1 food allergen labeling. 2 regulations revised january 2006 food and drug administration (fda)...

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  • Slide 1
  • 1 Food Allergen Labeling
  • Slide 2
  • 2 Regulations Revised January 2006 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires food manufacturers to: List common allergens on labels in simple terms that adults and older children can understand Listed in: Ingredients list After the list Right next to it
  • Slide 3
  • 3 Food Allergens List top eight, which account for 90% of all documented food allergies: Milk Eggs Peanuts Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, walnuts Fish (such as bass, cod, flounder) Shellfish (such as crab, lobster, shrimp) Soy Wheat Represent allergens most likely to cause a severe or life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).
  • Slide 4
  • 4 Food Label Questions What foods are labeled? Any domestic or imported packaged food regulated by FDA. Whats included on label? Lists type of allergens as well as any ingredient that contains a protein from the eight major food allergens What foods arent labeled? Fresh produce, fresh meat, and certain highly refined oils. Foods that might inadvertently come into contact with a food allergen during growing, harvesting, or manufacturing.
  • Slide 5
  • 5 Allergen Label: Information
  • Slide 6
  • Non-Microbial Hazards Biological, Chemical, Physical Hazards and Allergens
  • Slide 7
  • C-6.01 -- Non-Microbial Hazards Biological Hazards Seafood Toxins Ciguatera toxin Scombroid toxin Shellfish toxins Systemic fish toxins Plant Toxins Poisonous plants Fungal Toxins Poisonous mushrooms
  • Slide 8
  • C-6.01 -- Non-Microbial Hazards Chemical Hazards Toxic Metals Lead, copper, brass, zinc, antimony, cadmium Cleaning Agents Detergents, sanitizers, polishers, abrasive cleaners, lubricants Pesticides and insecticides Food additives Preservatives (nitrite and sulfites), flavor enhancers (MSG), nutritional additives (niacin)
  • Slide 9
  • C-6.01 -- Non-Microbial Hazards Physical Hazards Band-aids Fingernails and nail polish Jewelry Broken light bulbs Hair Metal and wood Chipped glass Broken dinnerware
  • Slide 10
  • C-6.01 -- Non-Microbial Hazards Allergens 6 to 7 million Americans have food allergies. Most common food allergens: Milk Eggs Fish Shellfish Wheat Soy Peanuts and tree nuts
  • Slide 11
  • Government Regulations
  • Slide 12
  • C-6.02 -- Regulations Who is responsible for our food? Primary responsibility for enforcing federal regulations is USDA and FDA. USDA is responsible for overseeing approximately 20% of the food supply. FDA is responsible for 80%. Other agencies also oversee various aspects of food safety.
  • Slide 13
  • C 6.02 -- Regulations USDA Responsible for regulating: Red meat, poultry, and certain egg products Key legislation that USDA enforces: Federal Meat Inspection Act Poultry Products Inspection Act Egg Products Inspection Act Voluntary Inspection Program
  • Slide 14
  • C 6.02 -- Regulations Food and Drug Administration Responsible for regulating: All other foods not regulated by USDA. Food is food or drink for man or animal, chewing gum, and any food component. Key legislation: Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act Food Code Low Acid Foods Registration and Process Filing
  • Slide 15
  • C 6.02 -- Regulations Environmental Protection Agency Set pesticide residue tolerances or legal limits on how much residue that can be on particular foods. FDA and USDA enforce those tolerances on their portions of the food supply. Tolerance levels set for over 9,000 pesticides.
  • Slide 16
  • C 6.02 -- Regulations Department of Commerce Oversee management of fisheries in the United States. Responsible for seafood quality and grading. Operate a voluntary inspection program for fish in conjunction with FDA.
  • Slide 17
  • C 6.02 -- Regulations Department of Treasury Two divisions address food safety: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms U.S. Customs
  • Slide 18
  • C 6.02 -- Regulations Federal Trade Commission (FTC ) Works with FDA and USA over claims made by food manufacturers. FTC oversees food advertising FDA oversees food labeling FTC requires that any objective claim made in advertising must be substantiated.
  • Slide 19
  • HACCP Food Safety Plan
  • Slide 20
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP What is HACCP? HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is a systematic way to identify, evaluate, and control food safety hazards. Hazards are biological, chemical, or physical agents likely to cause illness or injury if they are not controlled. HACCP prevents food safety hazards rather than reacts to food safety hazards. To develop a HACCP plan, one follows the seven principles.
