1 retrieval: getting information out module 27. 2 retrieval: getting information out  retrieval...

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  • Slide 1
  • 1 Retrieval: Getting Information Out Module 27
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  • 2 Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval Cues
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  • 3 Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Spankys Yearbook Archive
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  • 4 Measures of Memory In recognition the person has to identify an item amongst others. E.g., a multiple-choice test 1.Name the capital of France a.Brussels b.Rome c.London d.Paris
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  • 5 Measures of Memory In recall the person must retrieve information using effort with very few external cues. E.g., an essay test. A fill-in-the blank test requires (cued) recall. 1.The capital of France is ______.
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  • 6 Measures of Memory In relearning the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material a second time. List Jet Dagger Tree Kite Silk Frog Ring It took 10 trials to learn this list List Jet Dagger Tree Kite Silk Frog Ring It took 5 trials to learn the list 1 day later Saving Original Trials Relearning Trials Relearning Trials 10 5 50% X 100
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  • 7 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Fire Truck truck red fire heat smoke smell water hose
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  • 8 Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you first need to activate one of the strands that lead to it, a process called priming.
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  • 9 Context Effects (encoding specificity) Scuba divers recalled more words underwater if they learnt the list underwater, and recalled more words on land if they learned the list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers
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  • 10 Dja Vu Dja Vu means "I've experienced this before. Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. The New Yorker Collection, 1990. Leo Cullum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved
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  • 11 Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly responded when retested in the same rather than a different context (Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989). Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier, Rutgers University
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  • 12 Moods and Memories (state-dependent memory) Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current mood. Emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues. Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures