1 national radio astronomy observatory nrao operations review ~ february 29 – march 1, 2008...
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DESCRIPTION3 Highest redshift SDSS QSO L bol = 1e14 L o Black hole: ~3 x 10 9 M o ( Willot etal. ) Gunn Peterson trough = near edge of reionization (Fan etal.) Pushing into reionization: QSO at z=6.4 (t univ = 0.87Gyr)
Current and Future Science with NRAO InstrumentsChris CarilliNational Radio Astronomy ObservatoryNRAO Operations Review ~ February 29 March 1, 2008Four exemplary science programs that demonstrate the synergy between NRAO instruments, and their key roles in modern, multiwavelength astrophysics. First galaxies: gas, dust, star formation into cosmic reionizationCosmic geometry: Megamasers and a 3% measure of HoProtoplanetary disks: imaging planet formationAt the extremes of physics: strong field GR, TeV sources explained!
Dark AgesCosmic Reionization Major science driver for all future large area telescopes Last phase of cosmic evolution to be tested Bench-mark in cosmic structure formation indicating the first luminous sources
Radio studies of the first galaxies: gas, dust, star formation, into cosmic reionization
Highest redshift SDSS QSO Lbol = 1e14 Lo Black hole: ~3 x 109 Mo (Willot etal.) Gunn Peterson trough = near edge of reionization (Fan etal.)
Pushing into reionization: QSO 1148+52 at z=6.4 (tuniv = 0.87Gyr)
Dust mass ~ 7e8 Mo Gas mass ~ 2e10 Mo CO size ~ 6 kpc
Note: low order molecular lines redshift to cm bandsmm/cm: Gas, Dust, Star Form, in host galaxy of J1148+52511 ~ 6kpcCO3-2 VLA z=6.42 30% of z>6 SDSS QSO hosts are HyLIRGs Dust formation? AGB Winds take > 1.4e9yr > age Universe
=> dust formation associated with high mass star formation?LFIR = 1.2e13 LoMAMBO/IRAM 30m
FIR excess -- follows Radio-FIR correlation: SFR ~ 3000 Mo/yr CO excitation ~ starburst nucleus: Tkin ~ 100K, nH2 ~ 1e5 cm^-3
Radio-FIR correlation50KElvis QSO SEDContinuum SED and CO excitation: ISM physics at z=6.42NGC253MW
[CII] 158um at z=6.4: dominant ISM gas coolant [CII] PdBI Walter et al. z>4 => FS lines redshift to mm band L[CII] = 4x109 Lo (L[NII] < 0.1 L[CII])[CII] similar extension as molecular gas ~ 6kpc => distributed star formation SFR ~ 6.5e-6 L[CII] ~ 3000 Mo/yr
[CII] + CO 3-2[CII][NII]IRAM 30m
Building a giant elliptical galaxy + SMBH at tuniv < 1Gyr Multi-scale simulation isolating most massive halo in 3 Gpc^3 (co-mov) Stellar mass ~ 1e12 Mo forms in series (7) of major, gas rich mergers from z~14, with SFR ~ 1e3 - 1e4 Mo/yr SMBH of ~ 2e9 Mo forms via Eddington-limited accretion + mergers Evolves into giant elliptical galaxy in massive cluster (3e15 Mo) by z=0
10.58.16.5Li, Hernquist, Roberston.. z=10 Rapid enrichment of metals, dust, molecules Rare, extreme mass objects: ~ 100 SDSS z~6 QSOs on entire sky Integration times of hours to days to detect HyLIGRs
(sub)mm: high order molecular lines. fine structure lines -- ISM physics, dynamics
cm telescopes: low order molecular transitions -- total gas mass, dense gas tracersPushing to first normal galaxies: spectral linesFS lines will be workhorse lines in the study of the first galaxies with ALMA. Study of molecular gas in first galaxies will be done primarily with cm telescopes
SMAALMA will detect dust, molecular and FS lines in ~ 1 hr in normal galaxies (SFR ~ 10 Mo/yr = LBGs, LAEs) at z ~ 6, and derive z directly from mm lines., GBT
cm: Star formation, AGN(sub)mm Dust, cool gasNear-IR: Stars, ionized gas, AGNArp 220 vs zPushing to normal galaxies: continuum A Panchromatic view of galaxy formationSMA
II. Cosmic geometry: Ho to few % with water maser disks.Why do we need an accurate measure of Ho? To make full use of 1% measures of cosmological parameters via Planck-CMB studies requires 1% measure of Ho -- covariance!with Ho constraint
Measuring Distances to H2O MegamasersTwo methods to determine distance:
D = Vr2 / a
Proper motion method
D = Vr / (d/dt)
2D = r/a = Vr2/r
D = Vr2/aVrHerrnstein et al. (1999)D = 7.2 0.5 Mpc Recalibrate Cepheid distance scale Problem: NGC 4258 is too close
The Project (Braatz et al.) Identify maser disk galaxies with GBT into Hubble flow ~ 50 currentlyObtain high-fidelity images of the sub-pc disks with the High Sensitivity Array (VLBA+GBT+Eff+eVLA) ~ 10% are usefulMeasure internal accelerations with GBT monitoringModel maser disk dynamics and determine distance to host galaxy
Goal: 3% measure of HoGBT
UGC 3789: A Maser Disk in the Hubble Flow
Discovery: Braatz & Gugliucci (2008)VLBI imaging: Reid et al. (in prep)Distance/modeling: Braatz et al. (in prep)Acceleration modelingD ~ 51 MpcHo = 64(+/-7)Already at HST Key project accuracy with 1 source!
