5. asynchronous interconnections 2

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© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 1 Asynchronous Interconnections LCC, CCC, VSC, VFT Mike Bahrman P.E., ABB Grid Systems, HVDC Power Transmission, October 26, 2011, Mexico City © ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 2 Asynchronous Interconnections Topics Application Technology HVDC CCC VSC VFT Project examples Station tour of Rapid City Potential Baja Norte application Discussion

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Page 1: 5. Asynchronous Interconnections 2

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 1

Asynchronous Interconnections LCC, CCC, VSC, VFT

Mike Bahrman P.E., ABB Grid Systems, HVDC Power Transmission, October 26, 2011, Mexico City

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 2

Asynchronous Interconnections Topics

� Application

� Technology

� HVDC

� CCC

� VSC

� VFT

� Project examples

� Station tour of Rapid City

� Potential Baja Norte application

� Discussion

Page 2: 5. Asynchronous Interconnections 2

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 3

Asynchronous HVDC interconnections Back-to-back ties (or lines) across grid boundaries

� Incremental interconnections between regions

� Controlled energy trade

� Shared reserves

� Increase diversity

� Improve reliability

� Enable mutual assistance and emergency support

� Isolate disturbances – “fire wall” against cascading outages, alternative solution to “too big to fail”

� Application issues� Relative system strength� Voltage stability� Wind Generation� System restoration

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 4

Differences - HVDC Classic, CCC and HVDC LightFunction in

converter station Conventional

HVDCMission

CCCHVDC

Rapid City

HVDC Light

Valves Thyristor Thyristor IGBT Connection valve-AC

gridConverter

transformer Converter

transformer + series capacitor

Phase reactors (+ transformer)

Filtering & reactive compensation

22% in filters + 35% shunt capacitors

15-30% in filters +35% in series

capacitors

<10% in filters

DC smoothing Smoothing reactor + DC filt

Smoothingreactor + DC filt

DC capacitor

AC system requirements

SCC > 2x Converter rating

SCC>1.3x Converter rating

Dead load or wind plant possible

Voltage Control Filter + cap bank switching

Filter switch + series cap load

Continuous & dynamic

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© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 5

Transfer capability Voltage stability v relative system strength

HVDCLOW SCR

HVDCMED SCR

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 6

Modular back-to-back CCC asynchronous tie

HVDC Classic

HVDC CCC

� Improved stability for weak systems due to commutation capacitor

� Higher power for given location

� Simplified reactive power control

� Garabi: 4x550 MW

� Rapid City Tie: 2x100 MW

� Modular design for shorter construction time

� Least expensive, most efficient asynchronous tie technology for moderately weak system

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© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 7

HVDC versus VSC HVDC High level comparison

� For the same power and voltage rating, HVDC with VSC is generally a little more expensive than conventional HVDC for the same configuration

� For high power with strong grid, relative cost differential is higher

� For back-to-back with strong grid, the cost differential is higher

� For lower power levels and / or for relatively weak ac systems, the cost differential is less or may even reverse

� Some applications are only possible with VSC

� Full load losses for conventional HVDC are about 0.7% per converter whereas those for VSC HVDC are about 0.9%

� Additional system benefits provided by VSC, e.g. voltage support

� Continuous overload of 15-30% adds 5-10% to station cost for both technologies, no “inherent” low ambient overload with VSC

� More up-side foreseen with HVDC Light

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 8

Variable Frequency Transformer

� Source: “Variable Frequency Transformer – A Simple and Reliable Transmission Technology”, Paul Marken

Page 5: 5. Asynchronous Interconnections 2

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 9

VFT as asynchronous interconnection Are networks decoupled?

sin )( 2112

21

X

VVP �� ��

V1/�1 V2/�2Power flow PP � What happens if there is a sudden bus voltage reduction on one side due to network event?

� What happens if there is sudden change in phase angle on one side due to contingency?

� What happens if there is a trip and reclosing attempt of radial ac lines?

� What is the impact of the high impedance on stability margin?

� What are the issues with wind plant interconnecting wind plant?

