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Dynamic MAIO Allocation & DMA Admission Control

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DMA&DMA

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  • Dynamic MAIO Allocation & DMA Admission Control

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 2

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Slow Frequency Hopping well known and widely used feature in GSM network SFH means that the frequency of radio timeslot is changing burst by

    burst (frequency remains the same during a burst) significant quality and capacity enhancements due to effects9 frequency diversity9 interference diversity

    following parameters describe the hopping frequency used in each frame9Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO)9Hopping Sequence Number (HSN)

    hopping list is given by the mobile allocation (MA) list

    General concept

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 3

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    General concept

    MA provides the list of hopping frequenciesMA length = 18

    HSN defines the hopping sequence to be used (specifies in which order frequencies shall be used)

    9 HSN = 0 - cyclic hopping (frequencies are changed in a consecutive order)9 HSN = 163 - random hopping (frequencies are changed according to a pseudo-random

    sequence)

    MAIO implies a shift defining the start frequency in the FH pattern defined by HSN

    9 MAIO can take as many values as there are frequencies in the MA list9 MAIO planning prevents co- and adjacent channel interference within cell, between co-

    sited sectors or synchronized cells when using SFH

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 4

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    BCCH TRX0

    MAIO = 4 TRX1

    MAIO = 10 TRX2

    MAIO = 16 TRX3

    BCCH TRX0

    MAIO = 2 TRX1

    MAIO = 8 TRX2

    MAIO = 14 TRX3

    General concept

    with MAIO planning co-channel (adjacent) channel interference can be avoided 9 frame number synchronization between cells required

    BCCH TRX0

    MAIO = 0 TRX1

    MAIO = 6 TRX2

    MAIO = 12 TRX3

    Random Hopping (1, 2, 10, 7, . . . )

    Time (TDMA frame)

    MA

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 5

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    1/1 reuse pattern deployment

    9the same MA within sites9all sectors of the site have common

    frame number (FN) (are FN synchronized) 9all sectors within site have the same

    HSN, e.g. HSN =3

    General concept

    MA, HSN and FN are fixed for the site9 intra-site interference can be controlled by

    allocating appropriate MAIOs

    9degree of control interference at the site is conditioned by the fractional load

    MA

    MA

    MA

    HSN = 3

    HSN = 3

    HSN = 3

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 6

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    General concept

    MA

    MA

    MA

    HSN = 3

    HSN = 3

    HSN = 3

    Static MAIO Allocation, SMA

    9 the set of MAIOs allocated to the site is split into three subsets with different MAIOs for each sector

    9 common practice is to assign equal MAIO values to all the channels of the same TRX

    9 MAIO values must be reused within the site if number of deployed hopping transceivers > number of hopping frequencies

    9 MAIO repetition = continuous intra-site co-channel interference = network quality degradation

    MA = f1, f2, f3, f4, f5, f6

    if no. TRX per site =< 6

    no MAIO repetition

    otherwise

    MAIO has to be reused

    MAIO = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 7

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    General concept

    the degree of control of both co-channel and adjacent channel by MAIO management functionality is conditioned by the applied fractional loadAssumption:9 consecutive frequencies in the MA list

    Fractional Load Intra-site interference MAIO selection

    FL 16.67% no co-channel or adjacent channel interference MAIO distance 2

    16.67% < FL 33.3% adjacent channel interference between co-sited sectors; no co-channel interference MAIO distance 1

    33.3% < FL 100%

    co-channel interference between co-sited sectors; adjacent interference between co-

    sited sectors; adjacent channel interference within the sectors

    MAIO distance < 1; reuse of MAIOs necessary

    FL = NTRX/#hoppers * 100%

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 8

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    General concept

    3 - sector site with 12 hopping frequencies

    TRX0

    TRX1

    TRX2

    BCCH

    MAIO = 0

    MAIO = 3

    MAIO = 6

    TRX4 MAIO = 9

    TRX3

    TRX0

    TRX1

    TRX2

    BCCH

    MAIO = 2

    MAIO = 5

    MAIO = 8

    TRX4 MAIO = 11

    TRX3

    TRX0

    TRX1

    TRX2

    BCCH

    MAIO = 1

    MAIO = 4

    MAIO = 7

    TRX4 MAIO = 10

    TRX3

    4 TRX per cell

    FL = 33.33%

    Maximum carried traffic @2% = 23.72 Erl

    # of MAIO = # of hoppers =>maximum number of TRXs per cell is limited by the number of available MAIOs (assuming single MAIO usage)

    if additional TRXs required, MAIO already used in a neighbor sectors of the site has to be assigned to new deployed TRXs

    9 introduction of permanent intra-site co-channel interference between certain TRX

