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  • 1. SF6 training documentsFor certification according to Regulation (EC) No. 842/2006 on certainfluorinated greenhouse gases, Regulation (EC) No. 305/2008 on theestablishment of minimum requirements for the certification ofpersonnel, and the German Chemical Climate Protection Ordinance(ChemKlimaschutzV)

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PUBLICATION DETAILSSF6 training documentsPublished by:ZVEI - Zentralverband Elektrotechnik und Elektronikindustrie e.V.(German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association)Stresemannallee 19, D-60596 Frankfurt am Main, GermanyBDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V.(German Association of Energy and Water Industries)Reinhardtstr. 32, D-10117 Berlin, GermanyForum Netztechnik/Netzbetrieb im VDE (FNN)(Power Supply Technology/Power Supply Operation Forum of the VDE (German Association forElectrical, Electronic and Information Technologies))Bismarckstr. 33, D-10625 Berlin, GermanyContacts:Johannes Stein, ZVEI Fachverband Energietechnik (Energy Technology Unit within ZVEI)Thoralf Bohn, Forum Netztechnik/Netzbetrieb im VDETel.: +49 69 6302-265Fax:+49 69 6302-234E-mail: etechnik@zvei.orgwww.zvei.orgwww.sf6-energietechnik.deEditorial team:SF6 Training and CertificationPeter Ball, ABB AGAndreas Lehmann, Vattenfall Europe BerlinMario Prfert, Siemens AGBernd Drews, ABB AGAndreas Bscher, AREVA Energietechnik GmbH SachsenwerkPaul Blumenthal, AREVA T&D AGThoralf Bohn, Forum Netztechnik/Netzbetrieb im VDEHayder Ali, DB Energie GmbHMichael Hippenstiel, DB Energie GmbHLudwig Rieder, DILO Armaturen und Anlagen GmbHMartin Grote, Driescher-WegbergReinhold Haug, EnBW Regional AGPeter Pilzecker, G.A.S. Gesellschaft fr analytische Sensorsystem mbHAndreas Reimller, ABB AGNorbert Lambrecht, RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbHBernhard Tilwitz- von Keiser, Siemens AGPeter Jannick, SOLVAY FLUOR GmbHJohannes Stein, ZVEITitle image: Vattenfall Europe BerlinDespite exercising the utmost care, the publisher accepts no liability for the contents.All rights, in particular the right to copy, distribute and translate this document, are reserved. No partof this document may be reproduced in any form (print, photocopy, microfilm or other) or stored,processed, copied or distributed by means of electronic systems without the written permission ofZVEI/FNN.Edition: February 2009 3. ContentsContentsRequirements listed in the Annex to Regulation (EC) No. 305/2008 andthe corresponding sections of this document51 INTRODUCTION62 BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTALISSUES (T)72.1 Greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect72.2 Impact of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect 92.3 The Kyoto Protocol 102.4 Global warming potential 112.5 The Voluntary Commitment on SF6 as an insulation andquenching gas132.6 The European Regulation on certain fluorinated greenhousegases152.7 The national implementation regulation in Germany253 SULPHUR HEXAFLUORIDE (SF6) 263.1 Physical, chemical and environmental characteristics of SF6 (T) 263.2 SF6 quality according to relevant industry standards (T) 273.3 Re-use of SF6 and the different re-use categories (T)283.3.1Inspection SF6 reclamation and purification on site 293.3.2Recovery regeneration of SF6 to produce new gas in accordance with IEC 60376 293.3.3Disposal incineration of SF6294 CHECKING THE SF6 QUALITY 314.1 Introduction 314.2. Monitoring the gas quality314.2.1 Moisture, air and CF4314.2.2 By-products344.2.3 Oil mist 394.3. Combination measuring devices 395 USE OF SF6 IN ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT (INSULATION,ARC QUENCHING) (T)416 UNDERSTANDING THE DESIGN OF ELECTRIC POWEREQUIPMENT (T)486.2 Structure of switchgear systems516.3 Structure of SF6-insulated medium-voltage switchgear systems 56Page 3 / 99 4. Contents7 RECOVERY OF SF6 AND SF6 MIXTURES AND PURIFICATIONOF SF6 (P)607.1 Practical structure of a process flow for the recovery of SF6607.2 Measuring the gas quality627.2.1. Gas connection637.2.2. Measurement 637.2.3. Collecting the measurement gas647.2.4. Evaluating the measurement against threshold values 657.3 Provision of basic knowledge regarding the use of different filtertypes and adsorbents used in service devices or mobile prefilterunits 657.4 Operation of SF6 recovery equipment (P)667.4.1 Function: Extraction of SF6 gas687.4.2 Deactivating the SF6 service equipment 747.5 Storage and transportation of SF6 (T)807.6 Working on open SF6 compartments (P) 827.7 Neutralising SF6 by-products (T) 847.8 Operation of tight drilling systems, if necessary (P)868 SF6 DATA RECORDING OBLIGATIONS 889 SOURCES AND REFERENCES 99(P) Practical part of the training and examination(T) Theoretical part of the training and examinationPage 4 5. ContentsRequirements listed in the Annex to Regulation (EC) No. 305/2008and the corresponding sections of this document TopicNo. in Annex to Section of this 305/2008 training documentBasic knowledge of relevant1. 