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 10

Customer: CIEN

Year of commissioning: 1999, 2002

Brazil - Argentina Interconnection

Customer’s need

� Enable Argentina (50 Hz) and Brazil (60 Hz) to utilize their electricity resources more efficiently and cost effectively

ABB’s response

� Turnkey 2,200 MW 140 kV (± 70 kV) HVDC back-to-back system (4 x 550 MW)

Customer’s benefits

� The HVDC link enables competitive power providers to import and export power to take advantage of peaks and troughs in supply and demand between Brazil’s and Argentina’s asynchronous networks

Page 6: 5. Asynchronous Interconnections 2

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 11

Customer:Basin Electric Power

Year of commissioning: 2003

Rapid City DC Tie US

Customer’s need� Interconnect the power system of eastern USA

with the western system with a 200 MW back-to- back HVDC station at Rapid City, South Dakota

ABB’s response

� A turnkey 2 x 100 MW HVDC back-to-back system with CCC

Customer’s benefits

� The Rapid City DC tie will help to meet the increasing power demands in two asynchronous networks

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 12

Customer’s need� Integration of power markets

� Optimal utilization of differences in production and consumption

ABB’s response� Turnkey 150 MW HVDC back-to-back system

Customer’s benefits� Provides low-cost power to a growing market

� Strengthens the local grids on both sides of the US-Mexican border

Sharyland Mission Asynchronous Tie US - Mexico

Customer:Sharyland Utilities

Year of commissioning: 2007

Page 7: 5. Asynchronous Interconnections 2

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 13

Customer’s need

� Raise transmission capacity between the two regions Québec and Ontario

ABB’s response

� 1,250 MW 175 kV HVDC back-to back station (2 x 625 MW)

Customer’s benefits

� Gives Ontario access to emission-free hydroelectric power from Quebec that replaces fossil fuel sources

� Improved grid reliability in both regions

Customer:Hydro-Québec

Year of commissioning: 2009

OutaouaisCanada

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 14

Customer’s need

� Regional power need close to two new hydropower plants in the northwest

ABB’s response� 800 MW back-to-back station with CCC

� 2 x 400 MW CCC

� ESCR < 1

Customer’s benefits

� Highly efficient power transmission

� Decoupling of a large generation area from a small local network.

Customer:Abengoa group

End user: Porto Velho Transmissora de Energia S.A.

Year of commissioning: 2012

Rio Madeira back-to-back, 2 x 400 MW Brazil

Page 8: 5. Asynchronous Interconnections 2

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 15

Rapid City Tie 200 MW asynchronous interconnection, HVDC CCC

� Rated power: 2x100 MW

� DC voltage: ±13 kV

� Transmission: Back-to-Back

� System voltage: 230 kV

� In operation: 2003

� Schedule: 19 months

� Reactive: ±60 MVAr

� E-W asynchronous interconnection

� Weak system operation

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 16

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© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 27

High Pass Filter

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 28

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© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 31

Operator Work Station

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 32

Contented Neighbors

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© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 33

Happy Customers

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 34

How and where to interconnect Baja Norte?

MIGUEL(SDG & E)

IMPERIAL VALLEY(SCE)

MEXICALI588MW SAN LUIS

RIO COLORADOMW

CPU

220MW

220MW

CPDCPT

( 2 )

( 3 )

ROSARITO620MW

SN. VICENTE

180MW

LOS MOCHIS176MW

DURANGO II

TEPIC113MW

AGUASCALIENTES406MW

( 2 )

( 2 )

PTO.VALLARTA87MW

( 2 )( 2 )

( 3 )

( 3 )

LEON326MW

IRAPUATO289MW

A. PRIETA240MW

CELAYA288MW

GUADALAJARA1328MW

QUERETARO422MW

( 2 )( 2 )

MAZAMITLAMORELIA170MW

SALAMANCA189MW

CD. GUZMAN88MW

APATZINGAN75MWMANZANILLO

155MW1900MW

( 2 )CUERNAVACA

84MW

( 2 )

( 2 )

117MW

POZA RICA127MW

MAZATEPECTEZIUTLAN

96MWJALAPA86MWTLAXCALA226MW

PTO. PEÑASCOSONOYTA

( 2 )

