01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals

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<ul><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 1/22</p><p>LECTURE 1Theme: Course introduction and</p><p>importance of Pharmaceutical Chemistry</p><p>for pharmaceutical analysis. Introductionabout Pharmacopoeia and methods ofdrug analysis.</p><p>Inorganic drugs from group ofhalogenides of alkaline metals.</p><p>Associate prof. Mosula L.M.</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 2/22</p><p>The plan1. A subject and the contents of pharmaceutical chemistry, its</p><p>interrelation with chemical, medical and biologic and</p><p>pharmaceutical disciplines.2. The State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU), the International</p><p>(Ph. Int.), Europian (Ph. Eur.) and British Pharmacopoeias (BP),</p><p>and other analytical normative documentation (AND), which</p><p>regulates high quality of pharmaceutical preparations.</p><p>4. Classification of drugs.</p><p>5. Inorganic drugs from group of halogenides of alkaline metals:</p><p>obtaining, properties (appearance and solubility), identification,</p><p>tests, assay, storage, action and use of preparations of:</p><p>Fluorine (sodium fluoride);Chlorine (sodium and potassium chlorides);</p><p>Bromine (sodium and potassium bromides);</p><p>Iodine (sodium and potassium iodides).</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 3/22</p><p> Pharmaceutical chemistry is a highly interdisciplinary sciencecombining organic chemistry with biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, analyticalchemistry, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, molecular biology and physical</p><p>chemistry.Pharmaceutical chemistry is the chemistry of drugs and</p><p>pharmaceutical products.</p><p>The aim of pharmaceutical chemistry is the discovery anddevelopment of new therapeutic agents.</p><p>The mission of the Pharmaceutical Chemistry course is tointroduce the structure, properties, and analysis (both qualitative andquantitative) of pharmaceutical agents as well as the fundamental techniquesused for near patient testing in clinical laboratories to the students. Topicsinclude some of the basic concepts in pharmaceutical chemistry as well as</p><p>methods of pharmaceutical analysis such as 1) the drug synthesis, 2) review oforganic functional groups found in drug molecules as well as cations and anionsof the inorganic drugs, 3) physicochemical properties related to drug action, 4)physicochemical and chemical analysis of drugs, 5) methods of identification ofpharmaceutical agents, 6) the storage conditions and use of drugs.</p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacologyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacognosyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_biologyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_biologyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacognosyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacologyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_chemistry</li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 4/22</p><p>Pharmaceutical Chemistry is a multifaceted discipline that</p><p>encompasses synthetic organic chemistry, inorganic, analytical,</p><p>physical, colloidal, biological chemistry and some disciplines of</p><p>medical and biological profile: biology, normal and pathologicalphysiology, microbiology. The pharmaceutical chemistry is closely</p><p>connected with other profile disciplines: pharmacognosy, technology</p><p>of medicines, the organisation and pharmacy economy,</p><p>pharmacotherapy.</p><p>Pharmaceutical chemistry is a discipline at the intersection of</p><p>chemistry andpharmacology involved with designing, synthesizing</p><p>and developingpharmaceuticaldrugs.</p><p>Compounds used as medicines are overwhelmingly organic</p><p>compounds including small organic molecules and biopolymers.</p><p>However, inorganic compounds and metal-containing compounds</p><p>have been found to be useful as drugs.</p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacologyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_designhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_synthesishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compoundshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compoundshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_moleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopolymerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopolymerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_moleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_moleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_moleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_moleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_moleculehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compoundshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compoundshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compoundshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_synthesishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_designhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacologyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry</li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 5/22</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 6/22</p><p> Pharmacopoeiain its modern technical sense, is a book containingdirections for the identification of samples and the preparation of compoundmedicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical orpharmaceutical society.The word derives fromAncient Greek (pharmakopoieia),from -(pharmako-) 'drug', followed by the verb-stem -(poie-)'make' and finally the abstract noun ending - (-ia). These three elementstogether can be rendered as 'drug-mak-ing'.</p><p>The aim of theInternational Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Int.), which is issuedby the World Health Organization as a recommendation, is to achieve a wideglobal uniformity of quality specifications for selected pharmaceutical products,excipients, and dosage forms. The information published in the InternationalPharmacopoeiais collated via a consultative procedure and is based on</p><p>international experience, the monographs being established in an independentmanner. Priority is given to medicines that are widely used throughout theworld. High priority is accorded to medicines that are important to WHO healthprograms, and which may not appear in any other pharmacopoeias.</p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greekhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organizationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monographhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicineshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacopoeiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacopoeiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicineshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monographhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organizationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greekhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine</li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 7/22</p><p>The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) of the Council of Europe is apharmacopoeia, listing a wide range ofactive substances and excipients used toprepare pharmaceutical products in Europe[citation needed]. The 2005 editionincludes 1800 specific and general monographs, including various chemical</p><p>substances, antibiotics, biological substances. The European Pharmacopoeia isdeveloped by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) andis a part of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France. It has been created by theConvention on the elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeiafrom 1964.