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ErratumPage 320,line 22,

for 12 ounces read 12 grains

Tissnndier's Photography.

PHOTOGRAPHY

LONDONSPOTTISWOODE

:

I'KINTED BV

AND

CO.,

NEW-STKEET

SQUARE

AND PARLIAMENT STREET

/-

HISTORY AND HANDBOOKOF

PH OTOGR A PHTranslated from the French of

GASTON TISSANDIEREDITED BYJ.

THOMSON,

F.R.G.S.

AUTHOR OF 'ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHINA AND ITS PEOPLE,' 'THE STRAITS OF MALACCA, INDO-CHINA, AND CHINA,' ETC.

WITH UPWARDS OF SEVENTY ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDONSAMPSON, LOW, MARSTON, LOW, & SEA RLE,CROWNBUILDINGS, l88 FLEET STREET

1876

NEW YORKS

CO

\'

I

LL

MANUFACTURING COMPANY!y:

Nos. 419

421 Broome.

Street

1877

P

R K FACE.amongst the mosttele-

Arago

placed

the daguerreotype

remarkable conquests of genius, by the side of thescope and the electric battery.

And

indeed to every

enlightened mind, the fixing of the image or picture ofthe*

camera obscura or dark chamber by chemical agents,'

must appear a great event

in the history of progress.

An

art so novel, capable ofresults, at

producing at the very outsetitself as

such strange

once stampeda work

something

grand, extraordinary, asvigour.

full

of

vitality

andIt is

Franklin's words with respect to the balloon,

*

the infant just beginning to grow,' could not have beenapplied to the daguerreotype,

which has grown andas toall.

prospered with such

rapidity

have had, $o

to

speak, no childhood or growth at

The

daguerreo-

type

is;

one of theit

latest of the prodigies ofin 1838.

modern

science

was discoveredthe

The daguerreotype,itself into

as soon

as born, transformed

photograph.

Hardly forty years have

iv

PREFACE.

elapsed and the

new

invention has spread abroad andit

becomein

so well known, that

has penetrated everywhere,

every civilised country, into the dwellings of the poor

as well as of the rich.

Unhappy indeed

is

he who can-

not have recourse, for the picture of that which he loves;to photography, that sublime

and beneficent

artits

which

gives us at such

little

cost the

humanits

visage in

exacti-

tude, which presents to our eyes as in a mirror the scenery

of distant lands, which lends

aid to all the sciences,

which accompanies the astronomer into the depths of theheavens, the micrographer into the invisible world, and

which even comes to the assistance of the besiegedreducingits

city,

messages to the easy burden of a bird

!

In studying the plan of this work, the author was

impressed with the importance of the subjectit^

;

in writing

he experienced a deep admiration, which

it

has been

his

aim to impart

to the reader.

He

has endeavoured to

makeasis

his sketch at

once a practical guide to the amateurconquests when narrated with

photographer, and an attractive and instructive history,that ofall scientific

truth and sincerity.

In this second edition which follows so closely on thefirst,

somein

gaps, which

the

development of the

art

rendered

some degree inevitable, have been filled up from the large number of new facts which have come

to light.

G. T.

CONTENTS.PARTI.

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY

CHAPTERJ.

I.

THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY.B.

PORTA AND THE DARK ROOM FABRICIUS THE ALCHEMIST LUNA CORNEA PROFESSOR CHARLES'S SILHOUETTES WEDGWOOD, HUMPHRY DAVY, AND JAMES WATT

PACK

....

I

CHAPTER

II.

DAGUERRE.DEGOTTI THE SCENE PAINTER EARLY LIFE OF DAGUERRE INVENTION OF THE DIORAMA THE CAMERA OR DARK ROOM CHEVALIER THE OPTICIAN THE HISTORY OF AN UNKNOWN FIRST LETTER OF DAGUERRE TO NIEPCE

I4

CHAPTERTHE TWO BROTHERS NIEPCE

III.

NICfiPHORE NIEPCE.

THEIR YOUTH THEIR WORKS THE PYRELOPHORE HYDRAULIC MACHINE NICfiPHORE'S RESEARCHES IN HELIOGRAPHY RESULTS OBTAINED

26

VI

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP.CORRESPONDENCE EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE TWO INVENTORS DISTRUST AND RESERVE OF NIEPCE HIS JOURNEY TO PARIS HIS INTERVIEWS WITH DAGUERRE HIS JOURNEY TO LONDON ACT OF PARTNERSHIP DEATH OF NIEPCEPAGE

.

.

.

.

40

CHAPTER

V.

THE DAGUERREOTYPE.DAGUERRE'S RESEARCHES AND STUDIES HE CEDES HIS INVENTION TO THE STATE ARAGO AND THE DAWN OF PHOTOGRAPHY A BILL LAID BEFORE THE HOUSE REASONS FOR ITS BEING PASSED MEETING OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, AUGUST lO,

1839

53

CHAPTER

VI.

THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART.

THE DAGUERREOTYPE PROCESS ACCELERATING SUBSTANCES

PROVED LENSES PORTRAITS FIXING AGENTS DISCOVERY OF PHOTOGRAPHY ON PAPER BY TALBOT M. BLANQUART-EVRARD

IM-

64

CHAPTERSIR

VII.

