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2. Geography 3. Bodies of Water
- The Tiber River was Romes major river.
- The Mediterranean Sea was a body of water the Italian Peninsula extended into.
4. More on Bodies of Water
- The Rhine and Danube Rivers were two rivers that bordered the northern part of the Roman Empire.
- There were seven hills Rome settled on or bordered.
- Aventine was the hill Remus chose to live on and so did many Plebeians. The Plebeians also built a temple to Ceres.
6. More on Hills
- Capitoline held many fortresses and held temples to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Moneta, and Concord.
- The temple of Magma Mater was located on Palentine.
7. Bordering Boundries
- Spain was the western boundary of the Roman Empire at its height.
- The Sahara Desert was the southern boundary of the Roman Empire at its height.
- Northeast Africa, which was Carthage at that time, bordered Rome across the Mediterranean Sea whom Rome finally conquered in the Third Punic War.
8. More on Bordering Boundries
- Gaul was northern land invaded by Caesar, secured under Claudius.
9. Neighboring lands and their Geography
- Carthage was mountainy, tropical, and green.
- Todays Sicily was once Carthage property and Sicily is an island off the Italian peninsula.
- The Sahara was south of Rome. The Sahara was complete desert, dry and sandy.
10. Religion 11. Etruscan Mysticism
- The Etruscans believed that gods gave them signs of nature.
- Etruscans thought they could predict good harvests by studying the migration of birds.
12. More on Etruscan Mysticism
- Etruscans diviners used the stars to plan the layouts of their town plan
- They also read the organs of animals before conducting burials.
13. Christian Beliefs
- Christian artists believed that their art should portray religious ideas than aspects of human life.
- When a Christian would die they would be buried in a catacomb because the Christians believed that they bury their dead together so
14. More on Christian beliefs
- that they could be easily reunited in the next life.
- Christians believed in one god only who controls life on earth and life after death.
15. Roman beliefs
- When Romans died their bodies would be cremated and left over ashes would be kept.
- At Roman religious ceremonies, Romans sacrificed animals to please their gods.
16. More on Roman beliefs
- Also, Romans believed that their recently deceased emperor was a god.
17. Jews and their beliefs
- Hadrian treated the Jews poorly during his reign, so the Jews led a revolt in which five hundred thousand Jews died.
- Jews believed in the Messiah, but rejected the belief that Jesus, the gods sacred son, resurrected.
18. More on Jews and their beliefs
- Some Jews accepted Roman rule. They accepted Herod, a non Jew, whom the Romans made king.
19. Achievements 20. System of Law
- Early Roman law was written down on tablets.
- These tablets were displayed at the Forum, which was Romes city square.
- These laws would have to be obeyed by all citizens of Rome.
- An accused person was considered guilty until proven guilty.
21. Military and the Dome
- Romans knew how to make pillars and arches, so started thinking out of the box.
- They knew how to handle concrete so after the walls were finished of a structure were finished, they hoisted a dome on the top and put it in place.
22. More on military and dome
- The dome was found in many public places in Rome.
- The army of Rome was made up of six thousand legions.
- Every citizen in the Roman Empire who owned land must have served in the army.
- Artists filled structures with colorful mosaics, which were bits of tile and other material put together to make one big picture.
- Sculptures were popular, too. Statues of gods and important officials stood in markets, temples, and other places.
24. More on Art
- Skillful artisans made jars, vases, mirrors, combs, and pins.
25. Politics 26. Hadrian
- Hadrian was a Roman emperor who encouraged the spread of Greek culture throughout the empire.
- Hadrian traveled throughout the empire to build and rebuild new structures, and to listen to the concerns of the inhabitants of each province.
27. More on Hadrian
- Hadrian kept peace in every province except Judea.
- Jews became angry and led a revolt regarding his care for Judea. After the revolt five hundred thousand Jews died fighting the Romans
- Augustus built new roads in the empire to improve trade and communication.
- Augustus restored eighty two temples and theaters.
- Augustus paid governors well and let them serve in office longer to help improve provinces.
29. More on Augustus
- Augustus built police departments to reduce crime.
30. Fall of Rome
- Social causes affected the fall of Rome because there was a decline in city population and an increase in slavery.
- Political causes affected the fall of Rome because there was a weak central government and the empire was divided.
31. More on the fall of Rome
- Military causes affected the falloff Rome because armies were made up of many foreign soldiers and invasions occurred.
- Economic causes affected the fall of Rome because of high taxes and trade and farming weakening.
32. Roman Government
- Rome was a republic, which citizens held the power to vote.
- Rulers who held absolute power for more than six month were called Consuls.
- The twelve tablets were basic principles of Roman Law.
33. Economy 34. Trade
- Through a vast network of concrete roads, trade took place.
- As trade increased, provincial cities became centers of industry and commerce.
- Ships carried wheat from Egypt to Italy and red pottery was exported west to Brittan and east to India.
35. More on Trade
- Throughout the Mediterranean Sea, Rome traded with Asia Minor, Syria, Brittan, Gaul, Spain, Macedonia, and Egypt.
- During reign, Augustus issued a new currency in the form of coins.
- The main coin was a denarius.
- For example, a silver denarius was worth twelve times less than a gold one.
37. More on Currency
- The designs on the coin depicted the emperor and his building projects.
38. Price Inflation
- The price was increasing in Rome, at the time of its last days, because the lack of precious material to make a denarius.
- A bag of wheat would cost one denarius, but since the price inflation occurred, it would then cost two hundred denarius.
39. More on Price Inflation
- The inflation hurt commerce, because it made lack of money to supply the army.
- The civil wars Rome was facing cost an enormous amount of money the supply the army.
- In this case, the emperor had to raise the taxes and few people had high enough incomes to pay what they owned.
41. More on Taxes
- One reason for peoples inability to pay their taxes was that the empires supply of gold and silver coins was declining.
42. Social Structure 43. Family Life
- In the family the father was the boss.
- He could have the power to execute his relatives if they committed a wrong act that affected the whole family.
- If a newborn was born with a problem, the father would choose if the baby lives with the family.
44. More on Family Life
- If the baby was accepted into the family, the baby wears a bulla, necklace, and is taken care of.
- If the baby was not accepted, the baby would be left outside to die.
- They held debt bondage which means they owned property, and let others rent the space, but when that person couldnt pay off the