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1 8 TH GRADE RESEARCH PROJECT Name: _______________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS **―Parent Letter‖………….…………………………………………………………………….………………i Project Timeline‖……………………………………………………………………………….……………...ii **―Graded Activities‖…………………… …………………………………………………….……………iii-iv **―Time Log‖………………………………………………………………………………….………….……2 Grading Rubric‖……………………………………………………………………………….………………3 **―Topics to Consider‖……………………………………………………………………….…..…………….4 Pro/ Con Questions with Issues‖…………………………………………………………….………………5-6 Research Planning‖…………………………………………………………………..……….………….…….7 Deciding Your Issue Graphic Organizer‖…………………………………...………………….….…………..8 Resources and Works Cited Information‖…………………………………………………….…….…………9 Top of Notebook Page‖……………………………………………………………………….……………….10 Note Taking‖…………………………………...………………………………………………………………11 Keep from Plagiarizing‖…………………….………………………………………………………………....12 ―Guidelines for Parenthetical Documentation‖…………………………………………..…………………13-14 ―Evaluating Websites‖…………………………………………………………………………………………..15 ―The Thesis Statement‖…………………………………………………………………………………………16 ―How to Write An Outline‖……………………………………………………………………………………..17 ―Sample Notebook Page‖……………………………………………………………………………………….18 ―Sample Works Cited Page‖…………………………………………………………………………………….19 ―Research Paper Reflection‖…………………………………………………………………………………….20 ** Parent signature is required

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  • 1

    8TH

    GRADE RESEARCH PROJECT

    Name: _______________________________

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    **Parent Letter..i

    Project Timeline....ii

    **Graded Activities .iii-iv

    **Time Log..2

    Grading Rubric.3

    **Topics to Consider....4

    Pro/ Con Questions with Issues.5-6

    Research Planning.....7

    Deciding Your Issue Graphic Organizer.......8

    Resources and Works Cited Information..9

    Top of Notebook Page..10

    Note Taking...11

    Keep from Plagiarizing.....12

    Guidelines for Parenthetical Documentation..13-14

    Evaluating Websites..15

    The Thesis Statement16

    How to Write An Outline..17

    Sample Notebook Page.18

    Sample Works Cited Page.19

    Research Paper Reflection.20

    ** Parent signature is required

  • 2

    TIME LOG 8

    th Grade Research Project

    Name: _____________________________

    Date: Sources Used:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    Number of Note Cards Created?

    Time Allocated Parent Signature

    Date: Sources Used:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    Number of Note Cards Created?

    Time Allocated Parent Signature

    Date: Sources Used:

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    3.

    Number of Note Cards Created?

    Time Allocated Parent Signature

    Date: Sources Used:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    Number of Note Cards Created?

    Time Allocated Parent Signature

    Date: Sources Used:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    Number of Note Cards Created?

    Time Allocated Parent Signature

    Date: Sources Used:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    Number of Note Cards Created?

    Time Allocated Parent Signature

    Date: Sources Used:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    Number of Note Cards Created?

    Time Allocated Parent Signature

  • 3

    RESEARCH PAPER GRADING RUBRIC

    Name: __________________________________ Block: ______________ Date: ______________

    **Keep this and put in your folder when you turn in your paper.

    Grade 1: FORMAT /100 pts.

    Length of paper- 3 to 5 typed pages /30 pts.

    Sources- 3 books, 2 magazine/news sources, 2 print/online, 3 websites /20 pts.

    Works Cited Page /20 pts.

    Font- 12 pt. Times New Roman, Double-Spaced, Margins Correct /10 pts.

    In-Text Citations- at least 10 used correctly /10 pts.

    Title page, pages numbered, name on top right corner /10 pts.

    Grade 2: CONTENT /100 pts.

    Introduction grabs the reader and includes thesis statement /10 pts.

    Paper is organized logically and includes smooth transitions /10 pts.

    All information included supports thesis statement /10 pts.

    Paper clearly presents research from both sides of the argument /40 pts.

    Writer clearly states his/her position on the issue in paragraph 4 /20 pts.

    Conclusion effectively ties up loose ends and paraphrases thesis /5 pts.

    The paper is completely objective (except for paragraph 4) /5 pts.

    Grade 3: GRAMMAR, SPELLING, AND MECHANICS /100 pts.

    Paragraph Structure- 7-12 sentences /20 pts.

    In-Text Citations are in parentheses (1 per source) /20 pts.