PHOTOGRAPHY.

JOHN HERSCHEL

HYPOSULPHITE

VICTOR'S NEGATIVE ON GLASS GUN-COTTON

OF SODA NIEPCE DE SAINTAND COLLODION

79

CONTENTS.

VU

PART II. THE OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OFPHOTOGRAPHY.CHAPTER

I.

THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS.

ARRANGEMENT OF A GOOD STUDIO THE DARK ROOM TERRACE SITTING ROOM THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ARRANGEMENTS FOR LIGHTING THE OBJECT TO BE PHOTOGRAPHED THE APPARATUS LENSES AND CAMERAS

I'AGE

89

CHAPTER II. THE NEGATIVE.MANIPULATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH CLEANING THE PLATE COATING THE PLATE WITH COLLODION PLACING IT IN THE SILVER BATH EXPOSURE IN THE CAMERA DEVELOPMENT, FIXING AND VARNISHING

I05

CHAPTER

III.

THE POSITIVE ON PAPER.PRINTING ON PAPER OF THE NATURE AND QUALITIES OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS VIGNETTES EXPOSURE TO THE LIGHT 122 TONING FIXING ROLLING THE PROOFS

CHAPTER

IV.

THEORY AND PRACTICE.EXPLANATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS NECESSITY OF LONG PRACTICE MODIFICATIONS IN PROCESSES REQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SORTS OF PHOTOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL LANDSCAPES SKIES PORTRAITS INSTANTANEOUS PHOTO-

GRAPHY

.

.

132

Vlil

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

V.PAGE

RETOUCHING.ACCIDENTS WITH NEGATIVES AND PROOFS METHOD OF REMEDYING THE SAME RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE IMPERFECTIONS IN THE POSITIVE RETOUCHING PHOTOGRAPHIC PROOFS WITH INDIAN INK COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPHIC CARICATURES 141

.

.

.

CHAPTERENLARGEMENT OF

VI.PROOFS,

APPARATUS EMPLOYED FOR ENLARGING NEGATIVE PROOFS WOODWARD'S SYSTEM MONCKHOVEN'S APPARATUS UNIVERSAL SOLAR

CAMERA

147

CHAPTER

VII.

PROCESSES.

THE DRY COLLODION PROCESS EMPLOYMENT OF ALBUMEN, HONEY, AND TANNIN WAXED PAPER PROCESS PERMANENT PHOTO' GRAPHY BY THE CARBON PROCESS METHODS OF POITEVIN,SWAN, ETC. .

.

153

CHAPTER

VIII.

PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED.

THE FIXING OF COLOURS A MYSTIFICATION EDMOND BECQUEREL'S experiments ATTEMPTS OF NIEPCE DE SAINT-VICTOR AND POITEVIN PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING

....

169

CONTENTS.

IX

PART

III.

THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.CHAPTERI.

HELIOGRAPHY.PAGE

THE DAGUERREOTYPE PLATE TRANSFORMED INTO AN ENGRAVED PLATE D0NN6 FIZEAU THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ENGRAVING OF NIEPCE DE SAINT-VICTOR PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY AND HELIOGRAPHY INVENTED BY A. POITEVIN PROCESSES OF BALDUS, GARNIER. ETC. THE ALBERTYPE OBERNETTER'S PROCESS MODERN HELIOGRAPHY

1/9

CHAPTER

II.

PHOTOGLYPTY (THE WOODBURY

PROCESS).

WOODBURY IMPRESSION OF A GELATINISED PLATE INTO A BLOCK OF METAL WORKING OF PHOTOGLYPTIC METHODS INPARIS

DESCRIPTION

OF MESSRS. GOUPIL'S ESTABLISHMENT

M.I99

LEMERCIER

CHAPTER

III.

PHOTOSCULPTURE.

AN UNEXPECTED DISCOVERY PHOTOGRAPHY APPLIED TO SCULPTURE WILLEME'S process IN 1861 DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO208 SCULPTURE

CHAPTER

IV.

PHOTOGRAPHIC ENAMELS.VITRIFICATION OF A PHOTOGRAPH CAMARSAC'S PROCESSJEWELRY ENAMEL METHOD OF MAKING POITEVIN'S METHOD PER2I4 MANENT GLAZE PHOTOGRAPHS

X

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

V.PAGE

PHOTOMICROGRAPHY.

THE TOY MICROSCOPES OF THE PARIS INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS 450 DEPUTIES IN THE SPACE OF A PIN's HEAD ARRANGEMENTS OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS THE NATURAL SCIENCES AND PHOTOMICROGRAPHY RESOU^RCES BORROWED FROM THE HELIOGRAPH 220

CHAPTER

VI.

MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES DURING THE SIEGE OF PARIS. APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY TO THE ART OF WAR THREE MILLION PRINTED LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET ON THE TAIL OF A PIGEON ENLARGEMENT OF THE DESPATCHES THEIR CONVEYANCE BY CARRIER-PIGEONS 235

....

CHAPTER VH.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY.CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHYDIFFICULTIES OF ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS MESSRS. WARREN DE LA RUE, RUTHERFURD, GRUBB, ETC. THE LUNAR MOUNTAINS THE SPOTS ON THE SUN, ETC. IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE HEAVENS 249

.