1 the congress of vienna: 1814 - 1815. 2 napoleonic empire: 1813

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3 The Defeat of Napoleon Napoleon initially defeated at the Battle of Nations in 1813 European nations unsure how to proceed Who would negotiate with Napoleon? Led to the Frankfurt Proposals

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1 The Congress of Vienna: 2 Napoleonic Empire: 1813 3 The Defeat of Napoleon Napoleon initially defeated at the Battle of Nations in 1813 European nations unsure how to proceed Who would negotiate with Napoleon? Led to the Frankfurt Proposals 4 Frankfurt Proposals Following the defeat at Leipzig, Metternich offers the proposals Napoleon would remain French emperor France would retain its natural Rhine frontier Napoleon rejects the proposals 3 weeks later, Napoleon defeated by Quadruple Alliance 5 Quadruple Alliance Russia, Prussia, Austria and England Agreed to work together to stop any war or threat to the balance of power Would meet in Congress to discuss Austria saw this as defending the status quo France is continually viewed as a potential violator Concert of Europe 6 Abdication of Napoleon As part of the Treaty of Paris, 1814 Napoleon abdicated throne Exiled to Elba Bourbon Restoration Louis XVIII Congress of Vienna meets for first time in Sept. 1814 7 The Congress of Vienna Napoleon escapes Elba and begins his 100 days of rule. Defeated by Quadruple Alliance Congress of Vienna continues to meet informally and concludes 9 days prior to Napoleons final defeat at Waterloo 8 The Congress System Congress of Vienna was first in a series called the Congress System Diplomats wanted to preserve peace Gentlemans Agreement Verbal, no constitution Where conflict could lead to war - meeting to discuss resolution Early origins of international cooperation Congress of Vienna Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle Congress of Troppau Congress of Laibach Congress of Verona 9 The Dancing Congress Pageantry, parties, balls Banquets like pre 1789 Meant to generate good will between delegates Occupy their time since there was often no serious nature of work going on 10 The Congress of Vienna: Goals and Accomplishments 11 The Goal of the Congress of Vienna Draw an acceptable peace agreement in Europe No great rewards No great punishments Redraw the map of Europe as it existed pre-1789 in order to ensure peace & stability Status quo ante bellum 12 Goals Continued Leaders at the Congress agreed to a balance of power in Europe Ensuring that no country could dominate the continent, politically & militarily as France had done 13 Overall Accomplishments of the Congress Balanced settlement which ensured no major conflict for 40 yrs and then until 1914 Crimean War, Included France Kind to France, so as not to lead to feelings of revenge 14 Overall Accomplishment of the Congress Cont Ignored demands for greater democracy and nationalism Led to many issues in the 1800s between & within countries Desire to restore monarchies Principle of Legitimacy 15 Principle of Legitimacy Restore power to monarchs Return to power the ruling families deposed after 2 decades of revolution Bourbons in France, Spain and Naples Dynasties in Holland Papal States returned to the Pope 16 The German States German Confederacy was set up to replace the Holy Roman Empire German states reduced from over 300 to 39 Bicameral Diet established with delegates, presided by Austria Each state retained independence, war forbidden between states Consent of Confederacy necessary for foreign war 17 Condemnation of the Slave Trade In Feb 1815 the Congress condemned the slave trade Inconsistent with civilization & human rights 18 The Delegates at the Congress 19 Prince Klemens von Metternich: Objectives Austria Restore Europe to pre-French Revolution Dominated Congress Rejected ideas of French Revolution Conservative, resisted change Despised democracy & nationalism Anti-democratic policies followed throughout W. Europe 20 Lord Castlereagh: Objectives England To ensure France would never again become a dominant power in Europe Determined to diminish the prestige and influence of France Encircle France with larger and stronger states guaranteeing a balance of power 21 Czar Alexander I: Objectives Russia To organize an alliance system (Holy Alliance) of Christian monarchs to fight revolutions throughout the world Ineffective, idealistic, existed only on paper Britain & Pope didnt join Wanted a free and independent Poland With himself as King of Poland 22 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand: Objectives France Wanted to ensure that France would retain the rank of a major power in Europe Plays the role of mediator between Prussia/Russia and England/Austria 23 Treachery of Talleyrand Talleyrand secretly in touch with Alexander I What would happen after Napoleons overthrow Metternichs famous comment A lump of (dirt) in a silk stocking Vous etes de la merde dans un bas de soie 24 Karl von Hardenberg: Objectives Prussia Wanted to recover Prussian territory that was lost to Napoleon in 1807 Wanted additional territory in Northern Germany (Saxony) 25 Who Got What? 26 Who Got What? Compensation rewarded to states who made considerable sacrifices to defeat Napoleon England: Naval Bases Malta, Ceylon, Cape of Good Hope Austria: Lombardy, Venetia, Galicia, Illyrian Province (Adriatic Sea) 27 Who Got What Cont Russia: Most of Poland, Finland Alexander I became constitutional monarch of Poland (still autocratic Czar of Russia) Prussia: The Rhineland, part of Poland Sweden: Norway 28 Who Got What? France Encircled! Netherlands strengthened Belgium to Netherlands Northern border Prussia gets Rhenish land Eastern border Switzerland guaranteed neutrality Southeastern border German Confederation Eastern border Sardinia adds Genoa Southern border 29 30 Congress of Vienna: Comments The confederation of German states & re-division of Italy led to 19th c. unification activity Britain appeared to gain little BUTgained colonial power, commerce Became the major European colonial power Liberalism / Nationalism halted, albeit briefly Russia enters as a West European power from 1815 onwards Plays an important role in European diplomacy

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