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Report ARD 10-16 September 2010

ADINA R & D, Inc.

User Guide

TRANSOR for FEMAP

UTOMATIC

YNAMIC

NCREMENTAL

ONLINEAR

NALYSIS

TRANSOR for FEMAP

User Guide

September 2010

ADINA R & D, Inc. 71 Elton Avenue

Watertown, MA 02472 USA

tel. (617) 926-5199 telefax (617) 926-0238

www.adina.com

Notices

ADINA R & D, Inc. owns both this software program system and its documentation. Both the program system and the documentation are copyrighted with all rights reserved by ADINA R & D, Inc.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. ADINA R & D, Inc. makes no warranty whatsoever, expressed or implied that the Program and its documentation including any modifications or updates are free from errors or defects. In no event shall ADINA R&D, Inc. become liable to the User or any party for any loss, including but not limited to, loss of time, money or goodwill, which may arise from the use of the Program and its documentation including any modifications and updates.

Trademarks

ADINA is a registered trademark of K.J. Bathe / ADINA R & D, Inc.

All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice

ADINA R & D, Inc. 2010 September 2010 Printing Printed in the USA

Table of Contents

TRANSOR for FEMAP User Guide

Table of Contents

1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 4

1.1 Install and uninstall TRANSOR for FEMAP in FEMAP................................... 4 1.2 Explanation of ADINA menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP ..................... 5

1.2.1 Model Settings menu .................................................................................. 5 1.2.2 FSI Boundary Conditions menu................................................................ 10 1.2.3 Initial Conditions menu............................................................................. 10 1.2.4 Analysis Settings menu............................................................................. 11

1.2.4.1 Static Analysis Settings......................................................................... 11 1.2.4.2 Dynamic Implicit Analysis Settings ..................................................... 13 1.2.4.3 Dynamic Explicit Analysis Settings ..................................................... 15 1.2.4.4 Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings ...................................................... 17 1.2.4.5 Mode Superposition Analysis Settings ................................................. 19

1.2.5 General Solution Settings menu................................................................ 20 1.2.6 Nonlinear Solution Settings menu ............................................................ 24 1.2.7 Analyze menu ........................................................................................... 27 1.2.8 Load Results menu.................................................................................... 28 1.2.9 User Guide menu ...................................................................................... 28

1.3 Explanation of ADINA CFD menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP........... 28 1.3.1 Materials menu.......................................................................................... 29 1.3.2 Boundary Conditions menu ...................................................................... 33 1.3.3 Initial Conditions menu............................................................................. 40 1.3.4 Analysis Settings menu............................................................................. 41 1.3.5 General Solution Settings menu................................................................ 45 1.3.6 CFD Analyze menu................................................................................... 48 1.3.7 FSI Analyze menu..................................................................................... 49 1.3.8 Load Results menu.................................................................................... 50

2 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures..................................................... 51

2.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems................................................................... 51 2.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities .............................................................. 51

2.2.1 Node.......................................................................................................... 51 2.2.2 Element ..................................................................................................... 51

2.2.2.1 Line Elements ....................................................................................... 51 2.2.2.2 Plane Elements...................................................................................... 52 2.2.2.3 Volume Elements.................................................................................. 53 2.2.2.4 Other Elements...................................................................................... 53

2.2.3 Material ..................................................................................................... 53 2.2.3.1 Isotropic Materials ................................................................................ 53 2.2.3.2 Other Types Materials........................................................................... 54

2.3 Translation of Loads ......................................................................................... 54

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2.3.1 Finite Element Loads ................................................................................ 54 2.3.1.1 Body Loads ........................................................................................... 54 2.3.1.2 Nodal Loads .......................................................................................... 54 2.3.1.3 Elemental Loads.................................................................................... 55 2.3.1.4 Nonlinear Force Loads.......................................................................... 55

2.3.2 Geometric Loads....................................................................................... 55 2.4 Translation of Constraints................................................................................. 56 2.5 Translation of Connections and Regions .......................................................... 56

2.5.1 Translation of Connections ....................................................................... 56 2.5.2 Translation of Regions.............................................................................. 56

2.6 Translation of Functions ................................................................................... 57 2.7 Translation of Initial Conditions....................................................................... 57 2.8 Example 1 ......................................................................................................... 57 2.9 Example 2 ......................................................................................................... 69

3 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA CFD ............................................................. 84

3.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems................................................................... 84 3.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities .............................................................. 84