NOGALES64MW AGUA PRIETA

21

DIABLO

EAGLE PASS(CPL)

( 2 )

ESCOBEDO208MW ( 2 )

( 2 )59MW

EL FUERTE

BACURATO92MW

( 2 )

( 2 )( 2 )COMEDERO100MWHUMAYA

90MW

PLAZA

( 2 )( 2 )

( 2 )

110MW

616MW

( 2 )( 2 )

PUEBLAAZUFRES

( 2 )AGUAMILPA960MW

( 2 ) ( 2 )

( 2 )

EL SAUZ 424MW218MW109MW

866MW

98MW

CARAPAN213MW

D. GUERRA338MW

8

9

7

6

5

2.2

3.1

2.3

1

MAZATLAN165MW

( 2 )

( 3 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

O.I. 230 KV

( 2 )

( 3 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

TECNOLOGICO

EL HABAL

( 2 )

( 2 )

MONCLOVA

190MW

73MW

459MW

84MW

HUITES422MW( 2 )( 2 )P. NUEVO

2.1 ( 2 )ZIMAPANDAÑU

QRO.POT

MONTE MORELOS122 MWW

OP.INC.230 KV

V. GUERRERO

292MW

S. BERNABE

( 2 )

( 2 )

SN. FELIPE

SN. QUINTIN

TIJUANA353MW

ENSENADA112MW

VILLACONSTITUCION

56MW

STO.DOMINGO

AGUSTIN OLACHEA

SANTIAGO

CABO SANLUCAS46MW

65MW

HERMOSILLO543MW

554MW AVALOSFCO. VILLA

135MW

CANANEANVO. CASASGRANDES

107MW

SANTIAGO106MW

BLEDALESLA PAZ I

SAN JOSEDEL CABO

P. PRIETA IILA PAZ66MW

112.5MW

LORETO5MW

( 2 )

SASABE

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

NACOZARI131MW

CD. JUAREZ475MW

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

STA. CRUZ

GUAYMAS94MW

CAMARGO183MW

CHIHUAHUA266MW

316MWSAMALAYUCA

( PTECI )( PEEECo)

( EPECO) AZCARATE ( EPECO)

P. E. CALLES

MOCTEZUMA

HERCULES

632MW

PTO.LIBERTAD

6 DE ABRIL158MW

SANTA ANA20MW

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

CD. OBREGON234MW

NAVOJOA127MW

TOPOLOBAMPO360MW ( 2 )

( 2 )

GUASAVE91MW

CULIACAN285MW

CUAUHTEMOC124MW

( 2 ) 399MW

LA AMISTAD66MW PIEDRAS NEGRAS

539MW

NAVA ( 2 )( 2 )

( 2 )( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )( 2 )

( 2 )( 2 )

( 2 )( 2 )

FRONTERA

NVA. ROSITA

RIO ESCONDIDO1200MW

CARBON II1400MW LAREDO

(CPL)

NVO. LAREDO149MW

PRESA FALCON(CPL)

BROWNSVILLE(CPL)

MATAMOROS196MWRIO

BRAVO375MW

FALCON24MW31MW

320MW

239MW

918MW

G. PALACIO631MW

LERDO

ANDALUCIA

( 2 )

TORREONSUR

LAMPAZOS

V. GARCIA

HUINALAMONTERREY1775MW

REYNOSA220MW

CD. VICTORIA101MW

MATEHUALA68MW

ZACATECAS281MW

SALTILLO351MW

TAMPICO402MW

ALTAMIRA770MW

700MWSN. L. POTOSI457MW

RIO VERDE41MW

CD. VALLES

2100MWTUXPAN

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

( 2 )

O.I. 230 KV

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© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 35

Interconnection of Baja Norte Questions and discussion points

� Location

� Baja end

� Sonora end

� US border (La Rosita and Tijuana)

� Back-to-back or line

� Rating

� Relative system strength

� Expandability

� Integration of wind resources

� System restoration

� Technology

� Economics, O&M

© ABB Group November 2, 2011 | Slide 36