    Sentence Structure and Variety (no fragments or run-ons!) /10 pts.

    Word Usage (i.e. their/there/theyre, subject-verb agreement, etc.) /10 pts.

    Punctuation Used Correctly /10 pts.

    Spelling/ Other Grammar Mistakes /10 pts.

    Direct Quotes used correctly with page numbers /10 pts.

    Parents- Please review your childs paper and check to be sure that the above guidelines have been

    followed.

    Parent Edit (signature) _____________________________________________________ /10 pts.

  • 4

    TOPICS TO CONSIDER

    Parent Signature: __________________________________________

    1. ALCOHOLTOBACCO DRUGS

    Legal age for drinking

    Smoking in public places

    Legalization of marijuana

    2. ANIMAL RIGHTS

    Medical experimentation

    3. CIVIL LIBERTIES

    **Affirmative action

    Racial profiling

    **DNA testing of suspects

    **Patriot Act: the right of the individual vs. suspicions of terrorism

    School issues: locker searches, uniforms, dress code, pledging the flag, school prayer,

    bullying

    4. CRIME & CRIMINALS

    Gun control

    Death penalty/Capital punishment

    Juvenile offenders

    5. IMMIGRATION

    **Impact on U.S. economy

    English as official language of U.S.

    6. SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY

    **Cloning

    Genetically engineered food

    **Stem cell research

    Space exploration

    Artificial intelligence

    7. MEDICAL

    **Mandatory vaccinations

    Cosmetic surgery for teens

    Teen dieting

    **Organ transplants

    **Euthanasia

    **Alternative medicine

    8. CENSORSHIP OF THE MEDIA

    **Book banning

    Violence in television and movies

    Music lyrics & Music videos (i.e. MTV)

    Internet

    9. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Global warming

    10. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    **Alternative energy sources (Nuclear, Solar, Wind, etc.)

    11. SPORTS

    Steroid use/Random drug testing of athletes

    Violence

    Salary cap

    Gender equity

    12. SOCIETAL RESPONSIBILITIES

    **Government or private responsibility towards the homeless problem in America

    **U.S. responsibility to protect human rights throughout the world

    13. MISCELLANEOUS

    **Evolution vs. creationism

    Use of the atomic bomb Nuclear weapo

  • 5

    PRO/CON QUESTIONS WITH ISSUES TO EXPLORE

    1. ALCOHOLTOBACCODRUGS Should the legal age for drinking be 18 or 21

    years old?

    Parent/Guardian involvement

    Drunk driving

    Abuse of alcohol at colleges Should smoking be banned in public places?

    Health effects of second-hand smoke

    Rights of the smoker

    Economic effects Should marijuana be legalized in the US?

    Medical uses of marijuana

    Impact on crime

    Privacy rights 2. ANIMAL RIGHTS Should animals be used for medical

    experimentation?

    Rights of animals

    Health benefits to humans

    Alternatives to animal testing 3. CIVIL LIBERTIES **Should affirmative action continue to exist in

    the United States?

    College admissions

    Hiring in the workplace

    Discrimination Should law enforcement agencies be allowed to

    practice racial profiling?

    Constitutional rights

    Discrimination

    Public safety **Should DNA testing of criminal suspects be

    allowed?

    Accuracy of testing

    Public safety

    Privacy rights of the suspect Should prayer be allowed in public schools? (see

    other school issues)

    Constitutional issues

    Individual rights

    Diversity Should public schools be able to impose a dress

    code on students? (see other school issues)

    Economic effect on families

    Impact on student behavior and academic performance

    Freedom of expression **Does the threat of terrorism give the

    government the authority to restrict Constitutional

    rights of the individual?

    Constitutional rights/Patriot Act

    Public safety

    Discrimination/Profiling 4. CRIME & CRIMINALS Is gun control unconstitutional?

    Individual right to bear arms

    Impact on crime rate and school shootings

    Types of weapons Should the death penalty be allowed in the US?

    Impact on crime rate

    Prisoner rehabilitation

    Racism Should juvenile offenders be tried as adults?

    Death penalty

    Rehabilitation as an alternative

    Effect of imprisonment with adults 5. IMMIGRATION **Does illegal immigration impact the United

    States economy?

    Impact on employment

    Healthcare and public education of immigrant children

    Cost of border protection Should English be the official language of the

    United States?

    Advantages of bilingual education

    Diversity

    Communication 6. SCIENCETECHNOLOGY **Should cloning be allowed in the US?