3.2.1 Node.......................................................................................................... 84 3.2.2 Element ..................................................................................................... 84

3.2.2.1 Line Elements ....................................................................................... 84 3.2.2.2 Plane Elements...................................................................................... 84 3.2.2.3 Volume Elements.................................................................................. 85 3.2.2.4 Other Elements...................................................................................... 85

3.2.3 Material ..................................................................................................... 85 3.3 Translation of Loads ......................................................................................... 85 3.4 Translation of Constraints................................................................................. 86 3.5 Translation of Functions ................................................................................... 86 3.6 ADINA CFD Material Models ......................................................................... 86

3.6.1 Constant Material Model .......................................................................... 86 3.6.2 K-ε Turbulence Model .............................................................................. 87 3.6.3 RNG K-ε Turbulence Model..................................................................... 88

3.7 ADINA CFD Boundary Conditions.................................................................. 88 3.7.1 Wall Boundary Conditions ....................................................................... 89 3.7.2 FSI Boundary Conditions ......................................................................... 90 3.7.3 Boundary Pressure Boundary Conditions................................................. 91 3.7.4 Fixed Pressure Boundary Conditions........................................................ 91 3.7.5 Inlet Velocity Boundary Conditions ......................................................... 92 3.7.6 Inlet Turbulence Boundary Conditions..................................................... 92

3.8 ADINA CFD Initial Conditions........................................................................ 92 3.9 ADINA CFD Elements ..................................................................................... 93

3.9.1 2-D FCBI elements (3- and 4-node) ......................................................... 93 3.9.2 3-D FCBI elements (4-, 5-, 6- and 8-node)............................................... 94 3.9.3 FCBI-C elements ...................................................................................... 96

3.10 Example ........................................................................................................ 97

4 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction........ 110

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Table of Contents

4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................... 110 4.2 Running One-way FSI .................................................................................... 110 4.3 Example .......................................................................................................... 111

Appendix-1: List of Figures............................................................................................ 132

Appendix-2: List of Tables ............................................................................................. 133

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1 Introduction TRANSOR for FEMAP is a graphical user interface between FEMAP and ADINA. It allows users to use FEMAP for all their pre- and post-processing and use ADINA as the solver. It is targeted to users who are familiar with the FEMAP environment but wish to benefit from the powerful features of the ADINA solver. TRANSOR for FEMAP is fully integrated within the FEMAP environment and communicates with FEMAP using its Application Programming Interface (API). For pre-processing, TRANSOR for FEMAP is activated inside a FEMAP session and it can access the FEMAP database directly. For post-processing, TRANSOR for FEMAP can convert the ADINA results to FEMAP neutral file which can be imported into FEMAP directly. 1.1 Install and uninstall TRANSOR for FEMAP in FEMAP TRANSOR for FEMAP installation and uninstallation are activated through “Custom Tools” toolbar as shown below.

If “Custom Tools” toolbar is not visible in the FEMAP main window, please activate it using the Tools, Toolbars. menu. For Windows Vista user, please run FEMAP by selecting “run application as Administrator” inside Femap.exe before the above installation step. After installation, two new menus named ADINA and ADINA CFD will be added to the right of the Help menu in FEMAP with the following content:

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Chapter 1: Introduction

ADINA Model Parameters

Model Settings FSI Boundary Conditions Initial Conditions

Analysis Parameters Analysis Settings General Solution Settings Nonlinear Solution Settings

Analyze Load Results User Guide

ADINA CFD

Model Parameters Materials Boundary Conditions Initial Conditions

Analysis Parameters Analysis Settings General Solution Settings

CFD Analyze FSI Analyze

1.2 Explanation of ADINA menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP 1.2.1 Model Settings menu The “Model Settings” menu is used to input the settings that are part of the model, not the solution. It includes element settings, material settings, contact settings, etc.

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• Master Degrees of Freedom A degree of freedom not selected by this parameter is deleted from the entire model. The default is for all degrees of freedom to be active. • Kinematics Settings Kinematics settings define the kinematic formulation. Displacements/Rotations Small: small displacements and rotations are assumed. Large: large displacements and rotations are assumed. (Default is Small). Strains Small: small strains are assumed. Large: large strains are assumed. (Default is Small).