  • Slide 21
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP Prerequisite Programs Focus on employees, facilities, and equipment. Examples of prerequisite programs include: Illness policy Cleaning and sanitizing procedures Garbage removal Pest control Equipment selection Employee hygiene
  • Slide 22
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP 1: Conduct a hazard analysis Identify hazards associated with a specific menu item. Prepare flow diagram from receiving to service. List likely hazards associated with each step. Identify how to prevent the hazards at each step. Hazards can be biological, chemical, or physical. List hazards likely to occur and that will cause severe consequences if not controlled. Hazards that are low risk and that are not likely do not need to be considered.
  • Slide 23
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP 2: Determine CCPs A control point is any point, step, or procedure where biological, physical, or chemical factors can be controlled. A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure where an identified hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels. Critical control points are monitored much more frequently than are control points.
  • Slide 24
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP 3: Establish critical limits Establish criteria that must be met to prevent, eliminate, or the reduce the identified hazard at the CCP so that the food is safe to eat. Examples of critical limits are: temperature, time, physical dimensions, water activity, pH, and available chlorine Critical limits can come from regulatory standards and guidelines, scientific literature, experimental studies, and consultation with experts.
  • Slide 25
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP 4: Establish monitoring procedures Monitoring is a planned observation or measurement: to determine if a CCP is under control and Examples of monitoring include: Visual observations Temperature measurements Time assessment pH measurements Water activity measurements
  • Slide 26
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP 5: Establish corrective actions Corrective actions focus on: what do when a food does not meet the critical limit. Example of a corrective action: A hamburger is 140 o F (50 o C) Critical limit -- Cook hamburger to 155 o F (68 o C) or hotter. Continue cooking until hamburger is 155 o F (68 o C) or hotter. Throwing out food might be a corrective action. Maintain records of all corrective actions taken.
  • Slide 27
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP 6: Verification procedures Four phases needed for a HACCP plan: 1. Determine that critical limits for all CCPS are sound. 2. Make sure that the establishments HACCP plan is being properly implemented. 3. Have regulatory personnel review the plan to make sure that it is being properly implemented. 4. Check the accuracy of all monitoring equipment.
  • Slide 28
  • C-6.02 -- HACCP 7: Establish record keeping The following make up the records of a HACCP Plan List of HACCP team and their assigned responsibilities Description of each menu item Flow diagram for each menu item indicating CCPs Hazards associated with each CCP and preventive measures Critical limits Monitoring procedures Corrective actions plans Record keeping procedures Procedures for verification of the HACCP plan
  • Slide 29
  • Farm to Table Food Safety Interventions
  • Slide 30
  • C-6.02 -- Farm to Table Farm Good Agricultural Practices (GAPS) 1.Water 2.Manure and municipal biosolids 3.Worker health and hygiene 4.Sanitary facilities 5.Field sanitation 6.Packing facility sanitation 7.Transportation 8.Traceback
  • Slide 31
  • C-6.02 -- Farm to Table Food Processing Good Manufacturing Practices -- procedures for processing and packing under sanitary conditions. Standard Sanitary Operating Procedures -- ensure a clean and sanitary environment HACCP -- Systematic approach to identify, assess and control the risks of identified hazards.
  • Slide 32
  • C-6.02 -- Farm to Table Foodservice -- HACCP HACCP seven steps to systematically identify, assess, and control identified hazards. Not all foodservice establishments must have a HACCP plan. If do the following, a HACCP plan is needed: Vacuum package food Service of raw meats Package fresh squeezed orange juice Serve shellfish directly from a tank Curing or smoking food for preservation
  • Slide 33
  • C-6.02 -- Farm to Table Home Four Steps to Fight BAC! CLEAN: Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Don't cross- contaminate! COOK: Cook to proper temperature CHILL: Refrigerate promptly Fight BAC! -- national food safety campaign targeting consumers.
  • Slide 34
  • OBJECTIVE 7.01 -- Distribution34 Distribution Food Product
  • Slide 35
  • OBJECTIVE 7.01 -- Distribution35 Distribution Target Market -- define demographics. State the needs or wants of that target market. State how your product will satisfy the needs or wants of your target market.
  • Slide 36
  • OBJECTIVE 7.01 -- Distribution36 Market State where your product will be produced. State where your target market will expect to receive your product. State how you will be distributing your product in a timely manner.
  • Slide 37
  • OBJECTIVE 7.01 -- Distribution37 Survey of sales State how you will survey customers to evaluate the reception of your product.
  • Slide 38
  • OBJECTIVE 7.01 -- Distribution38 Payment for product State how much you will be profiting on the sale of each item. Estimate the profit you will be making on each production run. State how payment will be received.