    Medical uses

    Animal cloning

    Ethics Should genetically engineered food be allowed in

    the United States?

    Health risks

    Environmental impact

    World hunger **Should stem cell research be allowed in the

    United States?

    Medical applications

    Ethics

    Alternatives Should the federal government spend money on

    space exploration?

    More pressing needs

    Advances in science, medicine, and technology

    Space shuttle accidents Will advances in artificial intelligence benefit

    society?

    Impact on employment

    Uses for artificial intelligence (i.e. medical, entertainment, etc.)

    Human vs. machine intelligence

  • 6

    7. MEDICAL **Should public schools be allowed to require

    vaccinations as a condition for admission to

    school?

    Safety of vaccines

    Right of the parent/guardian to decide

    Cultural/Religious considerations Should teens be allowed to have cosmetic surgery

    for reasons not related to injury or illness?

    Self-esteem

    Role of the parent/guardian

    Psychological counseling Is teen dieting healthy?

    Body image/Media influence

    Eating disorders

    Nutrition **Should an individual be allowed to sell his/her

    organs for transplantation?

    Limited supply vs. High demand

    Ethical/Health concerns

    Ability to pay for organs **Should euthanasia be legal in the US?

    Rights of the patient

    Religious/Cultural issues

    Who decides? **Is alternative medicine as effective as

    traditional medicine?

    Safety regulations/Licensing

    Uses throughout history

    Health effects 8. CENSORSHIP OF THE MEDIA **Do public libraries and public schools have the

    right to ban books?

    Freedom of speech

    Age appropriateness

    Importance of discussing controversial ideas

    Does violence in television and movies cause

    violent behavior in society?

    Parental supervision

    Age guidelines

    Freedom of speech Do music lyrics and music videos have a negative

    impact on young adults?

    Stereotyping

    Warning labels

    Violence Do the benefits of the Internet outweigh the

    problems?

    Safety/Security

    Regulation

    Communication 9. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Does global warming threaten life on Earth?

    Climate/Weather

    Pollution

    Health of humans and animals 10. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES **Should alternative energy sources be

    developed to meet future needs?

    Cost effectiveness

    Environmental effects

    Supply & Demand 11. SPORTS Should athletes be subject to regular drug testing

    for steroids and other banned substances?

    Abuse of steroids

    Individual privacy rights

    Role models Should there be a criminal penalty for violence in

    professional sports?

    Role models

    Fans

    Role of the media Does money corrupt sports?

    Salary cap

    College athletes: paid or not paid?

    Gambling Should males and females have equal

    opportunities in sports?

    Salary

    Discrimination

    Anatomical differences 12. SOCIETAL RESPONSBILITIES **Should the homeless problem in America be

    eliminated?

    Responsibility: government vs. private

    Reasons why?

    Children and families **Does the US government have the

    responsibility to protect human rights around

    the world?

    Military intervention

    History

    United Nations 13. MISCELLANEOUS **Should public schools teach evolution and/or

    creationism?

    Scientific evidence

    Religious beliefs

    Separation of church and state Was the use of the atomic bomb by the United

    States justified in World War II?

    Death toll

    Military strategy

    Consequences Should the worldwide production and use of

    nuclear weapons be banned?

    Alternatives

    Unstable governments currently in control

    Environmental impac

  • 7

    RESEARCH PLANNING

    EXAMPLE TOPIC

    (write the definition)

    SEARCH TERMS (use the index)

    1.)

    2.)

    3.)

    4.)

    5.)

    WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW?

    (write three questions)

    1.)

    2.)

    3.)

    WHAT IS THE ISSUE?

    (write one question)

    TOPIC #1

    (write the definition)

    SEARCH TERMS (use the index)

    1.)

    2.)

    3.)

    4.)

    5.)

    WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW?

    (write three questions)

    1.)

    2.)

    3.)

    WHAT IS THE ISSUE?

    (write one question)

    TOPIC #2

    (write the definition)

    SEARCH TERMS (use the index)

    1.)

    2.)

    3.)

    4.)

    5.)

    WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW?

    (write three questions)

    1.)

    2.)

    3.)

    WHAT IS THE ISSUE?