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Note: Large strains are only admissible for element groups of type 2-D solid, 3-D solid and shell with certain material models. Large Strain Formulation: specifies the large strain formulation to be used for 2-D solid, 3-D solid and shell elements. Default: ULH is used for implicit analysis and ULJ is used for explicit analysis. ULH: updated Lagrangian Hencky formulation is used. ULJ: updated Lagrangian Jaumann formulation is used. • Element Settings Use Incompatible Modes: specifies whether incompatible modes are included in the formulations of 4-node 2-D and shell elements and 8-node 3-D elements. (Default is Automatic, which disables “Incompatible Modes” for explicit analysis, and otherwise enables “Incompatible Modes”). u/p Formulation for Almost Incompressible: indicates use of either displacement or u/p interpolation formulation. The default selection (unchecked) assumes a u/p formulation for element groups with material models Ogden, Mooney-Rivlin, and Arruda-Boyce. For all other material models the default selection (unchecked) assumes a displacement formulation. (Default is unchecked). • Material Settings Extrapolate Stress-Strain Curves: automatically extend the stress-strain curves to a strain value of 100.0 by default. (Default is checked). Convert from Engineering to True Stress-Strain: converts stress-strain curve input from engineering stress-strain to true stress-strain. (Default is unchecked). • Mass Matrix Settings Mass matrix settings select the type of mass matrix to be used in implicit dynamic analysis. For static analyses, the mass matrix type is used only in evaluating centrifugal and mass-proportional loads. Note that lumped mass is always used in explicit analysis. (Default is Consistent). Consistent: consistent mass matrix. Lumped: lumped (diagonalized) mass matrix. • Rayleigh Damping Settings Rayleigh damping settings specify the coefficients which define a consistent damping matrix C as a linear combination of the system mass matrix M and the system stiffness matrix K.

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Alpha: Rayleigh damping factor α. (Default α = 0.0). Beta: Rayleigh damping factor β. (Default β = 0.0). Note: The specification of Rayleigh damping is ignored for both a frequency analysis and a mode superposition analysis. • Other Settings Calculate Reactions: indicates whether reaction forces and moments corresponding to fixed or prescribed degrees of freedom are evaluated and printed into ADINA .out file. (Default is checked). Bolt Force Increments: specifies the number of steps to iterate for calculation of bolt force. (Default is 1). Rigid Link Displacement: specifies the kinematic formulation for rigid link. Default: As set by “Kinematics Settings”. Small: Small displacement formulation. Large: Large displacement formulation. • Shell Settings Shell Thickness Integration Type: specifies the type of numerical integration through the shell thickness. (Default is Gauss Integration). Shell Thickness Integration Order: specifies the integration order through the shell thickness. (Default is 2 for Gauss Integration; 5 for Newton-Cotes and Trapezoidal Integrations). Stiffness Factor for Nodes with Zero Drilling Stiffness: assigns drilling stiffness to rotational degrees of freedom with zero stiffness associated with shell nodes connected to beams, rigid links, etc. The actual stiffness used is obtained by multiplying this factor by the rotational stiffness at the shell nodes. (Default is 0.0001). Use 3D-Shell Element: indicates whether to use 3D-shell elements. (Default is unchecked). Include Warping Rotation DOF: indicates whether to include warping rotation degree of freedom in 3D-shell elements. (Default is unchecked). Use Tying to Prevent Locking: indicates whether to use tying in 3D-shell elements for locking prevention. (Default is checked). Number of u/p DOFs in R-S Plane: specifies the number of pressure degree of freedom used in the u/p formulation in r-s plane of 3D-shell elements. (Default is Automatic).

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Number of u/p DOFs in T Direction: specifies the number of pressure degree of freedom used in the u/p formulation in t direction of 3D-shell elements. (Default is Automatic). • Contact Settings Default Contact Displacement Formulation: specifies the default displacement formulation used for contact analysis. (Default is Large). Allow Tensile Consistent Contact Forces on Quadratic 3D Elements: specifies whether to allow tensile consistent contact forces (quadratic 3D elements only). (Default is unchecked). No. of Iterations to Pairing Contact Node to Target Segment: indicates the number of iterations for which previous target segments are stored for contactor nodes in order to suppress oscillation between adjacent segments. Such oscillation can occur when a contactor node approaches the junction between two adjacent target segments. The default value is zero, which indicates that no such checking and associated storage are required. When the number of iterations is larger than zero, it allows such oscillation to be detected and eliminated. Notes: 1. The maximum number of iterations is 99. 2. This parameter has no effect if the node-to-node contact algorithm is used. 3. This parameter should be less than the maximum number of equilibrium iterations. Use Automatic Orientation of Contact Surfaces: indicates whether the contact surface orientations are determined by ADINA. That is important in contact analysis involving shells or rigid contact surfaces. In these cases the user had the burden to determine which is the proper contact side. The automatic determination will be based on individual contact pairs. (Default is unchecked). • 9/27-Node Element Conversion 9/27-Node Element Conversion converts 2-D solid, 3-D solid or shell elements by changing the number of nodes of the element. Convert Elements from 8/20 Nodes to 9/27 Nodes: indicates whether to convert 8-node to 9-node quadrilateral elements and 20-node to 27-node brick elements. (Default is unchecked). Element Type to be Converted: selects the type of element to be converted. (Default is 2-D Solid).

