 9 D 10 B

11 B 12 A 13 B 14 C 15 D

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9 don't need to/ needn't 10 had to wear/ had to put on/ use/have

TEST

1 variant 2 variant Reading

1 C F 2 C G 3 A B 4 B C 5 B A 6 C E 7 D D

Error Correction

1 sale 2 + 3 the 4 to 5 many 6 it 7 will 8 + 9 + 10 such 11 is 12 does 13 + 14 are 15 +

1 is 2 been 3 + 4 one 5 lot 6 it 7 had 8 on 9 + 10 to 11 are 12 this 13 + 14 much 15 +

Word formation

1 designer 2 suggestions 3 spacious 4 various 5 wisely 6 jewellery 7 Additional 8 clothes/clothing

1 tiresome/tiring 2 household 3 solution 4 cleaners 5 effective 6 information 7 description 8 demonstration

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9 Finally 10 normally

Key word transformation

1 variant

1 must be in this 2 can have lunch 3 don't have to work 4 should open 5 may have forgotten 6 needn't have bought 7 could be at 8 should have your 9 can't have meant 10 needn't have helped

2 variant

1 mustn't take your bag 2 must have understood 3 may have taken 4 are not allowed to run 5 Jane be leaving school 6 likely that we will have 7 ought to start studying 8 may sell 9 should pay 10 can discuss

MODULE 4 SPORTS AND HOBBIES Reading Ex. 2 1 D 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 B 6 D

Vocabulary & Grammar Ex. 1 Pure = sheer, come down = descend, jump = leap, hit = punch, appear = emerge, victori-ous = triumphant, thrill = kick.

9 trial 10 obligation

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Ex. 2 1 paddles 2 lunacy 3 instinct 4 torrents 5 nerve-racking 6 altitude 7 elation 8 interpretation 9 steadies 10 high-risk Ex. 4 1 co-operative 2 courageous 3 accurate 4 determined 5 daring 6 careful 7 competitive 8 graceful Ex. 5 1. fitness 2. designed 3. development 4. activities 5. knowledge 6. gently 7. intensiveness 8. impression 9. painful 10. unwise

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Grammar Practice Ex. 1

verb + to - inf verb + bare inf verb + -ing form hope let sb avoid expect can enjoy regret should regret agree make sb mind decide detest want can't stand promise finish claim miss consider fancy refuse deny

resist Ex. 2 1 to play, to have 2 to say, to qualify 3 betting, to win 4 to go, watching 5 thinking, to take 6 trying, falling 7 to be 8 to be training 9 exhibiting 10 practising Ex. 3 1 watching 2 taking part 3 ending 4 play 5 becoming 6 scoring 7 seeing 8 applauding 9 to come 10 enjoy 11 sitting 12 cheering on Ex. 4 1. regret to tell/regret to inform you that 2. I'd rather have a pizza for a change 3. didn't/wouldn't let us drink too much Coke when we were children 4. suggest (that) we take the train 5. managed to persuade her parents to let her go 6. door appears to be locked after all 7. can't stand is people eating popcorn in the cinema

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8. arrived two hours late but was worth waiting for 9. insisted on catching the early flight 10. look forward to getting your next letter 11. denied moving/ denied having moved 12. too small for me to 13. having lots of hobbies is 14. find it difficult to start

TEST 1 VARIANT Ex.1 1A 2 C 3 D Ex. 2 1 A 2 A 3 B

4 B 5 A 6 D 7 D 8 A

4 B 5 A 6 C

7 B 8 B 9 B

10 C 11 C 12 B

13 C 14 A 15 D

Ex. 3 1. vigorous 2. harmful 3. obsession 4. addiction 5. pleasant 6. energetic 7. increasingly 8. nervous 9. membership 10. willing Ex. 4 1. it worth traveling 2. mind speaking 3. is not allowed to go 4. prefers reading magazines to 5. allow people to talk 6. was made to tidy 7. warm enough for me to 8. had difficulty solving 9. were heard asking 10. rather have seen

