# 6 tools of tqm

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TOOLS OF TQM TOOLS OF TQM Check sheets Check sheets Scatter Diagrams Scatter Diagrams Cause-and-Effect Diagram Cause-and-Effect Diagram Pareto Charts Pareto Charts Flow Charts Flow Charts Histograms Histograms Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control (SPC) (SPC)

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• TOOLS OF TQM

Check sheetsScatter Diagrams Cause-and-Effect DiagramPareto ChartsFlow ChartsHistogramsStatistical Process Control (SPC)

• Seven Tools for TQM

• Tools of TQMTools for generating ideasCheck sheetScatter diagramCause and effect diagramTools to organize dataPareto chartsProcess charts (Flow diagrams)Tools for identifying problemsHistogramsStatistical process control chart

• ChecklistSimple data check-off sheet designed to identify type of quality problems at each work station; per shift, per machine, per operator

• Use check-lists for testingEarsNeckFeet

• Scatter DiagramsA graph that shows how two variables are related to each otherData can be used in a regression analysis to establish equation for the relationship

• Chart1

34

19

16

11

6

3

Y: No. of customer complaints per month

Sheet1

X: No. of training pgms for employees per monthY: No. of customer complaints per month

034

119

216

311

46

53

Correlation Coeffcient-0.9561305767

Maruti free check-up camps per monthNo. of customers for servicing their cars per month

0139

1203

2376

3407

4575

5605

Correlation Coeffcient0.9830879702

Free Desserts to no. of customers per day per monthNo. of Customers per day per month

048

126

256

322

454

536

Correlation Coeffcient-0.0368621586

Sheet1

Y: No. of customer complaints per month

Sheet2

Sheet3

• Chart2

139

203

376

407

575

605

Sheet1

X: No. of training pgms for employees per monthY: No. of customer complaints per month

034

119

216

311

46

53

Correlation Coeffcient-0.9561305767

Maruti free check-up camps per monthNo. of customers for servicing their cars per month

0139

1203

2376

3407

4575

5605

Correlation Coeffcient0.9830879702

Free Desserts to no. of customers per day per monthNo. of Customers per day per month

048

126

256

322

454

536

Correlation Coeffcient-0.0368621586

Sheet1

Y: No. of customer complaints per month

Sheet2

Sheet3

• Chart3

48

26

56

22

54

36

Sheet1

X: No. of training pgms for employees per monthY: No. of customer complaints per month

034

119

216

311

46

53

Correlation Coeffcient-0.9561305767

Maruti free check-up camps per monthNo. of customers for servicing their cars per month

0139

1203

2376

3407

4575

5605

Correlation Coeffcient0.9830879702

Free Desserts to no. of customers per day per monthNo. of Customers per day per month

048

126

256

322

454

536

Correlation Coeffcient-0.0368621586

Sheet1

Y: No. of customer complaints per month

Sheet2

Sheet3

• Cause and Effect DiagramUsed to find problem sources/solutionsOther namesFish-bone diagram, Ishikawa diagramStepsIdentify problem to correctDraw main causes for problem as bonesAsk What could have caused problems in these areas? Repeat for each sub-area.

• Cause and Effect Diagram Example

• Cause and Effect Diagram ExampleMethodManpowerMaterialMachineryToo many defectsMain CauseMain Cause

• Cause and Effect Diagram ExampleMethodManpowerMaterialMachineryDrillOvertimeSteelWoodLatheToo many defectsSub-Cause

• Cause and Effect Diagram ExampleMethodManpowerMaterialMachinery

• Fishbone Chart Problems with Airline Customer Service

• Pareto AnalysisTechnique that displays the degree of importance for each elementNamed after the 19th century Italian economistOften called the 80-20 RulePrinciple is that quality problems are the result of only a few problems e.g. 80% of the problems caused by 20% of causes

• Wine Glass Defects (63 defects)

• Pareto Analysis of Wine Glass Defects (63 Defects)

Chart2

4266.6666666667

1082.5396825397

590.4761904762

496.8253968254

2100

No. of defects

Cumulative Percentage

Chart1

• Example: (Identification of Problems)Following are the problems of a failing service center :Phones are only answered after many rings. Staff seem distracted and under pressure. Engineers do not appear to be well organized. They need second visits to bring extra parts. This means that customers have to take more holiday to be there a second time.

• They do not know what time they will arrive. This means that customers may have to be in all day for an engineer to visit. Staff members do not always seem to know what they are doing. Sometimes when staff members arrive, the customer finds that the problem could have been solved over the phone.

• Classification of ProblemsLack of staff training: items 5 and 6: (51 complaints)Too few staff: items 1, 2 and 4: (21 complaints)Poor organization and preparation: item 3:(2 complaints)

By doing the Pareto analysis above, the manager can better see that the vast majority of problems (69%) can be solved by improving staff skills.

• FlowchartsUsed to document the detailed steps in a processOften the first step in Process Re-Engineering

• HistogramsA chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable like service time at a bank drive-up window

Displays whether the distribution is symmetrical (normal) or skewed

• Control ChartsImportant tool used in Statistical Process Control The UCL and LCL are calculated limits used to show when process is in or out of control

• Patterns to Look for in Control Charts

• CASE STUDY:RICOH COMPANY LIMITED

SHORTENING CUSTOMERS TELEPHONE WAITING TIME

• At (1): The operator receives a call but due to lack of experience or knowledge, does not know where to connect the call.

At (2): The receiving party cannot answer the phone quickly, perhaps because he is unavailable, and there is no substitute.

• One partner out of the office topped the list, occurring a total of 172 times. Customers who had to wait a long time averaged 29.2 daily, which accounted for 6% of the calls received everyday.

• Measures and ExecutionTaking lunch in three different shifts, leaving at least two operators on the job at all timesAlso brought in a helper operator from the clerical sectionAsking all employees to leave messages when leaving their desksCompiling a directory listing of the personnel and their respective jobs

• Support different situations by specific tools

This slide introduces the Cause and Effect Diagram. The next several slide show the development of a simple example.

If time is available, it would be helpful to ask students to develop their own examples.This slide illustrates a Cause and Effect Chart for a practical problem.This chart enables you to discuss some of the information which can be obtained from the Process Control Charts.