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Assign Skew System to Created Nodes: indicates whether skew system is assigned to newly created nodes if all other nodes on the element face are assigned a skew system. (Default is unchecked). Assign Loads and Initial Conditions to Created Nodes: indicates whether existing nodal-based prescribed loads (e.g., displacement, temperature, velocity) and initial conditions are applied on the newly created nodes. (Default is unchecked). Check Nodal Coincidence against All Nodes: indicates whether nodal coincidence is checked with newly generated nodes or all existing nodes. When a node already exists at a location, no new node will be created. (Default is unchecked). 1.2.2 FSI Boundary Conditions menu The “FSI Boundary Conditions” menu provides the definition of fluid-structure interface for ADINA Structures. The FSI boundary conditions can be applied to curve/element edge for 2-D model and surface/element face for 3-D model.

Model Type: indicates the model dimension. General 3D: 3-D model. 2D in YZ: 2-D model in YZ plane. 1.2.3 Initial Conditions menu In the “Initial Conditions” menu all the user defined load sets in FEMAP appear in the drop-down list. The user can pick one of them to use for initial conditions.

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1.2.4 Analysis Settings menu The “Analysis Settings” menu is used to set all analysis specific input required for ADINA Structures. It includes detailed settings for static, implicit dynamic, explicit dynamic, frequency, and modal superposition analyses. 1.2.4.1 Static Analysis Settings

• Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)

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ATS Scheme: selects a method of automatic incrementation control during analysis, such as Automatic Time Stepping (ATS), Total Load Application (TLA), and TLA with Stabilization (TLA-S). (Default is None. When the analysis involves fluid-structure interaction, the default is Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)). ATS Settings Max Subdivisions Allowed: specifies the maximum number of permitted subdivisions of any given time step. For a time step of magnitude ∆t, the program will not attempt to subdivide below a time step of magnitude (∆t divided by this value). (Default is 10). Max Time Step Factor: a factor that limits the maximum time step that can be attained during analysis. (Default is 3.0). Factor for Dividing Time Step: specifies the division factor used to calculate time step subincrements. (Default is 2.0). For Next Time Step: indicates whether the original time step, attempted before ATS subdivision occurred, will be used again for the next time step after convergence. (Default is “Determined by ADINA”). TLA Settings Number of Time Steps: specifies the number of time steps to use for the solution. (Default is 50). Max Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of equilibrium iterations allowed to achieve convergence in any time step (subdivided or accelerated). (Default is 30, and the maximum value is 999). Max Incremental Displacement Factor: specifies the maximum incremental displacement factor. The maximum incremental displacement allowed in any iteration is equal to this factor multiplied by the maximum model dimension. (Default is 0.05). TLA-S Settings Stiffness Matrix Stabilization Factor: specifies the stiffness matrix stabilization factor. (Default is 1.0E-10). Low-Speed Dynamics Damping Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics damping factor. (Default is 1.0E-4). Low-Speed Dynamics Inertia Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics inertia factor. (Default is 1.0). Contact Damping Factor: specifies the contact damping factor. (Default is 1.0E-3).

