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  • 1.

2. Geography 3. Bodies of Water

  • The Tiber River was Romes major river.
  • The Mediterranean Sea was a body of water the Italian Peninsula extended into.

4. More on Bodies of Water

  • The Rhine and Danube Rivers were two rivers that bordered the northern part of the Roman Empire.

5. Hills

      • There were seven hills Rome settled on or bordered.
      • Aventine was the hill Remus chose to live on and so did many Plebeians. The Plebeians also built a temple to Ceres.

6. More on Hills

      • Capitoline held many fortresses and held temples to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Moneta, and Concord.
      • The temple of Magma Mater was located on Palentine.

7. Bordering Boundries

      • Spain was the western boundary of the Roman Empire at its height.
      • The Sahara Desert was the southern boundary of the Roman Empire at its height.
      • Northeast Africa, which was Carthage at that time, bordered Rome across the Mediterranean Sea whom Rome finally conquered in the Third Punic War.

8. More on Bordering Boundries

      • Gaul was northern land invaded by Caesar, secured under Claudius.

9. Neighboring lands and their Geography

  • Carthage was mountainy, tropical, and green.
  • Todays Sicily was once Carthage property and Sicily is an island off the Italian peninsula.
  • The Sahara was south of Rome. The Sahara was complete desert, dry and sandy.

10. Religion 11. Etruscan Mysticism

  • The Etruscans believed that gods gave them signs of nature.
  • Etruscans thought they could predict good harvests by studying the migration of birds.

12. More on Etruscan Mysticism

  • Etruscans diviners used the stars to plan the layouts of their town plan
  • They also read the organs of animals before conducting burials.

13. Christian Beliefs

  • Christian artists believed that their art should portray religious ideas than aspects of human life.
  • When a Christian would die they would be buried in a catacomb because the Christians believed that they bury their dead together so

14. More on Christian beliefs

  • that they could be easily reunited in the next life.
  • Christians believed in one god only who controls life on earth and life after death.

15. Roman beliefs

  • When Romans died their bodies would be cremated and left over ashes would be kept.
  • At Roman religious ceremonies, Romans sacrificed animals to please their gods.

16. More on Roman beliefs

  • Also, Romans believed that their recently deceased emperor was a god.

17. Jews and their beliefs

  • Hadrian treated the Jews poorly during his reign, so the Jews led a revolt in which five hundred thousand Jews died.
  • Jews believed in the Messiah, but rejected the belief that Jesus, the gods sacred son, resurrected.

18. More on Jews and their beliefs

  • Some Jews accepted Roman rule. They accepted Herod, a non Jew, whom the Romans made king.

19. Achievements 20. System of Law

      • Early Roman law was written down on tablets.
      • These tablets were displayed at the Forum, which was Romes city square.
      • These laws would have to be obeyed by all citizens of Rome.
      • An accused person was considered guilty until proven guilty.

21. Military and the Dome

  • Romans knew how to make pillars and arches, so started thinking out of the box.
  • They knew how to handle concrete so after the walls were finished of a structure were finished, they hoisted a dome on the top and put it in place.

22. More on military and dome

  • The dome was found in many public places in Rome.
  • The army of Rome was made up of six thousand legions.
  • Every citizen in the Roman Empire who owned land must have served in the army.

23. Art

  • Artists filled structures with colorful mosaics, which were bits of tile and other material put together to make one big picture.
  • Sculptures were popular, too. Statues of gods and important officials stood in markets, temples, and other places.

24. More on Art

  • Skillful artisans made jars, vases, mirrors, combs, and pins.

25. Politics 26. Hadrian

      • Hadrian was a Roman emperor who encouraged the spread of Greek culture throughout the empire.
  • Hadrian traveled throughout the empire to build and rebuild new structures, and to listen to the concerns of the inhabitants of each province.

27. More on Hadrian

      • Hadrian kept peace in every province except Judea.
  • Jews became angry and led a revolt regarding his care for Judea. After the revolt five hundred thousand Jews died fighting the Romans

28. Augustus

  • Augustus built new roads in the empire to improve trade and communication.
  • Augustus restored eighty two temples and theaters.
  • Augustus paid governors well and let them serve in office longer to help improve provinces.

29. More on Augustus

  • Augustus built police departments to reduce crime.

30. Fall of Rome

  • Social causes affected the fall of Rome because there was a decline in city population and an increase in slavery.
  • Political causes affected the fall of Rome because there was a weak central government and the empire was divided.

31. More on the fall of Rome

  • Military causes affected the falloff Rome because armies were made up of many foreign soldiers and invasions occurred.
  • Economic causes affected the fall of Rome because of high taxes and trade and farming weakening.

32. Roman Government

  • Rome was a republic, which citizens held the power to vote.
  • Rulers who held absolute power for more than six month were called Consuls.
  • The twelve tablets were basic principles of Roman Law.

33. Economy 34. Trade

  • Through a vast network of concrete roads, trade took place.
  • As trade increased, provincial cities became centers of industry and commerce.
  • Ships carried wheat from Egypt to Italy and red pottery was exported west to Brittan and east to India.

35. More on Trade

  • Throughout the Mediterranean Sea, Rome traded with Asia Minor, Syria, Brittan, Gaul, Spain, Macedonia, and Egypt.

36. Currency

  • During reign, Augustus issued a new currency in the form of coins.
  • The main coin was a denarius.
  • For example, a silver denarius was worth twelve times less than a gold one.

37. More on Currency

  • The designs on the coin depicted the emperor and his building projects.

38. Price Inflation

  • The price was increasing in Rome, at the time of its last days, because the lack of precious material to make a denarius.
  • A bag of wheat would cost one denarius, but since the price inflation occurred, it would then cost two hundred denarius.

39. More on Price Inflation

  • The inflation hurt commerce, because it made lack of money to supply the army.

40. Taxes

      • The civil wars Rome was facing cost an enormous amount of money the supply the army.
      • In this case, the emperor had to raise the taxes and few people had high enough incomes to pay what they owned.

41. More on Taxes

  • One reason for peoples inability to pay their taxes was that the empires supply of gold and silver coins was declining.

42. Social Structure 43. Family Life

      • In the family the father was the boss.
      • He could have the power to execute his relatives if they committed a wrong act that affected the whole family.
      • If a newborn was born with a problem, the father would choose if the baby lives with the family.

44. More on Family Life

      • If the baby was accepted into the family, the baby wears a bulla, necklace, and is taken care of.
      • If the baby was not accepted, the baby would be left outside to die.

45. Patricians

  • They held debt bondage which means they owned property, and let others rent the space, but when that person couldnt pay off the