12Cloisters Art Museum Final

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<ul><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 1/15</p><p>The Cloisters Museum, New YorkProject by: Trevor and Shotaro 7/18/11</p><p>BIOGRAPHY</p><p>Shotaro</p><p> The museum building was designed by Charles Collens (18731956), the architectof New York City's Riverside Church, in a simplified, paraphrased medieval style</p><p>which incorporated the cloister elements. The process of idealizing and creatingthe building began in the early 20th century. It has continued to be a host to</p><p>many different types of art and renovations since.</p><p> Joseph Breck (18851933), a curator of decorative arts and assistant director ofthe Metropolitan, and James J. Rorimer (19051966), who would later be named</p><p>director, were primarily responsible for the interior. Balancing Collens's</p><p>interpretation with strict attention to historical accuracy, Breck and Rorimer</p><p>created in the galleries a clear and logical flow from the Romanesque (ca.</p><p>1000ca. 1150) through the Gothic period (ca. 11501520).</p><p>Cloisters Art Museum, New York Abbaye Saint-Philibert, Tournus</p><p>Pictures-Cloisters Art Museum, Gardens (Google Maps)/ http://hubpages.com/hub/Why-Id-like-</p><p>to-Live-at-a-Medieval-Monastery</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 2/15</p><p>SITE RESPONSE</p><p>Shotaro</p><p>Site Environment/Birds Eye View (Google Maps)</p><p> The site is located by the Hudson River, sheltered by thick layers of trees. The building itself has many noticeable features from a birds eye view. The roof mainly</p><p>consists of sharped edged formations. However, Collens also develops rounded roofs,</p><p>which produce a structured division between shapes and dimensions. The court yard is bounded by the buildings walls. Yet, there are also openings located</p><p>between the arches of the building and by the roof less ceilings.</p><p> An identifiable characteristic of the garden are the brick paths placed in a shape ofcrosses.</p><p> The court yards of the medieval monasteries were meant to be utilized as a place ofisolation and meditation. Today, the gardens provide a place for the vegetation to grow</p><p>and provide a stylistic coordination between the plants and the buildings theme. People</p><p>can take a tour within the building and observe both the art inside the building and the</p><p>gardens.</p><p> Identifiable patterns are located within the building as the rooms tend to be clustered,each room divided by thick stone walls.</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 3/15</p><p>PROGRAM RESPONSE</p><p>Trevor</p><p> What are the various program components and how are they organized in thebuildings?</p><p>MAIN FLOOR</p><p>1. Entrance Hall</p><p>2. Romanesque Hall</p><p>3. Fuentiduena Chapel</p><p>4. St-Guilhem cloister</p><p>5. Langon Chapel</p><p>6. West Terrace</p><p>7. Pontaut Chapter House</p><p>8. Cuxa Cloister</p><p>9. Early Gothic Hall10. Gothic Chapel</p><p>11. Nine Heroes Tapestry Room</p><p>12. Hall of Unicorn Tapestries</p><p>13. Boppard Room</p><p>14. Burgos Room</p><p>15. Spanish Room</p><p>16. Late-Gothic Hall</p><p>17. Froville Arcade</p><p>18. Books and Reproductions</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 4/15</p><p>Plan View, Labeled Rooms Ma, Cloisters Museum</p><p>http://www.planetware.com/map/the-cloisters-map-us-nyc9.htm</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 5/15</p><p>Lower Level, Plan View-Trevor</p><p>Main Level, Plan View-Trevor</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 6/15</p><p>Circulation</p><p> The other, neutral galleries were arranged around the Cuxa Cloister to allow theeasy circulation of visitors from the entrance through rooms organized</p><p>chronologically from Romanesque to Late Gothic.</p><p> With its four separate chapels, each is representative of a step in thedevelopment of medieval architectural styles. He made sketches to show this</p><p>neat chronological progression paralleling the traffic pattern. (There is a sketch</p><p>showing the traffic pattern)</p><p> What are some of the spatial ordering principles observed?-According to the plan view, we can conclude a trend towards a structure</p><p>which forms rooms in a clustered manner yet, also developes opening with the</p><p>use of archways and roof less gardens.