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• Model Stabilization Use Low-Speed Dynamics: indicates whether or not the low-speed dynamics option is to be used. (Default is unchecked). Low-Speed Dynamics Damping Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics damping factor. (Default is 1.0E-4). Low-Speed Dynamics Inertia Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics inertia factor. (Default is 1.0). Stiffness Matrix Stabilization: sets the option to stabilize the stiffness matrix. (Default is No). Stabilization Factor: specifies the stiffness matrix stabilization factor. (Default is 1.0E-10). Contact Damping Apply Contact Damping: indicates whether damping stabilization is applied for contact analysis. (Default is No). Normal Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the normal contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0). Tangential Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the tangential contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0). Note: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options. 1.2.4.2 Dynamic Implicit Analysis Settings

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• Automatic Time Stepping (ATS) Scheme ATS Scheme: selects a method of automatic incrementation control during analysis. (Default is None. When the analysis involves fluid-structure interaction, the default is Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)). ATS Settings Max Subdivisions Allowed: specifies the maximum number of permitted subdivisions of any given time step. (Default is 10). Max Time Step Factor: a factor that limits the maximum time step that can be attained during analysis. (Default is 3.0). Factor for Dividing Time Step: specifies the division factor used to calculate time step subincrements. (Default is 2.0).

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For Next Time Step: indicates whether the original time step, attempted before ATS subdivision occurred, will be used again for the next time step after convergence. (Default is “Determined by ADINA”). • Time Integration Method Method: selects the method to be used for direct time integration. (Default is Newmark). Delta: coefficient for the Newmark method. (Default is 0.5 and Delta ≥ 0.5). Alpha: coefficient for the Newmark method. (Default is 0.25 and Alpha > 0.0). Gamma: coefficient for the Bathe-Composite method. (Default is 0.5 and 0.0 < Gamma < 1.0). • Contact Damping Apply Contact Damping: indicates whether damping stabilization is applied for contact analysis. (Default is No). Normal Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the normal contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0). Tangential Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the tangential contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0). 1.2.4.3 Dynamic Explicit Analysis Settings

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• Time Step Control Time Step: indicates the method of time step selection for explicit analysis. (Default is “Automatic (Use Total Time Specified)”). Time Step Magnitude Update Frequency: defines how often the time step magnitude is updated in explicit analysis. (Default is 1.0). Time Step Magnitude Scaling Factor: factor used to scale the calculated time step in explicit analysis. (Default is 0.0). Global Mass Scaling Factor: specifies the factor to scale the mass (densities) of the entire model (at the beginning of the analysis) to increase the critical time step size required for stability when the explicit time integration scheme is used. (Default is 1.0). Minimum Time Step (Mass Scaling): specifies the minimum time step size used to determine if mass scaling will be applied to elements (at the beginning of the analysis). (Default is 0.0).

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Minimum Time Step (Element Removal): specifies the minimum time step size used to determine if an element will be removed in an explicit time integration analysis. (Default is 0.0). 1.2.4.4 Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings

• Solution Method Specifies the method of frequency calculation. (Default is Subspace Iteration). • Output Settings Calculated Modal Stresses: indicates whether or not to calculate modal stresses for post-processing. (Default is unchecked). Output Intermediate Solution Information: specifies whether or not the intermediate solution information is printed. (Default is unchecked).

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• Lanczos Settings Use Shifting Procedure: specifies whether to use automatic shifting procedure for the Lanczos iteration method. When the number of frequencies to be calculated is large, using the automatic shifting procedure can reduce the computation time significantly. (Default is Automatic). No. of Frequencies per Shift: specifies the number of frequencies to be calculated for each shift in the Lanczos iteration method. (Default is 50). • Frequency Range Calculated Frequency in an Interval: specifies whether or not the lowest frequency calculation by the subspace and the Lanczos iteration methods are confined to a specified interval. (Default is unchecked). Lower Bound: indicates the lower bound frequency (radians/time) of the interval in which the subspace iteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculate the lowest frequencies. (Default is 0.0). Upper Bound: indicates the upper bound frequency (radians/time) of the interval in which the subspace iteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculate the lowest frequencies. (Default is “Cutoff Circular Frequency”). • Frequencies/Mode Shapes Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes: specifies the number of frequencies and corresponding mode shapes to be calculated. The actual number of frequencies calculated may be reduced whenever the maximum, specified either by the cutoff circular frequency or the upper bound on the solution interval (for the subspace iteration method), has been exceeded. (Default is 1). Number of Mode Shapes to be Printed: indicates the number of mode shapes to be printed in the results output file. (Default is 0). • Solution Settings Allow Rigid Body Mode: specifies whether or not rigid body modes are allowed. Should be used when the lowest frequency may be zero, or any part of the model may be insufficiently supported. (Default is unchecked). Rigid Body Mode Shift: indicates the rigid body mode shift to be applied when “Allow Rigid Body Mode” is checked. (Default is 0.0, and this will result in a value being automatically determined by the analysis program).