TEST 2 VARIANT Ex. 1 1 A 2 B Ex. 2

3 C 4 D 5 C 6 D 7 C 8 D

1 C 4 D 7 C 10C 13 C 2 A 5 C 8 D 11 D 14 A 3 A 6 B 9 A 12 B 15 C Ex. 3 1. founders 2. successfully 3. amazing

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4. popularity 5. distribution 6. length 7. unpleasant 8. occasionally 9. dramatic 10. embarrassment Ex. 4 1. was too ill 2. were rather disappointed 3. is not tall enough 4. eating out to cooking 5. had difficulty understanding 6. was allowed to go 7. us a week to paint 8. was made to rewrite 9. you mind speaking 10. found it difficult to

MODULE 5 TRAVELLING AND MODES OF TRANSPORT Reading Ex. 3 1 D 2 B 3 A 4C Ex.4 1 F 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 F 6 T 7 T 8 F Ex.5

1) Deluge 2) Petty 3) Package 4) Cots 5) Non-existent 6) To issues a summons 7) Met in full 8) Furious 9) Hurricane 10) ABTA (Association of British Travel Agents)

Ex.8 1 by 3 of 5 on 7 with 2 in 4 as for 6 up 8 to about Vocabulary and Grammar Practice Ex.3 2. scruffily-dressed man 3. image-conscious 4. five-minute walk 5. cleverly-planned attack 6. short-legged cat 7. angry-looking woman

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8. four-year course 9. horribly-smelling perfume 10. card-carrying members Ex. 4 1. More difficult/less simple 2. Warmer 3. The most intelligent 4. The hottest 5. Cheaper than 6. Better

7. Best/most wonderful 8. More comfortable than 9. Older 10. Farther/further 11. The most boring 12. Simpler

13. The luckiest 14. The furthest/the farthest 15. Worse 16. The worst 17. Simpler 18. Most boring/least interesting

Ex. 5 1 V 2 a tall dark man 3 a big wooden spoon 4 V

5 a big delicious birthday cake (a delicious big birthday cake) 6 V 7 a large old frying pan 8 V

9 a beautiful pink silk blouse 10 a large round ball 11 a big old brick factory 12 an ugly old wooden desk (an old ugly wooden desk)

Ex.6 1 too 2 enough 3 enough 4 too Ex. 7 1 memorable 2 unforgettable 3 forgetful 4 undrinkable

Ex.8 1 beautifully 2 softly 3 carefully 4 noisily Ex. 9 1 terribly 2 automatically 3 gently 4 unexpectedly

5 very 6 so/very/too 7 enough 8 enough

9 so/such 10 such

5 reada-ble 6 sensible 7 painful 8 hopeful

9 understandable 10 hostile 11 intolerant 12 courageous

5 daily 6 monthly 7 occasionally 8 easily

5 probably 6 surprisingly 7 shyly 8 hourly

9 early 10 well

9 truly 10 heroically

TEST 1 VARIANT

Ex.1 1 C 2 F 3 A 4 G 5 D 6 В E is the odd one out. Ex.2 1 B 4 A 7 A 10 C 13 A 2 D 5 C 8 B 11 B 14 B 3 D 6 D 9 A 12 C 15 D

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Ex. 3 1 laid 2 visitor 3 belief 4 unconnected 5 impossible 6 selection 7 attractions 8 sandy 9 pointless 10 finding

Ex. 4 1 my cousins in Belgium were 2 found (very) little 3 was attended by very few 4 such a lovely day 5 was so exciting that 6 in a sweet way 7 more hard-working than 8 can dance as good as 9 the best photograph 10 is less sociable than

TEST 2 VARIANT Ex.1 1D 2 A 3 B 4 G 5 C 6 E Ex.2 1 B 4 D 7 B 10 A 13 B 2 C 5 B 8 C 11 C 14 C 3 A 6 C 9 B 12 C 15 C Ex.3 1. departure 2. information 3. flight 4. unnecessary 5. disastrous 6. smoothly 7. announcement 8. technical 9. arrival 10. terrorist Ex. 4 1 is needed for making 2 so sad that 3 are few eggs left 4 is considered (to be) 5 gave us not much (gave us little)

