a study of electrocution death in manipur
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DESCRIPTIONStudy of electrocution death in Manipur ,to prevent more mortality from electrocution in the future,and to find out the main reason behind the high number of death from it
- 1. Presenter:- Dr Soreingam Ragui, PGT Dr Kh. Pradipkumar Singh, Demonstrator Dr Th. Meera, Associate Professor Department of Forensic Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal
2. Introduction Electrocution:- Passage of a substantial electrical current through the tissue which can cause skin lesions, organ damage and death Injury and death from passage of an electric current through the body are common in both industrial and domestic circumstances. 3. INCIDENCE OF ELECTROCUTION DEATHS : Developed country like the US:- Consumer product associated electrocution) during 2002 to 2008 =432 deaths Developing country like India (NCRB):- In 2008 = 8067 deaths In 2009 = 8539 deaths i.e. 2.4 % of All Accidental deaths. 4. Aim of the study To study the incidence of electrocution deaths . To detect the common source of electrocution. To study the pattern of injuries sustained. 5. Materials & methods Study design : Descriptive. Study period : Retrospective study from 1st Jan 2007 to 31st Dec 2011(5 Yrs.). Materials : History, police papers and post mortem reports Methods : Analysis of the Medico legal reports of 2463 cases brought for autopsy at the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal during the said period. 6. Results 7. Fig 1. Year wise distribution of cases 1.28 % 0.76% 0.5% 1.65% 1.18% YEARS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 8. Fig. 2 Age distribution 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 AGE 1 to 10 yrs 11 to 20 yrs 21 to 30 yrs 31 to 40 yrs 41 to 50 yrs 51 & ABOVE 9. 96% 4% MALE FEMALE 10. Fig. 4 Place of occurrence 32% 68% PLACE OF INCIDENT HOUSE ROAD 11. Fig. 5 Causative agent HIGH TENSION WIRE 60% HOME APPLIANCE 28% WATER PUMP 12% 12. Fig 6. Pattern of wounds 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ENTRY WOUND EXIT WOUND HEAD AND NECK LEFT HAND RIGHT HAND LEFT FOOT RIGHT FOOT CHEST ABSENT 13. Fig 7. Type of electrical burn 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 TYPE OF BURN FLASH JOULE 14. Fig 8 : Survival period 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 SURVIVAL PERIOD IMMEDIATE 1 to 3 hrs AFTER ELECTROCUTION 15. Discussion 16. The widespread commercial utilization of electrical power has been associated with a rapid increase of both fatal and non fatal injuries. In our study, male accounted for 92.30 % of the cases which is in consistence with the findings of other workers viz. Sheikhazadi A et al, J Forensic Med Pathol 2010 (96.6%),Wick R et al Med Sci Law 2006 (91%) & Bharath K et al JIAFM 2012 (91.93%) . This predominance of males is attributed to more association of males with electrical appliance and with its repair much more than their female counterparts. 17. The most common age group in this study was 21- 30 yrs (53.84 %) and electrocution was very rare in both extremes of ages. This age group is the most active phase in life with higher chances of exposure to risk. Similar finding were also noted by different workers in different part of the country by Bharath K et al JIAFM 2012 , Gupta BD et al JIAFM 2012 & Shaha KK Med Sci Law 2010 . 18. Household accidental electrocution (78.06%) i.e. indoor was observed by Dokov W in Varna Bulgaria Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2010 . Similar findings were observed by Byard RW in South Australia Paediatr Child Health 2003 , Bharath K et al in Andhra Pradesh JIAFM 2012 , India & B.D Gupta et al in Gujarat, India JIAFM 2012 . These findings are in contrast to the findings of our study where most of the cases occurred outdoors(68%). This may be attributed to the erratic power supply in the State (only 2 3 hrs/day for domestic consumers) and poor maintenance of electric cables in this part of the country starting from using of bad quality wire, breakage which may remain unattended on the road side leading to accidental electrocution. 19. 78.06% of the cases were accidental in a study by Dokov W in Varna, Bulgaria Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2010 whereas it was 61.86% in another study by Shaha KK et al in Tamil Nadu, India Med Sci Law 2010 . Interestingly, in the present series all the cases were accidental in nature. 20. 60.7% were dead on the scene and 31.9% were dead on arrival at hospital (Sheikhazadi A et al) Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2010 . 88% died immediately after the shock (Shaha KK) Med Sci Law 2010 . In our study, significant number of victims died immediately following electric shock (92.30 %) which may be compared with the findings of Rautji R wherein 98.03 % died on the scene of the fatal event and only 1.96 % died in hospital Med Sci Law 2003. 21. 77.77 % of entry wound were in the upper limb and 43.75 % of exit wound in the lower limb by Bharath k et al JIAFM 2012. Similar findings were observed by Tirasci Y Tohoku J Exp Med 2006 and Sheikhazadi A et al Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2010 We also observed that most of the Entry wounds were on the right hand (48 %) and no entry or exit wounds were present in 26.92 % . 22. Surprisingly high tension wire was the most common source of electrocution in our study with 53.85 % and flash burn was the most common type of electrical burn seen (60%) which is in sharp contrast to other studies where the most common source were usually household electrical appliances (Byard RW Paediatric Child Health. 2003 , Bharath K et al JIAFM 2012.) 23. Conclusion The danger of getting electrocuted from the lowly installed high tension electric wires and haphazardly fixed up electric supply wire without proper maintenance in most parts of the State is indeed a matter of concern. However, electric supply system has been updated in the previous year with the installation of underground cables in some parts of the State and positive changes are expected in the near future. 24. REFERENCE 1) Gupta BD, Mehta RA, Trangadia MM. Profile of deaths due to electrocution : A retrospective study . JIAFM .2012 Jan-March;34(1):13-5. 2) Bharath KG, Sheikh K ,Uday PS . Pattern of injuries due to electric current. JIAFM .2012 Jan-March;34(1):44- 8. 3) Dokov W. Electrocution-related mortality: A review of 351 deaths by low-voltage electrical current. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2010 Mar;16(2):139-43. 4) Sheikhazadi A, Kiani M, Ghadyani MH. Electrocution-related mortality: a survey of 295 deaths in Tehran, Iran between 2002 and 2006. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010 Mar;31(1):42-5. 25. 5) Shaha KK, Joe AE. Electrocution-related mortality: a retrospective review of 118 deaths in Coimbatore, India, between January 2002 and December 2006. Med Sci Law. 2010 Apr;50(2):72- 4. 6) Wick R, Gilbert JD, Simpson E, Byard RW. Fatal electrocution in adults--a 30-year study. Med Sci Law. 2006 Apr;46(2):166-72. 7) Tirasci Y, Goren S, Subasi M, Gurkan F. Electrocution-related mortality: a review of 123 deaths in Diyarbakir, Turkey between 1996 and 2002. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2006 Feb;208(2):141-5. 26. 8) Byard RW, Hanson KA, Gilbert JD, James RA, Nadeau J, Blackbourne B, Krous HF. Death due to electrocution in childhood and early adolescence. Paediatr Child Health. 2003 Jan- Feb;39(1):46-8. 9) Rautji R, Rudra A, Behera C, Dogra TD. Electrocution in South Delhi: a retrospective study. Med Sci Law. 2003 Oct;43(4):350-2.