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Cutoff Circular Frequency: specifies the cutoff circular frequency (radians/time). The frequency calculation is stopped if “Cutoff Circular Frequency” has been exceeded. (Default is 1.0E8). Max. Number of Iterations per Eigenpair: specifies the maximum number of iterations per eigenpair (frequency, mode shape) allowed during solution. (Default is 24). • Subspace Settings Use Acceleration Scheme: specifies whether or not acceleration schemes (shifting and overrelaxation) are to be employed during subspace iteration. (Default is unchecked). No. of Iteration Vectors Used Simultaneously: indicates the number of iteration vectors to be used simultaneously by the subspace iteration method. (Default equals the min(2 * “Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes”, “Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes” + 8) if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is checked. Default is 16 if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is unchecked). Convergence Tolerance: indicates the convergence tolerance used by the subspace and the Lanczos iteration methods in the iteration for frequency values. (Default is 1.0E-6 if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is unchecked and “Subspace Iteration” method is used. Default is 1.0E-10 if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is checked and “Subspace Iteration” method is used. Default is 1.0E-9 if “Lanczos Iteration” method is used). Starting Vectors: specifies the method of generating starting vectors for the subspace iteration method. (Default is Lanczos). Standard: standard starting vectors are used. Lanczos: the Lanczos method is used to generate starting vectors. Number of User-Provided Starting Vectors: indicates the number of user-provided starting iteration vectors for the subspace iteration method. (Default is 0). 1.2.4.5 Mode Superposition Analysis Settings

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• Frequencies and Normal Modes Data Calculate Frequencies & Mode Shapes: indicates that ADINA Structures is to first perform a frequency analysis (in the same run). (Default is checked). Read from File (<problem filename>.mds): indicates that the frequencies and mode shapes are assumed available, on file, from a previous analysis. (Default is unchecked). Number of Modes to Use: specifies the number of modes for a mode superposition analysis. (Default is 0). All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as “Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings” in section 1.2.4.4. 1.2.5 General Solution Settings menu

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The “General Solution Settings” menu provides the settings that are part of the solution process for both linear and nonlinear analysis. It mainly includes time steps, solver, and restart analysis options.

• General Solution Start Time: specifies the solution start time. For a restart run it must equal a solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. (Default is 0.0). Continue Even When Non-Positive Definite Stiffness Matrix Encountered: specifies the preferred behavior of ADINA Structures when a zero or negative diagonal element is encountered, i.e. when the system matrix is not positive definite. When checked, ADINA Structures will always continue execution. If an exact zero pivot is encountered, ADINA assigns a very large number to the diagonal term, effectively attaching a very stiff spring to the degree of freedom. When unchecked, ADINA Structures stops if the stiffness matrix is not positive definite for a linear analysis. For a nonlinear analysis, ADINA Structures stops if the stiffness matrix is not positive definite unless the automatic time stepping (ATS) option is used, or a contact analysis is being performed. (Default is unchecked). • Solver

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Equation Solver: selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium equation system. (Default is Sparse Solver). Sparse: a sparse-matrix solver is used. 3D-Iterative: an iterative solver is used for models with relatively large number of 3-D

higher order elements. Multigrid: a multigrid solver is used. Solver Settings: defines control data for the iterative solution of the matrix system of equilibrium equations. Max Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations for the iterative solver to converge. (Default is 200 for a 3D-Iterative solver; 1000 for a Multigrid solver). Epsilon a Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver. (Default is 1.0E-6). Epsilon b Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver. (Default is 1.0E-4). Epsilon i Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver. (Default is 1.0E-8). Shift Factor: factor used to make preconditioning more effective within the iterative solver. Values of Shift Factor greater than 1.0 makes the preconditioning matrix more diagonally dominant. (Not used for the 3D-Iterative solver. Default is 1.0). Note 1: For the 3D-Iterative solver, only “Epsilon b Tolerance” is used in the convergence checking. Note 2: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options. • Solution Diagnostics Solution diagnostics provides diagnostic information to the user about the progress of solution, the mesh, the analysis settings or results. For Overall Solution: diagnostics of solution progress. It outputs a wide range of information about the progress of solution. Output includes material points switching from elastic to plastic, contact nodes changing status, loose convergence tolerances, ATS performance, and matrix ill-conditioning. (Default is None). None: No diagnostic checking. Minimal: Only critical information is output. Detailed: Output all detected issues.