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 9

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    General concept

    3 - sector site with 6 hopping frequencies

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 10

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Feature description

    Dynamic MAIO Allocation (DMA) 9 to increase network capacity number of TRX installed per site have to

    be increased over the number of hopping frequencies

    9 MAIO reuse within site => continuous intra-site co-channel interference and adjacent interference within sector => radio quality degradation

    9 to minimize intra-site interference DMA has been designed to select the best TS/MAIO pair using the common pool of MAIO on site level list of MAIO values is not divided into subsets for each sector, but it is

    considered as common resources at site level

    9 benefits of DMA remarkable especially in case of instantaneous inhomogeneous traffic distribution on site sectors

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 11

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Feature description

    Dynamic MAIO Allocation (DMA) algorithm9 DMA algorithm input

    list of free time slots of the serving cell list of MAIO available for DMA table with the number of occurrences of dynamic MAIO values within

    the site for each TS table with allocation state of dynamic MAIO values within the serving

    cell for each TS

    9 for each incoming voice call DMA selects a channel on the basis of the current MAIO utilization

    state within the site algorithm operates on the entire TSxMAIO domain all MAIOs can be used and reused in all sectors of the site

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 12

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Feature description

    Dynamic MAIO Allocation (DMA) algorithm9 avoids the repetition of MAIO values in the serving cell

    avoids intra-cell co-channel interference

    9 minimizes the number of MAIO repetitions within the site number of channels affected by intra-site co-channel interference

    9 controls the number of MAIO adjacencies in the serving cell number of channels affected by intra-cell adjacent channel

    interference

    9 controls the number of MAIO adjacencies within the site number of channels affected by intra-site adjacent channel

    interference

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 13

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Feature description

    Mandatory requirements for DMA:9 dynamic MAIO Allocation applies to speech calls only (EFR, FR, HR, AMR FR,

    AMR HR)9 synthesizer frequency hopping enabled9 the same MA within site (1x1 frequency reuse) 9 air interface synchronization among cells of the same site (intra-site

    synchronization)9 cells within site must have the same HSNs

    the assignment of different HSN in neighbour sites is also mandatory in case of inter-site synchronisation and it is recommended even if sites are not synchronised in order to prevent quality degradation in case of accidental synchronisation

    9 in case of TRXs supporting GPRS, HSCSD - SMA must be applied when multislot configuration is used timeslot must belong to the same

    frequency hopping law i.e. they must have the same MAIO (also HSN and MA)

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 14

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Feature description

    DMA simulations results

    soft-blocked

    23.72 TCH Erl/cellhard-blocked

    30.5 TCH Erl/cell

    ideal network (homogenous) 5 MHz band (12 TCH and 12 BCCH frequencies) voice codec AMR FR 5.9 kbps no performance of signalling channels considered (SACCH, FACCH)

    Quality performance target

    hard blocking rate

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 15

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Dynamic MAIO Allocation application scenarios9 number of hopping TRXs per site > number of hopping frequencies in MA list

    intra-site co- and adjacent channel interference can be decreased, capacity limits of SMA overcome

    9 number of hopping TRXs per site < number of hopping frequencies in MA listnumber of hopping TRXs per site > 0.5 * number of hopping frequencies in MA list

    (16.67% < FL 33.3%)

    intra-site adjacent channel interference can be decreased9 (E)GPRS, HSCSD on BCCH TRX only

    MAIOs considered as common resource at the site level9 (E)GPRS, HSCSD on hopping TRX

    for TRXs supporting GPRS, HSCSD, SMA must be applied static MAIO values excluded from list of MAIOs used by DMA

    Feature description

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 16

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Capacity of the system can be limited by9 hard blocking9 soft blocking

    Hard blocking all radio resources in use due to lack of free TS no more calls can be

    established specific for loose frequency reuse patterns

    Soft blocking capacity of cell limited by the level of interference (resources still available) specific for tight reuse patterns

    Feature description

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 17

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    in high capacity networks with a high number of TRX installed in each cell and tight reuse patterns soft blocking happens prior to hard blocking interference level may exceed the critical (soft blocking) limit at which

    the speech quality becomes unacceptable before all channels have been allocated

    currently Admission Control for CS speech services is based on Hard Blocking new call request is rejected if all channels accessible for voice are busy

    BR8.0 Admission Control (AC) feature is capable to identify the soft blocking limit AC is applied only to new CS speech service requests on the layer with

    enabled DMA and to forced intra cell HO (reorganisation, enhanced pairing procedure)

    all types of inter-cell handovers are handled in the usual way even if the DMA layer(s) of the target cell is (are) soft-blocked

    Feature description

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 18

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Admission Control due to Soft Blocking for CS speech services isbased on both:

    Speech Quality Bad Quality Probability (BQP) - probability (percentage) of occurrence of speech

    samples with FER over a certain threshold

    BQP = P(FER > FERmax) FERmax FER threshold defined by operator QoS criterion related to the speech quality in a cell is met if BQP is below a certain

    threshold called outage probabilityBQP = P(FER > FERmax) BQPmaxe.g. BQP(FER>2.5%) 5%

    Effective Fractional Load at low traffic the reliability of BQP relatively low => decision for soft blocking quite

    unreliable

    Feature description

    100*_8

    ___DMAmoballocDMABusyChanmeanDMAEFL nn =

    nnn DMAHRmeanDMAFRmeanABusyChanDMmean __5.0___ +=

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 19

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    impact of BQP, FER threshold settings on capacity figures (based on simulation scenario - see slide 13)

    Feature description

    Quality performance target:

    BQP

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 20

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    complete AC procedure comprises following two steps: calculation of mean BQP and EFL on DMA layer evaluation of the Soft-Blocking-Qualifier based on mean BQP and EFL

    threshold comparisonSBQ evaluation

    Feature description

    ACLinkType = 0 - both UL BQP samples and DL BQP samples shall be collected; both BQP in UL and BQP in DL shall be estimatedACLinkType = 1 - only UL BQP samples shall be collected; only BQP in UL shall be estimatedACLinkType = 2 - both UL and DL BQP samples shall be collected; a single BQP value representing a common BQP for UL and DL

    shall be estimated by merging the UL and DL BQP samples

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 21

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    complete AC procedure comprises following two steps: calculation of mean BQP and EFL on DMA layer evaluation of the Soft-Blocking-Qualifier based on mean BQP and EFL

    threshold comparison

    Feature description

    DMAEFL _minDMAEFL _max

    adjustable thresholds for the EFL for the DMA layer on a per cell basis

    minimum EFL on the DMA layer in percentmaximum EFL on the DMA layer in percent

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 22

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Feature description

    pixel

    CI

    Interfering Cell Interfered Cell(Victim)

    co-channel interference threshold = x dB- number of pixels in the service area: e.g. 400- number of pixels with C/I < x dB: e.g. 23

    f1

    f1Percentage of Traffic is interfered

    Reduced Capacity/Cell

    Soft Blocking

    27 Erlang/site

    19 Erlang/site

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 23

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Interdependencies with other features

    DMA and DMA AC can be applied only for CS speech services (e.g. EFR, FR, HR, AMR FR, and AMR HR)

    maximum of two DMA layers can be configured in a cell depending on the cell type in a single band standard cell just one DMA layer is configurable in case of a Dual Band Standard Cell and EXT900 two different DMA layers (one

    DMA layer per band) are configurable

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 24

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Interdependencies with other features

    in an EXT900 or Dual Band Standard Cell, if one DMA layer is soft-blocked, it is be possible to use the second DMA layer precondition: the latter has been configured and is not soft-blocked at the same time

    DMA and DMA AC is not applicable to both dual band and single band concentric cells extended cells

    AC operates only on the service layer with enabled DMA and is applied for each DMA layer separately

    if the DMA layer is soft-blocked, the Resource Management should try to allocate the new CS speech service request on another layer of the same cell

    precondition: such a layer has to be configured for this type of service

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 25

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Interdependencies with other features

    Network synchronization DMA requires that sectors within a site are synchronous at frame level and at time

    slot level equal Frame Number and Burst Number Offset shall be used for all the sectors of

    the site

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 26

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    DMA&DMA Admission Control operator benefits

    Dynamic MAIO Allocation no MAIO planning is necessary (OPEX reduction) capacity enhancement in 1:1 frequency re-use networks improved trunking efficiency by considering the radio resources (MAIO) as a

    common pool available at a site level rather than at a sector level

    Admission Control achievement of maximum capacity at an acceptable quality

    9 based on continuous supervising of both the speech quality and system load in the cell

    customer is able to control the perceivable quality in the network by adjusting the relevant thresholds

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 27

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Objects CFHSY Common FHSY defines the DMA hopping law shared by several BTS of the same BTSM two per CBTS (configurable in different bands)

    CFHSY

    BTSM

    CFHSY

    CBTS

    BTS

    Object CBTS - Common BTS groups the attributes shared by several BTS of the same

    BTSM provides services of DMA enabling/disabling in all BTSs of

    the same BTSM and all the DMA frequencies one per BTSM

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 28

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range / Default value

    CBTS object attributes: CCALLF [x = 1..63] / commonCellAllocationF / 0..1023 / defines radio frequency usable in all BTS of the same BTSM ENDMA / enableDMA / TRUE, FALSE / FALSE indicates whether the DMA feature is activated or not ENDMA can be set to TRUE if in at least 2 equipped BTS ENDMA attribute is set to TRUE