  • Slide 39
  • Differences Organic vs. Conventional Production
  • Slide 40
  • D 7.02 -- Differences Conventional Production Most farmers in the U.S. use conventional production practices. Use synthetic chemicals, such as: Fertilizers Pesticides Herbicides Antibiotics
  • Slide 41
  • D 7.02 -- Differences Organic Food Production Focus on management practices that promote and enhance ecological harmony Practices encourage soil and water conservation and to reduce pollution. To be labeled organic, must meet specific standards.
  • Slide 42
  • D 7.02 -- Differences Organic Food Trends Grown at nearly 20% per year for the last seven years. Americans spent more than $51 billion on natural and organic products in 2005. Consumers in the U.S. and the European Union (EU) make up 95% of the world s retail sales of organic food products -- estimated at more than $25 billion worldwide. Research is currently being done to explore the differences in conventionally and organic produced food.
  • Slide 43
  • D 7.02 -- Differences Differences in Practices CONVENTIONALORGANIC FertilizersApply chemical fertilizers to promote plant growth. Apply natural fertilizers, such as manure or compost, to feed soil and plants. InsecticidesSpray insecticides to reduce pests and disease. Use beneficial insects and birds, mating disruption or traps to reduce pests and disease.
  • Slide 44
  • D 7.02 -- Differences Differences in Practices CONVENTIONALORGANIC HerbicidesUse chemical herbicides to manage weeds. Rotate crops, till, hand weed or mulch to manage weeds. AntibioticsGive animals antibiotics, growth hormones and medications to prevent disease and spur growth. Give animals organic feed and allow access to outdoors. Use preventive measures rotational grazing, a balanced diet and clean housing to minimize disease.
  • Slide 45
  • D 7.02 -- Differences Differences in Product STANDARDORGANICCONVENTIONAL NutritionNo difference QualitySpoil fasterSpoil more slowly AppearanceLess perfectMore uniform SafetyNo difference TasteNo difference
  • Slide 46
  • Biotechnology
  • Slide 47
  • D 8.01 --Biotechnology47 Definition Techniques used to modify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or the genetic material of a microorganism, plant, or animal to achieve a desired trait.
  • Slide 48
  • D 8.01 --Biotechnology48 Biotech-produced foods Also known as: Genetically engineered Bioengineered Genetically modified, although "genetically modified" can also refer to foods from plants altered through methods such as conventional breeding
  • Slide 49
  • Uses of Biotechnology
  • Slide 50
  • D 8.01 -- Uses of Biotechnology General Uses New products that are higher quality, safer, and/or more nutritious. Lower production and processing costs. Improve microbial processes upon which processors rely. Fermentation Enzymes
  • Slide 51
  • D 8.01 -- Uses of Biotechnology Two Uses Quality and Safety Quality Food additives natural flavors and colors Processing aids enzymes, emulsifiers, and starter cultures Environment more waste treatment options, greener manufacturing options, biodegradable plastic wrap that kills bacteria. Food safety rapid detection tools to detect microorganisms and the toxins they produce.
  • Slide 52
  • Ethical vs. Empirical
  • Slide 53
  • D 8.02 -- Claims Empirical vs. Ethical Empirical statements of fact Statements about risks and benefits are empirical claims. Statements about what something is made of or how something functions are empirical claims. Ethical values It is good to care for the environment and promote human health. Ethical claims set forth what is good to do and what is bad to do in general.
  • Slide 54
  • D 8.02 -- Claims What are ethics? Ethics is critical thinking about right and wrong action. Ethics involve the study of values, not just reliance on intuition or what our friends think. The ethical conclusion is the specific course of action that one should follow, if the empirical claims (facts) and ethical claims (values and beliefs) are accepted as true.
  • Slide 55
  • D 8.02 -- Claims Ethical Concerns of Biotechnology Environmental impact Health and allergens Allergens Labeling Unknown effects Gene source and religion
  • Slide 56
  • Labeling
  • Slide 57
  • D 8.02 -- Labeling Labeling Laws for Biotech Foods Designed to help consumers make informed buying decisions. The European Union and Japan require some foods derived from biotechnology be labeled. The U.S. does NOT require labeling.
  • Slide 58
  • D 8.02 -- Labeling Why U.S. opposed to labeling? Labeling required in the U.S. for health reasons. Safety should be addressed through non- regulatory means -- outreach or education programs. Labeling of biotech foods might send a negative signal to consumers about the safety of these products which the FDA has deemed to be safe.
  • Slide 59
  • D 8.02 -- Labeling Suggestions for Labeling The U.S. has supported the idea of voluntary labeling. Allow the market to address consumer choice rather than the government regulating choice.