    (write one question)

  • 8

    DECIDING YOUR ISSUE Graphic Organizer

    Issue: __________________________________

    Issue: _________________________________

    PRO

    PRO

    CON

    CON

  • 9

    RESOURCES & WORKS CITED INFORMATION

    BOOKS

    300s Social Issues

    600s Health & Technology

    Public Library _________________________________________________________________

    PRINT REFERENCE/ENCYCLOPEDIAS

    World Book

    Encyclopedia Americana

    Various subject encyclopedias (health, science, crime, environmental, etc.) _____________________________________________________________________________________

    PRINT MAGAZINES/ NEWSPAPERS

    Charlotte Observer

    Newsweek, Discover, Popular Science, Sports Illustrated, National Geographic

    Folders in media center with various articles. ____________________________________________________________________________________

    WEBSITES

    Multnomah County Library: Social Issues http://www.multcolib.org/homework/sochc.html

    ProCon.org http://www.procon.org/

    Santa Ana College: Controversial Topics http://www.sac.edu/students/library/nealley/websites/controversial.htm

    Internet Public Library http://www.ipl.org/

    Factmonster http://www.factmonster.com/

    Clusty http://clusty.com/ __________________________________________________________________

    ONLINE REFERENCE/ ENCYCLOPEDIAS

    NC WISEOWL: http://www.ncwiseowl.org/zones/middle/index.htm

    Click on Grolier Online and type in search term

    Click on Student Research and choose Books & Encyclopedias

    Click on Junior Reference and click on Reference under Basic Search ___________________________________________________________________

    ONLINE MAGAZINES & NEWSPAPERS

    NCWISEOWL: http://www.ncwiseowl.org/zones/middle/index.htm

    Click on Newspapers and enter search term

    Click on Student Research, choose Magazines & Newspapers, and enter search term

    Click on InfoTrac Junior and type in search terms INTERNET PUBLIC LIBRARY: Click on Newspapers & Magazines http://www.ipl.org/div/news/

    http://www.multcolib.org/homework/sochc.htmlhttp://www.procon.org/http://www.sac.edu/students/library/nealley/websites/controversial.htmhttp://www.ipl.org/http://www.factmonster.com/http://clusty.com/http://www.ncwiseowl.org/zones/middle/index.htmhttp://www.ncwiseowl.org/zones/middle/index.htmhttp://www.ipl.org/div/news/

  • 10

    TOP OF NOTEBOOK PAGE

    Directions: You will be taking notes in your notebook. Use a clean page for each new source that you use to take notes. Here is the

    Works Cited information that you need to write at the top of the page.

    If you are taking notes from a book, you will

    need to write down:

    Author(s):

    Title:

    City of publication:

    State of publication:

    Publisher:

    Year of publication:

    Print Encyclopedia

    Author(s) of article or editor:

    Title of article:

    Name of encyclopedia:

    Year of publication:

    Print Newspaper

    Author(s) of article:

    Title of article:

    Name of newspaper:

    Date of publication (day/month/year):

    Page number(s):

    Print Magazine

    Author(s) of article:

    Title of article:

    Name of magazine:

    Date of publication (day/month/year):

    Page number(s):

    Online Encyclopedia

    Author(s) of article or editor:

    Title of article:

    Name of online encyclopedia:

    Year of publication:

    Publisher:

    Date you accessed online encyclopedia:

    (day/month/year)

    URL: (http://www...)

    Online Newspaper

    Author(s) of article or editor:

    Title of article:

    Name of online newspaper:

    Date of publication: (day/month/year)

    Date you accessed website:

    URL: (http://www...)

    Online Magazine

    Author(s) of article or editor:

    Title of article:

    Name of online magazine:

    Date of publication: (day/month/year)

    Date you accessed website:

    URL: (http://www...)

    Website

    Author(s):

    Title of webpage with information:

    Title of homepage:

    Date of webpage posting: (day/month/year)

    Organization:

    Date you accessed website: (day/month/year)

    URL: (http://www...)

    WORKS CITED (MLA): http://citationmachine.net/index.php?reqstyleid=1

    http://www/http://www/http://www/http://www/http://citationmachine.net/index.php?reqstyleid=1

  • 11

    NOTE TAKING

    Effective Note Taking:

    Do not record material unrelated to your topic.

    Make sure that summaries and paraphrases accurately express the ideas in your sources.

    Be accurate. Make sure to copy direct quotations word for word, with capitalization, spelling and

    punctuation precisely as in the original. Make sure

    that every direct quotation begins and ends with

    quotation marks.

    Double check statistics and facts for accuracy.

    Distinguish between fact and opinion by labeling opinions as such:

    o Dr. Graves thinks that o According to Grace Jackson

    Quote only the important parts of a passage. Indicate words left out by using points of ellipsis

    ()- a series of three spaced dots enclosed in

    brackets.

