96/02866 - Photovoltaics in the developing world

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<ul><li><p>07 Alternative energy sources (solar energy)</p><p>96/02851 lEA solar PACES Australia's roleWyld, 1. Solar Progress, Nov.-Dec, 1995, 16, (4), p. 21.Reports that in 1994 ERDC successfully brokered a consortium of Austra-lian electricity utilities to join lEA's Implementing Agreement for SolarPower and Chemical Energy Systems (Solar PACES). The consortiumcomprisesERDC, Pacific Power (NSW), Western Power (WA), Power andWater Authority (NT), Electricity Trust of South Australia, and Queen-sland Transmission and Supply Corporation.</p><p>96/02852 Integrated solar collector storage system based ona salt-hydrate phase-change materialRabin, Y. et al., Solar Energy, Dec. 1995, 55, (6), 435-444.A new integrated collector storage concept for low-temperature solar heat-ing of water is described. The solar energy is stored in a salt-hydratephase-change material (PCM) held in the collector and is discharged to coldwater flowing through a surface heat exchanger located in a layer of statio-nary heat transfer liquid, floating over an immiscible layer of PCM. Atheoretical model for the charging process of the proposed integrated col-lector is presented.</p><p>96/02853 Inverters: Local Incompatibility and related Issues- Part 2McCray, M. Solar Today, Jan.-Feb. 1996, 10, (1), 34-35.In the previous issues of Solar Today the author described problemsencountered when starting various kinds of resistive, inductive or elec-tronic loads on different inverter types (square wave, quasi-sine wave andsine wave) and architectures (transformer or high frequency switcher). Inthis issue he discusses problems encountered while operating various loadson these inverters.</p><p>96/02854 Large DHW solar systems with distributed storagetanksPrapas, D. E. et al., Solar Energy, Sep. 1995, 55, (3), 175-184.The thermal behaviour of a central DHW solar system, the desin of whichis based on a new Central Collection-Separate Storing (CCSS) approach,has been investigated theoretically. The common practice for large DHWsolar systems, of employing a central storage and delivery facility, hasbeen shown in the past to exhibit a rather poor performance and considera-ble heat losses. This is due to the extensive length of pipework required forboth the transfer of solar energy and the delivery of hot water. The CCSSsolar system presented can overcome the above problems by employingseparate storage tanks for each family, thus being best suited for multistorybuildings.</p><p>96/02855 Latent storage heater for water systemsEgolf, P. W. and Manz, H. Heiz. Luft. Haustech., Oct. 1995, 46, (10),499-503. (In German)Describes how a thermal solar energy system with latent storage heaterfunctions was researched two years ago in Switzerland. The initial phaseconsisted of experiments and the development of numerical computermodels.</p><p>96/02856 The magic of solar adobeMiller Thayer, B. Solar Today, Jan.-Feb. 1996, 10, (1), 18-20.Reports on how a Santa Fe architect merges the beauty of southwesternarchitecture with high-performance solar designed house.</p><p>96/02857 Mathematical modelling of solar stills in IranMowla, D. and Karimi, G. Solar Energy, Nov. 1995, 55, (5), 389-393.Iran is situated in a region of the world where the solar radiation intensityis considerably high. In some parts of Iran there are more than 200 sunnydays. At the same time the need for the production of fresh water from seawater is considerable in the same regions. In this study, a solar still ismathematically simulated and the rate of production of fresh water fromsea water is calculated as a function of different meteorologicalparametersand the solar still specifications. As a special case, some experiments havebeen done in Shiraz which is located in the south-west of Iran.</p><p>96/02858 Model calculations on a flat-plate solar heat collec-tor with integrated solar cellsBergene, T. and Lovvik, O. M. Solar Energy, Dec. 1995, 55, (6),453-462.A detailed physical model of a hybrid photovoltaic/therrnal system is pro-posed, and algorithms for making quantitative predictions regarding theperformance of the system are presented. The motivation for the presentwork is that solar cells act as good heat collectors and are fairly goodselective absorbers.</p><p>96/02859 Modelling and simulation of PV-powered intermit-tent load systems by Bond graph techniqueMadansure, V. N. et al., Solar Energy, Nov. 1995, 55, (5), 367-375.Application of photovoltaic power in system involving intermittent loadingrequires an understanding of the dynamics of such systems. The paperexplores this area by taking the vegetable slicing system as a typical exam-ple of intermittent loading. Bond graph methodology has been used inmodelling.