a history of the first regiment of massachusetts cavalry volunteers

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A history of the First regiment of Massachusetts cavalry in the Civil War.

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  • COLORS OF THE FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY

    The Silver Eog'le ivas ffiren hy his associate Aides o7i Gov. Andrevi's

    staff as a compliinent to Lt. Col. H. B. Sargent.

  • A HISTORY

    OF THE FIRST REGIMENT OFMASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY

    VOLUNTEERS

    BY

    BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELDMAJOR FIRST MASSACHUSICTTS CAVALRY AND BREVET COLONEL U. S. V.

    Wiit}) Hoster anu ^mistka

    By D. H. L. GLEASONBREVET MAJOR

    FOR THE FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRYASSOCIATION

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    BOSTON AND NEW YORKHOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY

    1891

  • A HISTORY

    OF THE FIRST REGIMENT OFMASSACHUSETTS CAVALRY

    VOLUNTEERS

    BY

    BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELDMAJOR FIRST MASSACHUSICTTS CAvibRY AND BREVET COLONEL U. S. V.

    Mitt) Ho6ter anu ^mi&tit&

    By D. H. L. GLEASONBREVET MAJOR

    FOR THE FIRST MASSACHUSETTS CAVALRYASSOCIATION

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    BOSTON AND NEW YORKHOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY

    1891

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    Copyright, 1891,

    Bt b. w. crowninshield.

    All rights reserved.

    The Riverside Press, Cambridge, ^fass., U. S. A.Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton & Co.

  • PREFACE.

    This history, written after so many years have gone by, is

    necessarily imperfect. It is mainly the recollections of an offi-

    cer of the regiment who was present with the colors continu-

    ously longer than any other. He has relied largely upon a

    good memory, fortified by a daily journal and his letters sent

    home ; but has also consulted the journals and letters of many

    other officers of the regiment, and, in considering many events,

    has had discussion of such with all available authorities.

    Opinions as to some events have differed considerably ; but

    the following pages are very nearly accurate. Individuals nat-

    urally see the same thing with different eyes, and in the con-

    fusion of a battle two men seldom see precisely the same thing

    when together. How, then, shall two at different parts of the

    field agree as to what took place ?

    Since much of the work was completed, late volumes of the" Rebellion Records," published by the United States Govern-

    ment, have given information and dispatches which were at the

    time of writing unobtainable. It is probable, also, that new

    light will for some time be given, as more is written about

    the war.

    The author wishes to acknowledge valuable assistance given

    by Colonel Greely S. Curtis, Majors D. H. L. Gleason, CharlesG. Davis, George H. Teague, Captain J. J. Higginson, Lieu-

  • IV PREFACE.

    tenants C. A. Longfellow and Parsons, Sergeant A. A. Sher-man, Co. C, S. N. Davenport, Co. A., and many others.On July 27, 1864, the writer was detached from tlie regi-

    ment, and the history from that date has been written fromdiaries and letters sent him, principally by H. T. Bartlett,Co. H, who at the time Avas detailed as orderly at division head-quarters.

    The history of the old companies I, K, L, and M, later theIndependent Battalion, has been comj)iled from various sources,largely from the notes and letters of Sergeant Andrew J. Clem-ent, of Company M (old).The statistical part of the history, involving great labor and

    time, has been written by Major D. H. L. Gleason. It hassaved the record of no' less than one hundred private soldiers,improperly reported on the rolls as deserters, principally be-

    cause correct information at the time could not be acquired.

    No doubt many soldiers of the regiment will look in vain tofind an account of something in which they were particularlyengaged. It aims to be rather the history of the regiment than

    of individuals. As already said, it is mainly the recollectionof one officer. This will explain Avhy some events seem to be

    given undue prominence over others which, perhaps, deservedmore notice.

    Such as it is, it has taken no small amount of the writer's

    time. He has aimed at truth and justice. If it shall assist inrecalling the stirring days from September, 1861, to July, 1865,

    in many fields of strife where the men of the First Massa-chusetts Cavalry followed the flag, the writer will be content.

    In its preparation he has been actuated by no other feelingthan the most cordial affection for aU his brother soldiers of theregiment.

    B. W. C.

  • CONTENTS.

    HISTORY OF THE REGIMENT 1

    CHAPTER I.

    Cavalry in Virginia during the War of the Rebellion .... 3

    CHAPTER II.

    In Massachusetts, September 11 to December 30, 1861 40

    CHAPTER III.

    In South Carolina, January 1 to August 19, 1862 51

    CHAPTER IV.

    Antietam Campaign, September 1 to November 28, 1862 68

    CHAPTER V.

    Winter before Fredericksburg, November 28, 1862, to April 12, 1863 93

    CHAPTER VI.

    Spring Campaign, April 12 to June 17, 1863 118

    CHAPTER VII.Battle of Aldie, June 17, and Gettysburg Campaign, to August 1, 1863 143

    CHAPTER VIII.

    Summer along the Rappahannock. To Centreville and back inquick time. Mine Run and to Winter Quarters at Warrenton,August, 1863, to January, 1864 167

  • VI CONTENTS.