    Use only the three dots when cutting material within a sentence.

    Use a period before the dots when cutting a full sentence, a paragraph, or more than a paragraph.

    Use a period after the dots when you cut material from the end of a sentence.

    Use brackets ([ ]) to enclose any explanatory information that you add within a quotation.

    When to Quote, Paraphrase, and Summarize:

    Direct quotation:

    Use a direct quotation when an idea is especially well-stated in a source-that is, when a passage is very clear, beautiful, funny, or powerful.

    Use direct quotation when the wording is historically or legally significant or when reproducing a definition. Paraphrase:

    Use paraphrase as your basic note form.

    Paraphrase unless you have a good reason to quote or summarize your source. Summarize:

    Summarize when a passage is too long to be quoted or paraphrased. Quotation plus summary or paraphrase:

    Use this kind of note when you want to quote a source but need to give more explanation to make the quote.

    EXAMPLES OF PARAPHRASING

    Original Text (From a definition of color blindness)

    visual defect resulting in the inability to distinguish colors. About 8% of men and 0.5% of women experience some difficulty in color

    perception. Color blindness is usually an inherited sex-linked characteristic, transmitted through, but recessive in, females. Acquired

    color blindness results from certain degenerative diseases of the eyes. Most of those with defective color vision are only partially

    color-blind to red and green, i.e., they have a limited ability to distinguish reddish and greenish shades. Those who are completely

    color-blind to red and green see both colors as a shade of yellow. Completely color-blind individuals can recognize only black, white,

    and shades of gray. (Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.)

    Paraphrase : Color blindness, affecting approximately 8% of men and .5% of women, is a condition characterized by difficulty in

    telling one color from another, most often hereditary but in some cases caused by disease. The majority of color-blind people cannot

    distinguish some shades of red and green, but those who cannot perceive those colors at all see red and green objects as yellow. There

    are people who cannot see color at all and perceive all objects in a range of black through gray to white. (Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th

    ed.)

    Summary : Color blindness, usually a sex-linked hereditary condition found more often in men than women and sometimes the result

    of eye disease, involves limited ability to tell red from green, and sometimes complete inability to see red and green. In a much rarer

    form of color blindness, the individual sees no colors at all.

    Quotation, Integrated : Color blindness is a "visual defect resulting in the inability to distinguish colors" (Columbia Encyclopedia,

    6th ed.). Most often it is a hereditary condition that involves only some shades of red and green, but people with complete red-green

    color blindness see yellow instead, and some people have no color perception at all. (Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.).

    http://www.bartleby.com/65http://www.bartleby.com/65http://www.bartleby.com/65

  • 12

    KEEP FROM PLAGIARIZING

    Action during the writing process:

    Appearance on the finished product:

    When researching, note-taking, and interviewing.

    Mark everything that is someone elses words with big quotation marks.

    Indicate in your notes which ideas are taken from sources (S) and which are your own insights (ME).

    Record all of the relevant documentation information in your notes.

    Proofread and check your notes to make sure that anything taken from your notes is acknowledged in some combination of the ways listed below:

    In-text citation

    Bibliography

    Quotation marks

    Indirect quotations

    When paraphrasing and summarizing.

    First, write your paraphrase and summary without looking at the original text, so you rely on your memory.

    Next, check your version with the original for content, accuracy, and mistakenly borrowed phrases.

    Begin your summary with a statement giving credit to the source. According to Jonathon Kozol,

    Put any unique phrases or words that you cannot change, or do not want to change, in quotation marks: found that savage inequalities exist throughout our educational system (Kozol).

    When quoting directly. Keep the persons name near the quote in your notes and in your paper.

    Select those direct quotes that make the most impact in your paper-too many direct quotes may lessen your credibility and interfere with your style.

    Mention the persons name either at the beginning of the quote, in the middle, or at the end.

    Put quotation marks around the text that you are quoting.

    Indicate added phrases in brackets ([ ]) and omitted text with ellipses ().

    When quoting indirectly. Keep the persons name near the text in your notes and in your paper.

    Rewrite the key ideas using different words and sentence structures than the original text.

    Mention the persons name either at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the information.

    Double check to make sure that your words and sentence structures are different than the original text.

  • 13

    GUIDELINES FOR PARENTHETICAL DOCUMENTATION

    What are parenthetical citations?

    Parenthetical citations are short references included in the text of your paper or project to show your reader where you found each piece of information that you have paraphrased, summarized, or quoted.