</p><p> What is the relationship between the inside and the outside, between thearchitecture and the natural environment?</p><p>-Enclosure within the building tends to be fairly consistent. The open sky and</p><p>vegetation is mainly incorporated within the gardens. This then created a strong</p><p>contrast between the gardens and the rooms of the buildings. Yet at the same</p><p>time, these contrasting effects are brought together by a unifying theme.</p><p> What is the general character of the architecture - formal, natural, ordered,random, etc.?- The general character of the architecture is Monastic from Romanesque to</p><p>Gothic.</p><p>"I think it would be well to develop one scheme in which the monastic form is</p><p>accurately adhered to; a second scheme with a paved courtyard, with some of those</p><p>buildings enclosing the cloisters,-"</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 7/15</p><p>Thematic Characteristics</p><p>Trevor</p><p> Romanesque Architecture-a simple, rectangular structure with three naves and a semi-circular apse at one</p><p>end</p><p> Typical elements of Romanesque architecture include thick walls, barrel vaults,the semi-circular apse, carved portals, and little but predominantly geometric</p><p>decoration- checkers, zigzags, etc.</p><p> From its thick walls the building can then be generalized that Romanesquestructures are one of massive solidity and strength.</p><p> Gothic Architecture-The pointed arch (courtyards), the ribbed vault, and the flying buttress</p><p>Example of Romanesque Structure- St. Albans</p><p>http://mylondontravels.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.html</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 8/15</p><p>SPATIAL ORDERING</p><p>Shotaro/Trevor</p><p> The museum has a tendency to feel clustered due to its many walls withinthe main level of the structure. However, in some rooms, Collen seems to</p><p>experiment with creating space in a skyward direction.</p><p> The designer also utilizes elements of closed masses within the rooms ofthe museum with the exception of the tower and the garden. This</p><p>opposition within a single structure can then be categorized as a form of</p><p>special duality.</p><p> What kinds of circulation or movement patterns are observed and how dothese reinforce the overall spatial organization?</p><p>-"The other neutral galleries were arranged around the Cuxa Cloister to allow the easy</p><p>circulation from visitors from the entrance through rooms organized chronologically."</p><p>Cloisters Museum, Main Level</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 9/15</p><p>Cloisters Museum, Lower Level</p><p>http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/galleryLoc.asp?dep=7&amp;Works=gallerylocatio</p><p>n_r</p><p>STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSShotaro</p><p> Columns are apparent in the alignment throughout the walls of the garden. Theyprovide both an expansion of space and stylistic appeal, while serving to hold</p><p>structural purposes.</p><p> By observation of the building, the structure mainly consists of brick, stone andmarble. Because these materials are conductors, it suggests a low temperature</p><p>setting. This characteristic of the building suggests a contrast between the</p><p>sunlight of the garden and the inside of the building.</p><p> The materials consistencies and use of more past architectural styles throughoutthe structure provide the medieval features that the architect attempted to</p><p>display. The structure dominates the total aspect of the building as thevegetation, the garden and other significant features serves to compliment the</p><p>building rather then</p><p>Picture of Cloisters Art Museum Building and Its Garden</p><p>http://www.examiner.com/coastal-travel-in-new-york/a-day-on-the-hudson-at-fort-</p><p>washington-park-manhattan-s-lighthouse-and-the-cloisters</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 10/15</p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS</p><p>Trevor</p><p>What kind of materials are used externally and internally to reflect the environmental</p><p>conditions?</p><p>-Metal and Glass Roof</p><p>Electric lighting and an upper story - were rejected, and finally Collens devised a glass</p><p>roof that gave the impression of an atrium space without the hazards</p><p>-Artificially weathered walls</p><p>To create that atmosphere he artificially weathered his museum, a basilica plan brick</p><p>shed, by hosing down the walls while the mortar was still fresh</p><p> How does the architecture respond to various natural forces such as light, wind,and climate?