</p><p>200 Fuel and Energy Abstracts May 1996</p><p>96/02860 Modelling of a hot box solar cookerBinark, A. K. and Turkmen, N. Energy Converso Mgmt., Mar. 1996, 37,(3), 303-310.In this study, the thermal analysis of a hot box solar cooker which ismanufacturedin Istanbul Technical University, named as 1.T.U.-l was per-formed by using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The resultsobtained are given comparatively with the experimental results measuredfrom an actual cooker.</p><p>96/02861 Modelling the solar Irradiation of flat plate collec-tors augmented with planar reflectorsBollentin, J. W. and Wilk, R. D. Solar Energy, Nov. 1995, 55, (5),343-354.An analytical model has been developed and used to determine solar irradi-ation on flat collectors augmented with planar reflectors. The model usesmeasured insolation data from the NREL National Solar Radiation DataBase (USA). In addition the model accounts for direct and reflected com-ponents of beam, diffuse and ground reflected insolation, considers finitelength systems, accounts for shading of the collector by the reflector, andconsiders different configurations of the reflector relative to the collector.Thus the model represents an extension and refinement of many previousmodels.</p><p>96/02862 Myths in passive solar designHastings, S. R. Solar Energy, Dec. 1995, 55, (6), 445-451.For years passive solar design principles have been perpetuated withoutbeing reexamined or questioned regarding their relevance in the context ofnew materials and constructions. Rarely does an architect get quantitativefeedback on system or concept performance after the building is built. Theresult has been the perpetuation of beliefs among conference papers, textbooks and popular articles, all too often based only on belief. In this paperexamples of premises which likely deserve to be kept passive rather thanacted on are challenged.</p><p>96/02863 New development in the theory of heat and masstransfer In solar stillsShawaqfeh, A. T. and Farid, M. M. Solar Energy, Dec. 1995, 55, (6),527-535.A single basin solar still with basin area of 0.98 X 0.98 m was constructedfrom galvanized iron sheets and an inclined glass cover. The still wasprovidedwith 525 W electrical heating tapes, fixed under the still basin forindoor steady state operation. The variation of basin temperature, glasstemperature and evaporation rate were measured during both indoor andoutdoor operation. The hourly variation of solar radiation, ambient temper-ature, and wind velocity were also taken during the outdoor measurements.Transient analysis of the still requires the evaluation of evaporative, con-vective and radiative heat transfer coefficients.</p><p>96/02864 Output variation of photovoltaic modules with envi-ronmental factors. I. The effect of spectral solar radiation onphotovoltaic module outputHirata, Y. and Tani, T. Solar Energy, Dec. 1995, 55, (6), 463-468.In this study, it was investigated how changes in spectral solar radiationeffects the output of photovoltaic modules. First, there was a precise exam-ination of the seasonal changes in spectral solar radiation. Consequently, itwas found that the ratio of spectral solar radiation available for solar cellutilization, to global solar radiation, changes from season to season. Itvaried, from 5% for polycrystalline silicon cells, to 14% for amorphoussilicon cells, throughout one year. Obviously a cell made from amorphoussilicon is more severely effected by seasonal variations. Next, the seasonalchanges of photovoltaic module output were examined.</p><p>96/02865 A passive solar home in TexasHolder, 1. M. and Holder King, 1. Solar Today, Jan.-Feb. 1996, 10, (1),30-33.Describes the building of a solar house with recycle materials in Texas.</p><p>96/02866 Photovoltaics in the developing worldChambouleyron, I. Energy, May 1996, 21, (5), 385-394.The authors discuss the use of photovoltaic systems in the developingworld and the problems hindering their widespread use. Three countries areconsidered when referring to Latin America, namely, Brazil, Mexico andArgentina. They each have different approaches to the dissemination ofstand-alonePV power. Brazil relies entirely on the free market. Mexico haslaunched one of the world's largest rural electrification programmes underthe jurisdiction of the public electric utility. In Argentina, the approachcombines a government policy and decisive intervention by the privatesector. An official PV policy is essential for the successful implementationof photovoltaics in developing countries. The role of regional centres forthe dissemination of solar technologies is discussed.</p><p>96/02867 Photovoltaics of the Neunburg vorm Wald solarhydrogen projectDietsch, T. Power Engineering J., Feb. 1996, 10, (1), 17-26.Describes the electric power which supplies the water electrolysersinstalled in the solar hydrogen facility at Neunburg vorm Wald, Germany,which is generated in two photovoltaic systems with a combined modulepower rating of 277 kWp.</p></li></ul>