    Why do I need to include parenthetical citations?

    Parenthetical citations direct your reader to the source in your alphabetical list of works cited. This allows your reader to locate the exact source for further study. You need to give credit to the original source of information;

    otherwise, you will be plagiarizing or stealing another persons work.

    When do I need to use parenthetical citation?

    Whenever you paraphrase, summarize, or quote information from a source and include it in your work.

    How do I create proper citations?

    Usually the authors last name and a page reference are enough to identify the source and the specific location from which you borrowed material. However, if your source has no author, generally you will use the first word

    in the title from your works cited list. Se specific examples below.

    Where do I place parenthetical citations?

    Citations are placed in parentheses at the end of the sentence following the borrowed material.

    Remember:

    For each entry in your list of Works Cited, you must have at least one corresponding parenthetical citation within the body of your paper. The purpose of a parenthetical citation is to point your reader to referenced work in the

    list of Works Cited.

    Parenthetical Predicament Example

    Author in Reference

    When you do not mention the authors name in your sentence,

    the authors name and page number are placed in parentheses

    at the end of your sentence followed by a period.

    The sinking of the Titanic has been called one of the

    greatest disasters of all time (Benton 28).

    Author in Text

    When you mention the authors name in your sentence, the

    page # is placed in parentheses at the end of the sentence

    followed by a period.

    Benton asserts that the Titanic has been called one of the

    greatest disasters of all time (28).

    Two or More Works by the Same Author

    When you cite more than one work by the same author , you

    need to include a word from the title to distinguish between

    resources. Place a comma between the authors name and the

    title.

    Baseball players and wrestlers have traditionally been

    heavy users of chewing smokeless tobacco (Nardo,

    Drugs 68).

    Pro wrestlings transformation from a sport into a form

    of entertainment caused major newspapers and serious

    sports journalists to lose interest (Nardo, Wrestling 75).

    Two or Three Authors

    When the work has two or three authors, give the last name of

    each person listed.

    Others like Lord and Padfield (310), stated that the

    Titanic really was not unsinkable as first believed.

    Others stated that the Titanic really was not unsinkable

    as first believed to be true (Lord and Padfield 310).

    More than Three Authors

    When the work has more than three authors use the Latin term

    et al. which means and others after the first authors last

    name.

    (Smith et al.23)

    Work Listed by Title

    When the work has no author, begin the word by which the

    resource is alphabetized in your works cited list. If the work

    is mentioned in your text, simply give the page reference.

    International espionage was as prevalent as ever in the

    1990s (Decade 26).

    As discussed in Decade of the Spy, international

    espionage was as prevalent as ever in the 1990s (26).

    Anonymous Books whose Titles Begin with the Same

    Word

    When you have two or more books or articles with no author

    The mid-1960s saw a great revival of interest in the folk

    blues, leading to the rediscovery of many talented

    performers (History of Blues 52).

  • 14

    and the same first word in the title, you need to include as

    many words as possible to distinguish between them.

    The last years of the Babylonian Empire witnessed far-

    reaching changes (History of the Jewish 164).

    Indirect Source

    When you quote or paraphrase a quotation from a book or an

    article that appeared somewhere else.

    As Alexander Solzhenitsyn once said One word of truth

    outweighs the world (qtd. In Roy 381).

    Direct Quote

    To indicate short quotations enclose the direct quote within double

    quotation marks, and provide the

    author and specific page citation.

    If you incorporate the authors name in your text, simply provide the page

    reference.

    Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should

    appear after the parenthetical citation

    Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the

    quotation marks if they are part of the

    quoted passage but after the

    parenthetical citation if they are part

    of your text.

    It may be true the Poes ghost stories are among the most famous in the world (Sheldon 9).

    It may be true, as Sheldon maintains, that Poes ghost stories are among the most famous in the world (9).

    According to some, dreams express profound aspects of personality (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.

    Is it possible that dreams may express profound aspects of personality (Foulkes 184)?

    Long Quote

    When you cite a long quotation (four lines or

    more) that is a set off from the text, omit the

    quotation marks. Generally, a colon

    introduces a long quotation. Your

    parenthetical citation should come after the

    closing punctuation mark.

    Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him

    throughout her narration:

    They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even

    in their room and I had no more sense, so I put it on the landing

    of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance,

    or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaws

    door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were

    made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in

    recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent

    our of the house. (Bronte 78)

    Shortened Quote

    Whenever you omit a word, phrase, sentence

    or more from a passage, use ellipsis points to

    indicate the missing portion of the original

    quotation. Use three periods with a space

    before each and a space after the last.