</p><p>Drawing on his architectural background, Collens saw the starting point for this</p><p>recapturing of the past in the organization of space in the museum. "A museum of this</p><p>character should be very intimate, should be self-enclosed, should have large rooms</p><p>and the windows should be comparatively small, in order to obtain a subdued light."</p><p>Example of light entrances within the Museum Structure</p><p>http://www.whidc.org/cloisters.html</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 11/15</p><p>Vegetation</p><p>Shotaro</p><p> Different types of vegetation are located within the museum. The vegetationalso incorporates medieval themes as they were utilized in the past for practical</p><p>uses such as herbal, fragrant and consumable purposes.</p><p> The link below is a site dedicated to the gardens within the Cloisters Museum inNew York. They provide categorized information of the plants, divided by their</p><p>unique qualities (scent, medical consumable). They also post individual</p><p>information and pictures of each plant. We can see that the Architectural</p><p>expression is shown continually in every aspect of the structure.</p><p>http://blog.metmuseum.org/cloistersgardens/</p><p>Known as Vervain, this plant was utilized for medical purposes and is considered as one</p><p>of the greatest medical vegetation in Western cultures.</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 12/15</p><p>HISTORICAL CONTINUITY</p><p>Trevor</p><p> What spatial patterns, overall character and other characteristics expressprevious architectural examples</p><p>-In March 1932 Collens argued for a mixture of Gothic and Romanesque arches,</p><p>combining the capitals of Trie and St. Guilhem-le-Desert in one cloister to represent a</p><p>protracted period of construction, common in the Middle Ages.</p><p>-What archetypes appear in the design?</p><p>Thick wallsRomanesque</p><p>The pointed arch - gothic</p><p>Semi-circular apseRomanesque</p><p>St. Guilhem-le-Desert</p><p>http://www.languedoc-holiday-guide.com/st-guilhem-le-desert.html</p><p>The capitals of Trie</p><p>http://www.flickr.com/photos/jbarry5/2697141649/</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 13/15</p><p> Does the overall character suggest references to previous periods or examplesfrom architectural history?</p><p>The character of the tower of The Cloisters is similar to the Tower of Monsempron and</p><p>the Bell tower of St. Trophime (built between the 12th and 15th century).</p><p>Bell Tower of St. Trophime Church, Arles (12th century)</p><p>http://www.flickr.com/photos/obartunov/5129110375/</p><p> For this general grouping he depended on the character of such monuments asthe church at Monsempron or the Monastery of St. Trophime in Arlesplan</p><p>The Church at Monsempron</p><p>http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?JS=23211</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 14/15</p><p>Sketches</p><p>Perspective</p><p>Perspective, Arches, Museum and Garden -ShotaroSection</p><p>Section, Building -Trevor</p><p>Elevation</p><p>Elevation, Building and Walls-Shotaro</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 12Cloisters Art Museum Final</p><p> 15/15</p><p>Works Cited</p><p>Leuchak, Mary. "Metropolitan Museum Journal."JSTOR. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.</p><p>Web.17July2011..</p><p>"Map of the Cloisters." PlanetWare Travel Guide - Hotels, Attractions, Pictures, Maps &amp;</p><p>More. Planet Ware. Web. 17 July 2011. .</p><p>Moore, Charles Willard, William J. Mitchell, and William Turnbull. The Poetics of Gardens.</p><p>Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1993. Print.</p><p>Parry, Stan. "The Formation of The Gothic Style." Key Elements of Gothic Architecture.</p><p>Cartage.Web.17July2011..</p><p>"Romanesque Architecture." Salamanca Guide. What Salamanca. Web. 17 July 2011.</p><p>.</p><p>"The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Works of Art: The Cloisters." The Metropolitan Museum</p><p>of Art, New York: Metmuseum.org. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web. 17 July</p><p>2011. .</p></li></ul>