2environmental issues (climatechange, Kyoto Protocol, GlobalWarming Potential), the relevantprovisions of Regulation (EC) No.842/2006 and of the relevantRegulations implementing theprovisions of Regulation (EG) No.842/2006Physical, chemical and environmental 2. 3.1characteristics of SF6Use of SF6 in electric power 3. 5equipment (insulation, arc quenching)SF6 quality, according to the relevant 4. 3.2industrial standardsUnderstanding the design of electric 5. 6power equipmentChecking the SF6 quality 6. 4Recovery of SF6 and SF6 mixtures 7. 7and purification of SF6Storage and transportation of SF68. 7.5Operation of SF6 recovery equipment9. 7.4Operation of tight drilling systems, if10.7.8necessaryRe-use of SF6 and different re-use 11.3.3categoriesWorking on open SF6 compartments 12.7.6Neutralising SF6 by-products 13.7.7Monitoring of SF6 and appropriate14.8data recording obligations undernational or community legislation orinternational agreementsPage 5 / 99 6. Introduction1IntroductionThese training documents have been developed by colleagues workingin an honorary capacity from the member companies of the BDEW, VIKand ZVEI associations and from the company Solvay. The associations,their member companies and Solvay are parties to the VoluntaryCommitment on SF6.The new German and European legislation sets down examination andcertification requirements for the training of employees involved in therecovery of SF6 gas. These training documents are based on the Annexto Regulation (EC) No. 305/2008. They contain explanations aimed atharmonising the requirements and training contents in Germany andsupporting both the training providers and the employees being trained.The objective is to ensure that the training providers are in a position toissue the certification documents in agreement with the relevant regionalauthorities.The legislative requirements are limited to the recovery of SF6 and theassociated environmental protection aspects. In some areas, thesetraining documents extend beyond this very limited scope to explore anumber of supplementary issues and safety aspects. Not all thesesupplementary issues can be examined in depth here and, whereappropriate, the training documents refer to additional sources ofinformation.This SF6 training document is intended as a training resource but also asa work of reference for trainers and trainees alike. From the highlydetailed explanations in each section, extracts can be createdindividually for training purposes. Please note that, for each section, thetraining contents must always be at least aligned with the examinationquestions.Page 6 7. Basic knowledge of relevant environmental issues2 Basic knowledge of relevant environmental issues (T)2.1 Greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effectSulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas that has been used since around1960 in electric power transmission and distribution equipment withvoltages exceeding 1000 V. Its special physical characteristics make itideal for use in various switching and insulation applications.SF6 is an inert, non-flammable, non-toxic insulation medium. Although itis a relatively ozone-friendly gas, it has a high global warming potential.For this reason, SF6 is one of the six greenhouse gases regulated by theKyoto Protocol. These are gases in the atmosphere that prevent long-wave infra-red radiation from being emitted directly from the Earthssurface into space. They behave like the glass panes of a greenhouse,causing the entire atmosphere to heat up. Natural greenhouse gasesinclude water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane and nitrous oxide.Man-made greenhouse gases are HFCs, PFCs, CFCs and SF6.The greenhouse effect causes the Earth to heat up due to the presenceof greenhouse gases and water vapour in the atmosphere. The termoriginally came from the greenhouses used for gardening, in which thesuns rays warm the air behind the glass panes and thus heat the interiorof the greenhouse. This warmth enables plants to germinate, bloom andbear fruit earlier than normal. This is a highly specific use of the term"greenhouse effect".Today, however, we use the term in a much wider sense. Because ofthe similarities between the mechanisms in real greenhouses and themechanisms in the Earths atmosphere, the accumulation in the Earthsatmosphere of heat from solar radiation is described as the "atmosphericgreenhouse effect".Page 7 / 99 8. Basic knowledge of relevant environmental issuesFigure 1 Short-wave solar radiation enters the atmosphereand heats the surface of the Earth. Long-wave radiation is re-emitted from the Earths surface and almost all of it isabsorbed into the atmosphere. In the thermal equilibrium, halfof the absorbed energy in the atmosphere is radiateddownward to the Earths surface, and the other half into space.The figures indicate the radiated energy in watts per squaremeter.11The greenhouse effect is based on just a few steps:1. The Sun radiates a huge amount of energy to the Earth in the form of electromagnetic waves. As a result, the surface of the Sun is cooled (radiation cooling).2. Most of the short-wave, visibl