</p><p>The British Pharmacopoeia(BP)is an annual published collection of qualitystandards for UKmedicinal substances. It is used by individuals andorganizations involved in pharmaceutical research, development, manufactureand testing. Pharmacopoeial standards are publicly available and legallyenforceable standards of quality for medicinal products and their constituents.The Pharmacopoeia is an important statutory component in the control of</p><p>medicines which complements and assists the licensing and inspection processesof the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) of theUnited Kingdom. Pharmacopoeial standards are compliance requirements; thatis, they provide the means for an independent judgment as to the overall qualityof an article and apply throughout the shelf-life of a product. Inclusion of asubstance in a pharmacopoeia does not indicate that it is either safe or effective</p><p>for the treatment of any disease.</p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Europehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacopoeiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_substancehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excipientshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_neededhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monographhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibioticshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Directorate_for_the_Quality_of_Medicineshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Europehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strasbourghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdomhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicinalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacopoeiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicines_and_Healthcare_products_Regulatory_Agencyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicines_and_Healthcare_products_Regulatory_Agencyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacopoeiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicinalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdomhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strasbourghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Europehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Directorate_for_the_Quality_of_Medicineshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibioticshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monographhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_neededhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excipientshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_substancehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacopoeiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Europe</li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 8/22</p><p>The State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU) is a legal</p><p>document which contains the general requirements to</p><p>pharmaceutical preparations, monographies (pharmaceutical</p><p>articles) as well as techniques of quality assurance of medicalproducts. The first edition of SPU was published in 2001. It has</p><p>legislative character and its requirements are obligatory for all</p><p>enterprises and establishments, independently on a form of property</p><p>which develop, keep, supervise, realize and apply medical products.</p><p>Quality assurance of drugs in Ukraine at the state level is</p><p>carried out by Ministry of Public Health. It supervises the service of</p><p>medical products and products of medical appointment, the State</p><p>Enterprise Scientific and Expert Pharmacopoeial Centre, the StatePharmacological Centre, the State Drugs inspection (its structure</p><p>includes the Central laboratory of quality assurance of medical</p><p>products), territorial inspections of quality assurance of medical</p><p>products.</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 9/22</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 10/22</p><p>Destructive impur ities</p><p>Impurities can be destructive when they obstruct the working nature of</p><p>the material. Examples include ash and debris in metals and leaf pieces</p><p>in blank white papers. The removal of impurities is usually donechemically. For example, in the manufacturing ofiron, calcium carbonate</p><p>is added to theblast furnace to remove silicon dioxide from the iron ore.</p><p>Zone refining is an economically important method for the purification</p><p>of semiconductors.However, some kinds of impurities can be removed by physical means. A</p><p>mixture of water and salt can be separated by distillation, with water as</p><p>the distillate and salt as the solid residue. Impurities are usually</p><p>physically removed from liquids and gases. Removal of sand particles</p><p>from metal ore is one example with solids.</p><p>No matter what method is used, it is usually impossible to separate an</p><p>impurity completely from a material. What technicians can do is to</p><p>increase the purity of a material to as near 100% as possible or</p><p>economically feasible. </p>http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ashhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debrishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ironhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blast_furnacehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_dioxidehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zone_refininghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Residue_(chemistry)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Residue_(chemistry)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zone_refininghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_dioxidehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blast_furnacehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ironhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debrishttp://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ash</li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 11/22</p><p>There are two types of impurities: generaland specific.The sources of general impurities are equipment, solvents, auxiliary</p><p>materials, and ofspecific onesby-products, semiproducts of synthesis of</p><p>substances of medicinal forms and compounds which are formed in medical</p><p>products at their wrong storage.The State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, other Analytical Normative</p><p>Documentation (AND) on the basis of experimental researches regulate</p><p>specific impurities and their quantity for each preparation.</p><p>For revealing the impurities in the medical products and their approximate</p><p>quantitative estimation use standard solutions (standards).Standard solution is a chemical term which describes a solution of</p><p>known concentration of testing impurity. The concentration of the solution</p><p>is normally expressed in unit ofppm (parts-per-million, ppm = 106) (One</p><p>part permillion (ppm) denotes one part per 1,000,000 parts, one part in 106,</p><p>and a value of 1 106.). For standards (standard solutions)preparationuse chemically pure initial substances (mother substances).</p><p>Presence of impurities defines by means of such methods:nephelometry</p><p>and colorimetry.</p><p>At the revealing same impurities use instrumental methods of analysis (atomic</p><p>absorption spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, chromatography, etc.).</p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentrationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentrationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solution</li><li><p>7/28/2019 01 Course Introduction.halogen. of Alkaline Metals</p><p> 12/22</p><p>The proposed program will you prepare to fully and</p><p>confidently participate in health and biomedical careers.</p><p>Pharmaceutical companies need employees with strong</p><p>skills in modern chemical techniques as well as a good</p><p>understanding of biomedical issues such as drug action, drug design</p><p>and dru...</p></li></ul>