    CHAPTER IX.Winter Quarters at Warrenton. Reenlistment. New Battalion,January to May, 18G4 193

    CHAPTER X.Spring and Summer Campaign. Rapidan to Petersburg, Mat to Sep-tember, 1864 203

    CHAPTER XI.Muster out of Old Men. Reorganization of Regiment. WinterBEFORE Petersburg, August 1, 1864, to July 18, 1865 237

    CHAPTER XII.The Third Battalion, from August 19, 1862 255

    CHAPTER XIII.Miscellaneous Recollections. Horses, Arms, Equipments. Names ofBattles on the Flag, etc 283

    ROSTER OF FIELD, LINE, AND STAFF OFFICERS, ETC 311Statistics of Companies 339

    APPENDIX 459The Regimental Band 461Engagements of the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry 466

    Engagements of Cos. I, K, L, and M, old 3d Battalion 468Losses of 1st Massachusetts Cavalry 469

    Casualties of 1st Massachusetts Cavalry 469

    Summary of Losses in the Union Armies 471Who raised the First National Flag at Richmond ? 474Commemorative Monuments 475

  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.For alphabetical arrangement, see Index, under " Illustrations."

    Colors of the First Massachusetts Cavalry Frontispiece

    Map to illustrate the Campaigns of the First Massachusetts Cavalry in Vir-ginia and Maryland, 1862-1865 in pocket

    Abraham Lincoln ^Gov. John A. Andrew Generals U. S. Grant, George B. McClellan, George G. Meade, P. H. Sheri-

    dan 12

    Generals W. W. Averell, A. N. Duffi^, Judson Kilpatrick, J. Irvin Gregg,J. B. Mcintosh, H. E. Davies 18

    Generals Alfred Pleasonton, David McM. Gregg, John Buford, George Stone-man, George A. Custer, A. T. Torbert 22

    Capt. Robert Williams, 1861 28

    The Ideal Cavalryman ; the Real Cavalryman 32

    Col. Robert Williams 38

    Col. Horace Binney Sargent 42

    Camp Brigham, Readville, Mass., Sept. 6 to Dec. 29, 1861 46Col. Samuel E. Chamberlain 52

    Beaufort Island 56

    G Company, Drayton Plantation, S. C '^Hilton Head, Jan., 1862, to Aug. 19, 1862 62

    Camp Williams, Beaufort, S. C, Jan. 21 to Aug. 19, 1862 64Lieut.-Col. Greely S. Curtis 72

    Antietam Bridge, Md. ; Potomac Creek Bridge, Va 78

    Lieut.-Col. Lucius M. Sargent "-'

    Lieut.-Col. John L. Tewksbury 88

    Plan of Camp at Potomac Run, Winter of '62-'63 94

    The Soldier's Dream ; Hut at Potomac Creek, Va 96

    Hartwood Church and Vicinity 1""'' Mai. Wm. F. White 1^^Maj. Henry Lee Higginson ^^"Maj. Atherton H. Stevens, Jr H"Mai. T. Lawrence Motley 12^

    Maj. Benjamin W. CrowninshieldMaj. Charles G. Davis 1^^

    Maj. Edward A. Flint 1^^

    Maj. Amos L. HopkinsMaj. Geo. H. Teague 1'*^

    Surg.-Maj. James Holland J^^Surg.-Maj. Albert Wood 1^^

  • vm LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

    Surg.-Maj. Samuel W. Abbott 160Asst.-Surg. Albert R. Rice 164Asst.-Surg. Homer H. Warner 170Group of Officers, Horse Artillery 174Asst.-Surg. George S. Osborne 180Asst.-Surg. Samuel H. Durgin 184Lieut. Lucius W. Knigbt 190Camp at Warrentou, Va 194Lieut. Jolin L. Brigbara 200Lieut. Benjamin G. Mann 204Captains Lucius Ricbmond, D. B. Keith, Caspar Crowninsbield 210Captains Jas. H. Case, Horace N. Weld, Arnold A. Rand 214Captains Henry P. Bowditch, Randolph M. Clark, Myron C. Pratt .... 220Captains Moses F. Webster, Joseph C. Murphy, Herbert P. Curtis .... 224Captains D, H. L. Gleason, James J. Higginson, John Drew 230Captains James A. Baldwin, David W. Herrick, George L. Bradbury . . . 234Lieutenants Walter Miles, Edw. R. Merrill, Francis Washburn 240Lieutenants Lucius H. Morrill, George Blagden, Alton E. Phillips 246Adjutants Nathaniel Bowditch, Greenleaf W. Batchelder, William W. War-

    dell 250Lieutenants Albert F. Ray, C. Chauncey Parsons, George M. Fillebrown . . 256Lieutenants Charles A. Longfellow, P. T. Jackson 260Lieutenants Edward J. Russell, L. N. Duchesney, John W. Martin, Timothy

    P. Lyman 266Lieutenants Harry D. Littlefield, George W. Flagg 272Lieutenants C. W. Dyer, Duett C. Clark, J. O. Josselyu 276Q. M. Sergeants Edw. H. Adams, Horatio Wood, Josiah N. Brackett . . . 280Capt. B. W. Crowninsbield 288

    Regimental Band.

    William Finney, W. J. Caswell, A. R. Bryant, E. H. Gooding, Frank M. Lund 292Dugald Mclnnis, Henry F. Wood, S. N. Davenport, A. W. Tyler, Henry C.

    W^eston 296Tyler Harding, Geo. A. Abel, George W. Filley, William H. Rice, Gerry R.Walker " . . 302

    A Company.J. Heinrich Hess, Lorenzo L. Howes, Thos. F. B. McDevitt, Corp. Gustave

    Evers, Edw. W. F. Macinaw, Chauncey Pettibone, Herbert Maycock . . . 308Sergt. Richard Walsh, Sergt. George H. Cavanaugh, Jos

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