    In surveying various responses to plagues in the middle ages,

    Barbara W. Tuchman writes, Medical thinkingstressed air as the

    communicator of disease, ignoring sanitation or visible carriers (101-

    02).

    In surveying various responses to plagues in the middle ages,

    Barbara W. Tuchman writes, Medical thinking Trapped

    in the theory of astral influences, stressed air as the

    communicator of disease (101-02).

    Web Site

    When you cite information form a web

    document. Page numbers of a printout should

    not be cited.

    The history of roller coasters can be traced back to

    the times of Catherine the Great of Russia (Century).

    A Century of Screams: The History of the Roller Coaster.

    The American Experience Coney Island Ed. David Lindsay.

    2000. PBS. 27 Feb.

    2004http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/coney/sfeature/history/html.

    Personal Interview

    When you include information from a

    personal interview cite the last name of the

    person interviewed.

    Private duty nursing affords me the opportunity to

    tailor my work schedule around my familys needs: (Jones).

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/coney/sfeature/history/html

  • 15

    EVALUATING WEBSITES Accuracy: _______________________________________________________________________________

    Validity: _________________________________________________________________________________

    Authority: _______________________________________________________________________________

    Currency: ________________________________________________________________________________

    Coverage: ________________________________________________________________________________

    Website

    Strengths Weaknesses Rank (1 is best)

    Site #1

    Site #2

    Site #3

    Site #4

    Site #5

    WEBSITE DOMAINS AND TYPES OF ADDRESSES

    .aero: an organization in the air-transport industry

    .biz: a business

    .coop: a cooperative association

    .com: generally a commercial organization, business, or company

    .edu: a US higher-educational institution

    .gov: a US government organization

    .info: an informational site for an individual or business

    .int: an international organization

    .mil: a US military organization

    .net: suggested for a network, but used for a variety of sites

    .org: suggested for a noncommercial community, but used for a variety of sites

    .pro: a professional; such as lawyer, accountant, or physicia

  • 16

    THE THESIS STATEMENT

    Some defining features of a thesis:

    For most student work, its a one- or two- sentence statement that explicitly outlines the purpose or point of your paper. A thesis statement is to a paper what a topic sentence is to a paragraph.

    It should point toward the development or course of argument the reader can expect your argument to take.

    Because the rest of the paper will support or back up your thesis, a thesis is normally placed at or near the end of the introductory paragraph.

    It is an assertion that a reasonable person could disagree with if you only gave a thesis and no other evidence. It is not a fact or casual observation; it must beg to be proved. And someone should be able to theoretically argue against it (how successfully will depend, of course, on how persuasive you are.)

    It takes a side on a topic rather than simply announcing that the paper is about a topic (the title should have already told your reader your topic.) Dont tell your reader about something; tell them what about something. Answer the question how? or why?

    It is sufficiently narrow and specific.

    It argues one main point and doesnt squeeze three different theses for three different papers into one sentence.

    Most importantly, it passes the So What? Test What does it matter? Why should I read your paper?

    Your turn: Choose the best working thesis for the proposed research papers. Research Paper 1: Thesis A: Business practices in former Soviet Union countries. Thesis B: Business practices in the countries of the former Soviet Union have changed drastically since the break-up. Thesis C: Since the break-up of the former Soviet Union, business practices in those countries have changed most in the fields of marketing and customer service, reflecting the changes in government and political philosophy. Research Paper 2: Thesis A: Shakespeare intended the audience to question the existence of Hamlets fathers ghost. Thesis B: The appearance of Hamlets fathers ghost raises an important psychological as well as dramatic dilemma in the play. Thesis C: Critics through the ages have debated the significance of Hamlets fathers ghost.

  • 17

    HOW TO WRITE AN OUTLINE

    An outline breaks down the parts of your thesis in a clear, hierarchical manner. Most students find that writing

    an outline before writing the paper is most helpful in organizing ones thoughts. If your outline is good, your

    paper should be easy to write. The basic format for an outline uses an alternating series of numbers and letters,

    indented accordingly, to indicate levels of importance. Here is an example of an outline.

    I. INTRODUCTION

    A. HOOK/ ANECDOTE/ QUESTION/ QUOTE / STATEMENT

    B. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

    C. ARGUMENTS FOR/ARGUMENTS AGAINST

    D. THESIS STATEMENT (INCLUDES BOTH ARGUMENTS)

    II. PRO (FOR/GOOD REASONS/POSITIVE)

    A.

