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This document is provided as-is. Information and views expressed in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, may change without notice.

Some examples depicted herein are provided for illustration only and are fictitious. No real association or connection is intended or should be inferred.

This document does not provide you with any legal rights to any intellectual property in any Microsoft product. You may copy and use this document for your internal, reference purposes.

Copyright 2011 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Microsoft, Lync, and Windows PowerShell are trademarks of the Microsoft group of companies. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.

This chapter is part of the Microsoft Lync Server 2010 Resource Kit book that is currently being developed. Chapters will be available for download while this book is being completed. To help us improve it, we need your feedback. You can contact us at nexthop@microsoft.com. Please include the chapter name.

For information about the continuing release of chapters, check the DrRez blog at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=204593.

Contributors

Project Manager: Susan S. Bradley

Content Architect: Rui Maximo

Chapter Lead: Jared Gradle

Contributing Writer: Rick Kingslan

Technical Reviewers: Brian R. Ricks, Conal Walsh, Joe Schaeffer, Moustafa Noureddine

Lead Editor: Alexandra Lise

Art Manager: Jim Bradley

Production Editor: Kelly Fuller Blue

Table of Contents

4Contributors

6Introduction

6IM Scenarios

6Basic IM Conversation (Including Discovery, Logon, the Contacts List, and Provisioning)

6Program Sharing and File Transfer During an IM Conversation

7Turning an IM Conversation into an IM Conference (Adding a Third Person)

7IM Internals

7Enabling Lync 2010 Client Logging

9Lync Server Discovery Process

10User Logon

15Initial Contacts List

16Client Provisioning

20Basic IM Conversation

24Program Sharing and File Transfer During an IM Conversation

29Turning an IM Conversation into an IM Conference

30Summary

30Additional Resources

Introduction

The foundation of Microsoft Lync Server 2010 communications software is the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). The SIP implementation is based an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard: Request for Comments (RFC) 3261. It is used for signaling and messaging. Signaling serves to locate a target endpoint and to establish, maintain, and terminate communication sessions. Messaging involves the exchange of text messages as payloads in SIP messages and is used for conducting text-based conversations, also known as instant messaging (IM), and for relaying presence information between two communication partners.

This chapter describes how SIP is used for IM in a Lync Server 2010 deployment. It begins by describing collaboration scenarios that use IM and then goes into detail about the internal processes that support these scenarios.

Note. For details about how SIP is used for presence, see the Enhanced Presence chapter at http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=22644.

IM Scenarios

Bob and Alice communicate frequently. Bob is a project manager for Contoso, Ltd, and Alice is one of his employees. Carol is a system administrator who frequently works with Bob and Alice on projects. Carol also manages the Lync Server infrastructure at Contoso, Ltd.

Basic IM Conversation (Including Discovery, Logon, the Contacts List, and Provisioning)

Bob starts his client, Microsoft Lync 2010, which logs him on to the Lync Server at Contoso, Ltd. His presence information for contacts shows that Alice is online. Bob double-clicks Alices name in his Contacts list and chooses to start an IM conversation with her. Alice responds to Bobs instant message, and she and Bob discuss details about their current project. They finish their conversation and close their Conversation windows.

Program Sharing and File Transfer During an IM Conversation

Alice is logged onto Lync 2010. She needs to discuss details about a project with Carol. Alice notes that Carol is online and available. She double-clicks Carols name on her Contacts list, types her questions to Carol, and Carol responds. Then Alice tells Carol that she needs her advice on a project document. In her Conversation window, Alice clicks the Share menu, clicks Program, and then clicks the Microsoft Word document that is open on her computer. Carol is able to see the document in her client. Alice and Carol exchange instant messages about the document, and Carol asks Alice to send a copy to her so that she can review it in detail. Alice sends the file to Carol by clicking the Send a File button in the upper-right corner of her Conversation window. Carol also asks Alice to send an executable file, but Alices attempt to send it is rejected because the administrative policy for IM filtering forbids sending .exe files. Alice compresses the file into a .ZIP file and this time is able to send it. Carol receives the file, thanks Alice, and ends the conversation.

Turning an IM Conversation into an IM Conference (Adding a Third Person)

Bob is logged on and sees that Alice is also online. Alices presence indicator shows that she is available. Bob double-clicks her name in his Contacts list and starts a conversation with her about the project that he is leading. Alice is performing one part of the project, and Carol is performing another part. Alice asks Bob if its OK to invite Carol to join the conversation. Bob agrees, and, in her Conversation window, Alice clicks the People Options menu in the upper-right corner. She clicks Invite by Name or Phone Number and types Carols name. Carol is added to the conversation. (Note that instead Alice could have opened the Lync main window and dragged Carols name from her Contacts list into the Conversation window.) Bob, Alice, and Carol exchange instant messages about the current project and then end their conversation.

IM Internals

Understanding how IM works in Lync Server deployments amounts to understanding how the client software signs in, subscribes to the users Contacts lists, receives server configurations and policy settings, and starts IM sessions. In this section, we use the scenarios described in the previous section to illustrate the internal workings of IM in Lync Server. To facilitate the discussion, we use trace files that Lync Server and Lync 2010 log and begin by explaining how to enable client logging.

Enabling Lync 2010 Client Logging

To capture and view the logon process, its necessary to use tools that are well suited to capturing and viewing the communication between the server and clients. For this chapter, we used OCSLogger to capture all the trace files of client and server communication and Snooper.exe to examine them. OCSLogger captures message information in a trace file format, and Snooper is a Lync Server Resource Kit tool that parses and presents this data in an easily consumable fashion.

To capture packet trace files at the network level, we used Microsoft Network Monitor 3.4. Microsoft Network Monitor allows you to view details at the network packet layer, such as the Domain Name System (DNS) calls that the client uses to locate the servers and other clients.

If you are capturing trace files on a busy network or server, it is extremely helpful to use the SIP Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) filter in OCSLogger to reduce the amount of traffic that is collected. If you are capturing network traffic by using Network Monitor, you can also use capture and display filters to reduce the amount of traffic that you capture or display to only the traffic that is interesting in relation to what you are looking for.

Note. Logging performed by OCSLogger is on the server. OCSLogger is found on the Start menu of any Lync Server. To start Snooper, select Analyze after collecting a log trace. For details about these tools, see the troubleshooting chapters at http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=22644.

For details about and to download Network Monitor, see Microsoft Network Monitor 3.4 at http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=4865.

To capture trace files with OCSLogger, you must first enable client logging by doing the following:

1. Open Lync 2010.

2. In the upper-right corner of the Lync main window, click the Show Menu arrow, click File, and then click Options.

Figure 1. Accessing Lync 2010 Options

3. In the Lync - Options dialog box, click General.

4. Under Logging, select the Turn on logging in Lync check box.

Figure 2. Setting logging options

5. (Optional) Select the Turn on Windows Event Logging for Lync check box.

6. Use Snooper.exe to view these logs.

Figure 3. Opening files from Snooper

Lync Server Discovery Process

Before Lync 2010 can log on to Lync Server, the client needs to locate the users Lync Server. When the client is set to use automatic configuration, it uses the domain portion of the SIP URI provided by the user to discover which Lync Server it should sign in to. This discovery process involves querying DNS SRV records. The client attempts to resolve the following SRV records in the following order:

7. _sipinternaltls._tcp..com (5061)

8. _sipinternal._tcp..com (5060)

9. _sip._tls..com (443)

10. _sip._tcp..com (5060)

If the client fails to resolve the preceding SRV records, it queries the following A records in the following order:

11. sipin