HST SMA 350 GHz detection of proplyds in Orion Derive dust mass (>0.01Mo), temperature
III. Protoplanetary disks and planet formationWilliams et al.
TW Hya Disk: VLA observations of planet formationCalvet et al. 2002mid-IR gapcm slope pebblesPre-solar nebula analog 50pc distance star mass = 0.8Mo Age = 5 -- 10 Myr mid IR deficit => disk gap caused by large planet formation at ~ 4AU?
TW Hya Disk: VLA observations of planet formationHughes, Wilner +VLA imaging on AU-scales: consistent with disk gap model cm probes grains sizes between ISM dust and planetesimals (~1cm)
ALMA 850 GHz, 20mas res.Wolfe + Birth of planets: The ALMA/EVLA revolutionRadius = 5AU = 0.1 at 50pcMass ratio = 0.5MJup /1.0 Msun Wilner ALMA: AU-scale imaging of dust, gas, unhindered by opacity, nor confused by the central star EVLA: AU-scale imaging of large dust grain emission JWST: image dust shadow on scales 10s mas Herschel: dust spectroscopy
TW Hya -- Molecular gasSMA: Gas mass, rotationALMA: dynamics at sub-AU, sub-km/s resolutionSMAALMA simulationWilner
Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAOIV. At the extremes of physics Extreme gravity: using pulsars to detect nHz gravity waves TeV sources: explained by VLBI!
Gravitational Wave Detection using a pulsar timing array with NANOGrav (Demorest +)
D. BackerPredicted timing residualsPredicted timing residuals Need ~20-40 MSPs with ~100 ns timing RMS bi-weekly, multi-freq obs for 5-10 years Timing precision depends on
- sensitivity (G/Tsys) (i.e. GBT and Arecibo) - optimal instrumentation (GUPPI -- wideband pulsar BE)
Credit: D. Manchester, G. HobbsNanoGrav
LS I +61 303: Solving the TeV mysteryDiscovered 1976 @ 100 MeV; variable 5 GHz emission.High mass binary: 12 M Be * , 13M NS or BH. Eccentric orbit e=0.7, period 26.5 days. X-rays peak @ periastron, radio 0.5 cycle later. TeV detected by Magic MODELS: Accretion powered relativistic jet (microQuasar?) Compact pulsar wind nebula> 400 GeVXrayRadioAlbert+ 2006Harrison + 2000
VLBA Images vs. Orbital Phase(orbit exaggerated)VLBA movie shows 'cometary' morphology => a Pulsar Wind Nebula shaped by the Be star envi-ronment, not a relativistic jet. Dhawan + VLBA resolution ~ 2AUBe
Gamma-Rays from AGN JetsGLAST launch scheduled for May 2008VLBA jet imaging on pc-scales during flares required to understand gamma ray productionPrelaunch survey: VIPS project to image 1100 objects (Taylor et al.)Planned: 43 GHz + GLAST monitoring of gamma ray blazars
Marscher et al.
NRAO in the modern contextGolden age of astrophysics: NRAO telescopes play a fundamental role in topical areas of modern astrophysics Precision cosmology: setting the baseline (Planck ++) Galaxy evolution and first (new) light: gas, dust, star formation (JWST, TMT) Birth of stars and planets: dust and gas on AU scales (JWST, Herschel) Testing basic physics: GR, fundamental constants, (LIGO, LISA) Resolving high energy phenomena: a ray source primer (GLAST, CONX)
Capabilities into next decade keep NRAO on the cutting edge ALMA -- biggest single step ever in ground based astronomy EVLA -- the premier cm telescope on the planet, and a major step to the SKA GBT -- just hitting its stride, with pending FPA revolution VLBA -- Mankinds highest resolution instrument
Current large programs: VLA, VLBA, GBT
AUI Operations ReviewFebruary 29 March 1, 2008
Radio interferometric planet search -- VLBA, VLA, GBT Coordinated radio and infrared survey for high mass star formation -- VLA Definitive test of star formation theory -- GBT Legacy survey of prebiotic molecules toward Sgr B2 and TMC-1 -- GBT Detecting nHz gravitational radiation using pulsar timing array -- GBT Star Formation History and ISM Feedback in Nearby Galaxies -- VLA LITTLE THINGS survey: HI in dwarf galaxies -- VLA Megamaser cosmology project -- GBT, VLBA, VLA Probing blazars through multi-waveband variability of flux, polarization, and structure -- VLBA MOJAVE/GLAST program: mas imaging of gamma ray sources -- VLBA VLA low frequency sky survey -- VLA Deep 1.4 GHz observations of extended CDFS -- VLA
GR tests: Timing of the Double Pulsar J0737-3039GBT provides the best timing precision for this system 6 post-Keplerian orbital terms give neutron star masses strong-field tests of GR to 0.05% accuracyMeasure relativistic spin precession:Obs = 5.11+/- 0.4 deg/yrGR = 5.07 deg/yrKramer et al., 2006, Science, 314, 97