    CFHSY object attributes: HSN / 0..63 describes hopping sequence in use CMOBALLOC / commonMobileAllocation / CCALLF [x = 1..63] list of absolute frequencies used in hopping sequence: max 63 frequencies no NULL CCALLFx can be included in CMOBALLOC all frequencies must belong to the same band

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 29

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range / Default value

    CFHSY object attributes: SUBBAND / subordinateBand / GSM850, PCS1900, DCS1800, BB900, EB900 defines the band/sub-band to which CFHSY is applicable

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 30

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range / Default value

    BTS object new attributes: CCALL / commonCellAllocation / CCALLF / defines the list of frequencies inherited from CBTS BCCHFREQ and CALLF cannot use CCALLF frequencies ENDMA / enableDMA / TRUE, FALSE / FALSE indicates whether the DMA feature is activated or not ENDMA can be set to TRUE if HOP=TRUE and HOPMODE=SYNHOP ENDMA can not be set to TRUE in extended and concentric cells

    TRX object new/modified attributes: TRXFREQ / carrierFrequency / BCCHFREQ, CALLF , CCALLF attribute is used to assign a constant radio frequency to a transceiver MAIO / maio / 0..63 / static MAIO to be applied to all subordinated channels for SMA or when ENDMA=FALSE

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 31

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range / Default value

    TRX object new/modified attributes: FHSYID / frequencyHoppingID / FHSY[0..10], CFHSY[0..1] / parameter represents the frequency hopping system identifier

    CHAN object new/modified attributes: FHSYID / frequencyHoppingID / FHSY[0..10], CFHSY[0..1] default will be assigned by BSC, it depends on FHSYID of superordinate TRX

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 32

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range / Default value

    CHAN object new/modified attributes: MAIO / maio / 0..63 / default will be assigned by BSC, it depends on FHSYID of superordinate TRX no mixed configuration between SMA and SMA are possible between channels of the same

    TRX

    Other remarks DMA instance is active after creation of the corresponding CBTS and CFHSY objects and

    after the EDMA attribute of the CBTS object has been set to TRUE. The algorithm will use the resources of the cells where ENDMA is TRUE

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 33

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range, unit / Default value

    BTS object new attributes:

    EAC / enableAc / TRUE, FALSE / EAC = TRUE: AC on cell basis is enabled EAC = FALSE: AC on cell basis is disabled AC can be enabled only if DMA is enabled both in the BTS and in the CBTS

    ACBQPMAX / acBQPMax / [2.010.0], stepsize 1.0, [%] / 5.0% parameter specifies the maximum tolerated Bad Quality Probability (outage probability) in

    the cell

    ACFERMAX / acFERMax / [1.010.0], stepsize 0.5 , [%] / 5.0% parameter specifies the maximum tolerated FER for speech samples taken over 4 SACCH

    periods

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 34

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range, unit / Default value

    BTS object new attributes:

    ACLNKTYP / acLinkType / {0, 1, 2} / acLinkType =1 parameter defines the type of samples to be collected and the way they are used for the

    estimation of BQP Meaning:9 acLinkType =0 UL and DL samples shall be collected and separately evaluated9 acLinkType =1 only UL samples shall be collected and evaluated9 acLinkType =2 UL and DL samples shall be collected, merged and commonly evaluatedNOTE:ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORTING shall be activated if:

    acLinkType = 0 or acLinkType = 2

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 35

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range, unit / Default value

    BTS object new attributes:

    ACPER / acPeriod / [20400], stepsize 4, [SACCH Periods] / 120 parameter specifies the Admission Control Period in SACCH periods ACBQPFF / acBQPFgtFac / [0.11.0], stepsize 0.1 / 0.2 to avoid the impact of stochastic fluctuation in BQP on AC decision the BQP values calculated in

    each ACPeriod are averaged using an exponential filter with adjustable forgetting factor ()mean_BQPn = (1- ) * mean_BQPn-1 + * BQPn

    ACEFLFF / acEFLFgtFac / [0.020.2], stepsize 0.02 / 0.04 to get an estimate of the traffic on the DMA layer of the cell the average number of busy

    channels is calculated using exponential filter with an adjustable forgetting factor ()mean_ZZ_DMAn = (1- ) * mean_ZZ_DMAn-1 + * ZZ_DMAn (ZZ = FR or HR)

    Database parameters

  • Siemens Sebastian Lasek/Com SDC NA B1 Jul-06 36

    DMA&DMA Admission Control

    Attribute Acronym / Attribute Name / Validity range, unit / Default value

    BTS object new attributes:

    ACMAXEFLDMA / acMaxEFLDMA / [10100], stepsize 5, [%] / 50 parameter specifies the maximum EFL on the DMA layer of the cell ACMMINEFLDMA / acMinEFLDMA / [550], stepsize 5, [%] / 10 parameter specifies the minimum EFL on the DMA layer of the cell

    Database parameters

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