    1.

    2.

    B.

    1.

    2.

    C.

    1.

    2.

    III. CON (AGAINST/BAD REASONS/NEGATIVE)

    A.

    1.

    2.

    B.

    1.

    2.

    C.

    1.

    2.

    IV. YOUR POSITION

    A.

    1.

    2.

    B.

    1.

    2.

    V. CONCLUSION

    VI. WORKS CITED

  • 18

    SAMPLE NOTEBOOK PAGE

    Website___________________

    _________

    Author or Organization: MADD

    Title of Web Page with information: Alcohol and the Teen Brain

    Title of the Homepage: Get the Truth about the 21 Law

    Date of webpage posting: 2007

    Organization: MADD

    Date you accessed website: 02/02/2009

    UTL: http://why21.org/teen/

    brain development ends at age of early 20s

    dynamic change, frontal lobe development, and refinement of

    pathways and connections continue into mid-20s

    damage possibly irreversible

    adolescents more vulnerable than adults to effects of alcohol on

    learning and memory

    alcohol affects sleep cycle impairing learning, memory, growth,

    maturation

    all parts of brain affected: coordination, emotional control, thinking,

    decision-making, hand-eye movement, speech, memory.

    causes poor school performance, social problems, depression, suicidal

    thoughts, violence

    greater risk for developing alcoholism

    Developing Brain:

    Level I Abstract Thinking: 10-20 yrs. old

    develop ability to relate functions (combining honesty or dishonesty with

    kindness to explain "social lie")

    Level II Abstract Thinking: 14-15 yrs. old

    develop ability to understand contrasts, ability to combine complex

    thinking with social interactions and emotions (combining kindness

    and tact at the same time to offer constructive criticism)

    Level III Abstract Thinking: 18-20 yrs. old

    develop ability to hold several issues, events, circumstances, etc.

    in mind at same time-compare/interrelate them

    alcohol may change course of mental, emotional, cognitive, social

    developmentaltering opportunities for success

    alcohol selects receptors in brain at random

  • 19

    Sample Works Cited Page Holzer 7

    WORKS CITED

    Asimov, Isaac. The Birth of the United States, 1763-1816. Boston: Houghton, 1974.

    The Battle of Washington D.C. War of 1812-1814. 7 Apr. 2000

    .

    Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations. 9th

    ed. Boston: Little, 1901. 10 Apr. 2000

    .

    Carter, Alden R. The War of 1812: Second Fight for Independence. New York: Watts, 1992.

    Causes of the War. The War of 1812. 6 Apr. 2000 .

    Elting, John R. Amateurs to Arms!: A Military History of the War of 1812. Chapel Hill: Algonquin, 1991.

    Gallagher, James. Impressment of American Seamen: The Main Reason for the War of 1812. Old Dominion

    University

    Historical Review 1.1 (1994). 7 Apr. 2000 .

    Marrin, Albert. 1812, the War Nobody Won. New York: Atheneum,1985.

    Morris, Richard B. The War of 1812. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1985.

    Nardo, Don. The War of 1812. San Diego: Lucent, 1991.

    Treaty of Ghent. War of 1812. Galafilm. 10 Apr. 2000

    http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/events/ghent.html

    http://members.tripod.com/~war1812/batwash.htmlhttp://www.bartleby.com/99/281.htmlhttp://www2andrews.edu/~downm/causes.htmlhttp://www.odu.edu/~hanley/history1/Gallagr2.htmhttp://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/events/ghent.html

  • 20

    RESEARCH PAPER REFLECTION

    Now you are going to have the opportunity to share what you have learned with some of your classmates. Before you get into your groups, take a few moments to think about how you will explain your topic to your peers by answering the following questions.

    1. What is your topic?

    2. What was the most surprising fact or statistic that you found in your research?

    3. Did you have a strong opinion on the issue before you began your research? Briefly explain.

    4. What facts or opinions helped you to begin to see the other side of the issue?

    5. Did you change your viewpoint in any way throughout this process?

    6. In bullet format, share the pros and cons of your issue (your classmates may learn something from this).

    Pros Cons

    7. What was the most difficult part of this paper in your opinion?

    8. Was there any part of this research process you find at least semi-enjoyable?

    9. Share something you are proud of accomplishing with this paper. Be specific.