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Related to Contact: diagnostics of contact definitions (at the start of solution). (Default is None). None: No diagnostic checking. Minimal: Only critical information is output. Detailed: Output all detected issues. • Restart Analysis Options Restart Previous Analysis: when checked ADINA Structures performs a restart analysis, reading data from a previous run, verifies the data and executes. (Default is unchecked). Number of Steps to Save in the Restart File: specifies the number of solution time steps to save in the restart file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then When N = 1, the number of steps saved in the restart file is dictated by “Frequency of Saving to Restart File” (see below). When N > 1, the number of steps saved in the restart file is limited to N. (Default is 1). Frequency of Saving to Restart File: specifies the frequency of saving ADINA Structures’ results to the restart file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then When N = 0, “Frequency of Saving to Restart File” is set to the “Number of Steps” in the first “Time Steps” block when explicit time integration is used; set to 1 otherwise. When N > 0, restart file is overwritten every Nth time steps. When N < 0, restart file is appended every Nth time steps. (Default is 0). Restart Data from Current <problem filename>.res: uses the current <problem filename>.res as the restart file. (Default is checked). File: restart file specified by user. (Default is unchecked). • Time Steps Defines a time step sequence which controls the time/load-step incrementation during analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of constant time steps is specified. Number of Steps: indicates the number of steps to be taken in a time step sequence period. (Default is 1).

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Time Increment: indicates the constant time step magnitude, in time units, for a time step sequence period. (Default is 1.0). Output Interval: controls the output time steps at which results are saved on the FEMAP neutral file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then every N-th step will be saved for output. (Default is 1.0). 1.2.6 Nonlinear Solution Settings menu The “Nonlinear Solution Settings” menu provides the settings that are specific to nonlinear analysis. It mainly includes iteration scheme and convergence tolerance options.

• Nonlinear Iteration Scheme Maximum Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations within a time step. (Default is 15, 1 ≤ Maximum Number of Iterations ≤ 999). ADINA Structures will terminate execution if this maximum number is reached without achieving convergence, unless the automatic time stepping (ATS) option has been enabled, whereby the time step is subdivided a given number of times to try to reach convergence. Line Search Settings

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Use of Line Search: sets the use of line searches within the iteration scheme. (Default is No). Convergence Tolerance: specifies the line search convergence tolerance. (Default is 0.5). Energy Threshold: specifies the line search energy threshold. This parameter is only used if line search is activated (e.g., when “Use of Line Search” is YES). During each equilibrium iteration, if the unbalanced energy is less than Energy Threshold, no line search will be performed. (Default is 0.0, Energy Threshold ≥ 0.0). Lower Bound: indicates the lower bound for line search. (Default is 0.001, 0.0 ≤ Lower Bound < 1.0). Upper Bound: indicates the upper bound for line search. (If there is contact, the default is 1.0; otherwise, the default is 8.0. Upper Bound ≥ 1.0). Plastic Algorithm Used in Large Strain: sets the algorithm used in plasticity. Type 1 plastic algorithm is the original algorithm and type 2 plastic algorithm is a modified algorithm. (Default is Type 1). This parameter is used for implicit time integration (static or dynamic), and 3-D solid elements or shell elements under the following conditions: (1) Large displacement, large strain kinematics; (2) 3-D solid elements: ULH formulation, elasto-plastic and plastic materials; (3) Shell elements: ULH formulation, elasto-plastic and plastic materials. For a given load step size, convergence is affected by this parameter. If the iterations do not converge with type 1 plastic algorithm because the Jacobian determinant in the elements becomes non-positive, switching to type 2 plastic algorithm can sometimes obtain convergence. Hence type 2 plastic algorithm allows larger load steps than type 1 plastic algorithm, in general. But if the iterations already converge with type 1 plastic algorithm, switching to type 2 plastic algorithm slows down convergence. The converged solution is not affected by the choice of this parameter. The typical use of type 2 plastic algorithm is in metal forming. In metal forming, the metal being formed is typically very thin and modeled either with shell elements or with thin 3-D elements. Type 2 plastic algorithm allows large load steps, and hence fewer load steps, to obtain the solution. Max Incremental Displacement/Iteration: specifies the maximum incremental displacement that is allowed in an iteration. This feature is generally useful for contact analysis where rigid body motion before the bodies come into contact may result in