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6 more he practices the better 7 to be similar to 8 the most comfortable hostel 9 as many hours as 10 is as imaginative as

MODULE 6 CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS Reading Ex. 1 1 D 7 G 13 B 19 F 2 E 8 G 14 C 20 C 3 A 9 G 15 G 21 E 4 F 10 B 16 E 22 B 5 G 11 F 17 A 6 D 12 E 18 D Ex.2 • from a long time ago (= in ancient times) • an image you see in a mirror or water (= reflection) • badly behaved (= mischievous) • dressed as someone else (= disguise) • a sign that something is going to happen in the future (= an omen) • to injury, damage (= to do harm) • jealous (= envious) • to stop something from happening (= to protect) Ex.3 1 come 6 puts 2 go 7 over 3 back to 8 stands 4 by 9 at 5 with 10 from Vocabulary and Grammar Practice Ex. 1 1 d 2 b 3 c 4 a Ex.2

Good luck Bad luck 1 a clover with four leaves; 2 a horseshoe over the door of a new house; 3 to see two magpies.

71 burning cheeks or ears; 72 to spill salt; 73 to walk under the ladder; 74 to meet or pass someone on the

stairs; 75 Friday the 13 th.

Ex. 3 1. From 5. Except 9. At 2. On 6. At 10. Between

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3. Of 7. In 11. For 4. To 8. Against Ex.4

1. Costumes 2. Procession 3. Gathered 4. Remember 5. Entrance 6. Interesting 7. Pastime 8. Celebration 9. Masks 10. takes place

Ex. 5 1 hunting 2 clothing 3 decorated 4 proud 5 permission 6 government 7 solution 8 agreement 9 forbidden 10 discoverers

Ex.7 2. who 3. when 4. which 5. where 6. why 7. who 8. when 9. whom 10. whose 11. who 12. which 13. why 14. who 15. where

Ex. 8 1. which 2. which 3. whom 4. that 5. who 6. which 7. where 8. who 9. whose 10. which

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Ex. 9 1. who is wearing the blue 2. who is my favourite cousin 3. whom you were introduced to 4. whose flat got burgled 5. that I bought from 6. which is parked outside 7. in which I work 8. which was kind 9. both of which are 10. who is carrying the

TEST 1 VARIANT Ex. 1

1. E 7 E 13 D 19 D 2. C 8 F 14 C 20 D 3. F 9 B 15 B 21 E 4. D 10 A 16 F 22 C 5. B 11 F 17 A 6. A 12 E 18 F 2 1. B 4. C 7. D 10. D 13. B 2. A 5. A 8. C 11. A 14. C 3. D 6. C 9. B 12. C 15. A

Ex. 3 1. Significant 2. Definition 3. Be 4. Coordinated 5. Show 6. Dance 7. Much 8. Emotional 9. Meaning 10. Marriage

Ex.4 1. The cabinet which contains 2. None of which is 3. Most of whom were 4. The hotel where we stayed 5. Whom John was talking to 6. A teacher whose class 7. Which was nice of him 8. With whom I spent 9. of the film which was 10. which was helpful

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TEST 2 VARIANT Ex. 1

1. A 2. A 3. B 4. E 5. C 6. D

7 E 8 B 9 F 10 A 11 C 12 B

13 F 14 D 15 A 16 E 17 B 18 F

19 A 20 C 21 B 22 D

Ex. 2 1 B 2 C 3 C

4 D 5 A 6 B

7 C 8 C 9 D

10 A 11 C 12 B

13 C 14 B 15 D

Ex. 3 1. good 2. blaming 3. unlucky 4. unexplained 5. finding 6. tellers 7. person's 8. leaves 9. left 10. seriously Ex. 4

1. which I went to 2. very kind of her to 3. Ann whose father is 4. The year in which man 5. Three of whom are 6. The woman who taught 7. All of which were 8. Whom you were talking to 9. Who is my best friend 10. Which is leaning

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