5 levels of organization. cells tissues organs organ systems organism
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5 Levels of Organization
5 Levels of OrganizationCells
CellsThe cell theory says that: 1- All life is made of cells. 2- Cells are the smallest living unit in living things 3- All cells come from other cells
Cell come in many typesNerve cellsSkin cellsMuscle cells
TissueCells + Cells = Tissue
There are 4 types of tissue in your body:ConnectiveNerveEpithelialMuscle
OrganTissue + Tissue = Organ
Organs are what we usually think about when we think about parts of the body
OrganConnective tissue makes up organs like the bones, blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, etcFat tissue is a type of connective tissueFat tissue burns 2-3 calories per pound per day, (compared to muscle tissues 7-10).
OrganNerve Tissue Makes up organs like the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
OrganEpithelial Tissue makes up organs like the skin, hair, and fingernails
OrganMuscle tissue makes up organs like the heart, stomach, kidneys, lungs, biceps, etc
Organ SystemOrgan + Organ = Organ System
You have 11 organ systems in your body.
11 organ systems of the body
Organ Systems1- Integumentary SystemThe integumentary system is a temperature regulator, sensory system, and protects the organism. (first line of defense.)Skin, hair, and fingernails are some organs that make up the integumentary system.
Organ SystemsIntegumentary system facts:Skin is the largest organ in your body.Skin is 16% of your body weightYou completely replace your skin cells about once per month.About 90% of dust in your house is dead skin cells.Hair is the fastest growing organ in the bodyAverage #s of hairs:redheads= 80,000Brown/black = 100,000Blondes = 120,000 Fingernails grow faster during the summer and on your dominant hand.Your skin gets rid of 20% of your bodily waste products.The most sweat glands on your body are in your feet, and the least are on your back.Women have more sweat glands than men
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your integumentary system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems2- Muscular systemThe muscular system allows us to moveBiceps, triceps, hamstring, and quadriceps, are all organs in the muscular system.
Organ SystemsMuscular system facts:The busiest muscles in your muscular system are your eyes. They move more than 100,000 times per day!The largest muscle in your body is the gluteus maximusIt takes 17 muscles to smile and 42 to frown.Muscles cant push, they can only pull.Muscles cant function without calcium.
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your muscular system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems3- Skeletal systemThe skeletal system provides support and protection for vital organs.Bones, ligaments, and tendons are some organs that make up a skeletal system.
Organ SystemsSkeletal system facts:Your body has about 206 bones although you were born with over 300 bones.You have the same number of bones in your neck as a giraffe does!Bone marrow makes blood cells, but bones are alive, and would die without blood.The longest bone in your body is your femur. (Thigh)Your bones are about 60% calcium compounds.Over half of the bones in your entire body are in your hands and feet.
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your skeletal system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems4- Nervous systemThe nervous system sends messages that control body functionsThe brain, spinal cord, and nerves are some organs in the nervous system.
Organ SystemsNervous system facts:Your nervous system functions using electricity.Messages can travel through your neurons at speeds of 250 mph!The avg. # of neurons in a human brain is 100 billion. (The same as the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy)The longest neuron (nerve cell) known to man is 15 feet long (in a giraffe leg).If you lined up all the neurons in your body, it would stretch 600 miles!Your brain is 2% of your bodies weight, but uses 20% of your bodies energy.Paralysis happens when the brain cant communicate with a certain part of the body.
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your nervous system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems5- Endocrine SystemThe endocrine system produces chemicals that control the body (ex. Hormones)The adrenal glands, pituitary gland (in brain) and pancreas are all organs in the endocrine system.
Organ SystemsEndocrine system facts:Steroids, insulin, and adrenaline are 3 of the 30 hormones made by your body.It only takes a tiny bit of a hormone to cause a very large reactionPhysical growth, hyperactivity, depression, stress, hunger and many other emotions are linked to hormone production.
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your endocrine system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems6- Cardiovascular system (circulatory)The cardiovascular system carries food and oxygen to the cells, and carries carbon dioxide away from the cells.Your heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, are organs in the cardiovascular system.
Organ SystemsCardiovascular system facts:The heart beats about 3,000,000,000 times during an average lifetime, and pumps enough blood in one day to fill the tank of a fire engine.It takes 20 seconds for blood to make a complete trip through your circulatory system.You have more than 60,000 miles of blood vessels and arteries in your body. (you could wrap them around the world twice.You have about 5 million red blood cells, 10,000 white blood cells, and 250,000 platelets in 1 drop of blood.Arteries take blood away from the heart, and veins return it to the heart.Moving helps return blood to your heartYou do NOT have blue blood!
The Bloodmobile song
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your cardiovascular system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems7- Lymphatic system(Immune system)The lymphatic system returns leaked fluids to blood vessels, and helps fight off germs.Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen, and tonsils are all organs in the lymphatic system.
Organ SystemsLymphatic system facts:Your lymph system releases white blood cells to fight off infection.Your lymph nodes swell up when the fill up with white blood cells (when you are sick)Your spleen helps break down and recycle RBCs.Your lymph system returns about cup of lymph fluid to the heart per hour.Domestic birds dont have lymph nodes.Most of your lymph nodes are in your armpits, neck, and groin.
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your lymph system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems8- Respiratory systemThe respiratory system exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide. (O2 in and CO2 out).Lungs, Bronchi, trachea, and diaphragm are all organs in the respiratory system.
Organ SystemsRespiratory system facts:You breathe in 21% oxygen and .4% Carbon dioxide, you breathe out 16% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide.You have the same surface area on you lungs as a tennis court.You breathe out about of a liter of water per day.Your right lung is slightly larger than your left.Every day you breath in about 88 pounds of air.Your respiratory system gets rid of 70% of your bodily waste productsIPod activity
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your respiratory system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems9- Digestive SystemThe digestive system breaks food down into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body.The mouth, liver, stomach, and intestines are some of the organs in the digestive system.
Organ SystemsDigestive system facts:The average stomach can hold about 1.5 liters of food.Your intestines are lined with tiny projections called villi. They increase the surface area of your intestines so you can absorb as much as possible.Your intestines are about 15 meters long!Food stays in your stomach for 2-4 hours.Your digestive system gets rid of 3% of your bodily waste productsTowel observation
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your digestive system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems10- Urinary SystemThe urinary system removes waste from the blood and regulates body fluids.Kidneys, ureters, and the bladder are all organs in the urinary system.
Organ SystemsUrinary system facts:Your bladder can hold about 400 ml of urine.The blood in your body passes through each kidney 400 times per day.The kidneys use osmosis to control the amount of water in the blood.Caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, which means that they suppress the part of your brain that tells your body that you need to retain water. (increases urination - dehydration) Your urinary system gets rid of 7% of your bodily waste products.
Organ SystemsHow would your life be different without your urinary system?How long do you think you could survive?
Organ Systems11- Reproductive systemThe reproductive system enables the organism to produce offspringOvaries and uterus in a female and testes in a male are organs in the reproductive system.
Organ SystemsReproductive system facts:The largest cell in the human female body is the egg in the ovaries.An adult male makes about 500 million sperm per day. A female is born with about 600,000 immature eggs.A female body is capable of giving birth to 35 children in her lifetime.Twins form when one fertilized egg splits into two parts (identical), or when two sperm fertilize 2 eggs at the same time (non-identical).
Organ SystemsWhich organ system do you think is most important?Which organ systems couldnt function without other organ systems?
Quiz time!Which level of organization do each of the following pictures belong to?