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excessive displacements. A zero value means there is no limit on incremental displacements. (Default is 0.0). • Convergence Convergence Criteria: selects the convergence criteria to be used, and thereby which of the other parameters are considered. (Default is Energy). Energy: energy convergence criterion. Energy and Force: energy and force (moment) convergence criteria. Energy and Displacement: energy and displacement (translation, rotation) convergence criteria. Force: force (moment) convergence criterion. Displacement: displacement (translation, rotation) convergence criterion. Energy Tolerance: specifies the relative energy tolerance. (Default is 0.001). Contact Force Tolerance: specifies the relative contact force tolerance. (Default is 0.05). Min Reference Contact Force: specifies the reference contact force. (Default is 0.01). Displacement Tolerances Translation/Rotation Tolerance: specifies the relative displacement (translation, rotation) tolerance. (Default is 0.01). Reference Translation: specifies the reference translation. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value. Reference Rotation: specifies the reference rotation. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value. Force Tolerances Force/Moment Tolerance: specifies the relative force and moment tolerance. (Default is 0.01). Reference Force: specifies the reference force. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value. Reference Moment: specifies the reference moment. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value. Note: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.

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1.2.7 Analyze menu Under the “Analyze” menu the user can specify the job name and heading. This menu also provides the memory, processor and model type settings. The “Create .in file” button will generate ADINA Structures .in file (ADINA-IN batch command input). The “Create .dat file” button will generate ADINA Structures .dat file (analysis data). The “Run model” button will run the job with ADINA Structures analysis.

Job Name: specifies ADINA .in file as the job name. The default is the current model’s name. The user can change the default job name or its directory by using the “Select a folder” button. Heading: specifies a title for the problem. (No more than 256 characters are permitted). System Info...: shows the number of processors on the machine, the total physical memory (RAM), the available physical memory, and “Max. Memory for Solution” used if the toggle Automatic is checked. • Options Number of Processors: specifies the number of processors. (Default is 1). Automatic: when this option is selected, the “Max. Memory for Solution” is set to the 80% of total physical memory. The amount of physical memory (RAM) on the system can be checked by clicking on the “System Info …” button. (Default is unchecked).

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Max. Memory for Solution: specifies the maximum memory to be used for the solution. It includes the memory allocated for data storage and the memory used by the sparse solver. (Default is 0, the program will try to allocate as much memory as required by the sparse solver for an in-core solution). Memory for Sparse Solver: specifies the maximum memory to be used for the sparse solver. (Default is 0, the program will try to allocate as much memory as required by the sparse solver for an in-core solution). Memory for Storing Model Data: specifies the amount of memory that the program can use to store matrix and element information. If the sparse solver is used in the solution, additional memory will be allocated by the program for the sparse solver on top of this memory allocation. (Default is 16 MB). ADINA-AUI Memory: specifies the amount of memory to be allocated for the AUI program. (Default is 16 MB). Output ADINA Input File in Interactive Mode: when this option is selected, the user can use ADINA AUI to read the input file for further interactive processing. (Default is uncheck). Model Type: selects the model dimension. (Default is General 3D). 1.2.8 Load Results menu The “Load Results” menu loads the analysis results in FEMAP neutral file format.

FEMAP Neutral File: specifies the FEMAP neutral file for post-processing. (Default is the current model’s name). 1.2.9 User Guide menu The “User Guide” menu loads the user guide of TRANSOR for FEMAP. 1.3 Explanation of ADINA CFD menu entries of TRANSOR for

FEMAP

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1.3.1 Materials menu The “Materials” menu defines the material with constant properties and the turbulence K-Epsilon material for ADINA CFD. • Material with Constant Properties

Density: specifies the density of the fluid. (Default is 0.0). Viscosity: specifies the coefficient of viscosity. (Default is 0.0). Specific Heat: specifies the specific heat at constant pressure. (Default is 0.0). Fluid Bulk Modulus: specifies the fluid bulk modulus. (Default is 1.0E20). Thermal Conductivity: specifies the coefficient of thermal conductivity. (Default is 0.0). Reference Temperature: specifies the reference temperature. (Default is 0.0). Coefficient of Surface Tension: specifies the coefficient of surface tension. (Default is 0.0). Coefficient of Volume Expansion: specifies the coefficient of volume expansion. (Default is 0.0). Specific Heat at Constant Volume: specifies the specific heat at constant volume. (Default is 0.0).

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Rate of Heat Generated/Unit Volume: specifies the rate of heat generated per unit volume. (Default is 0.0). Acceleration due to Gravity: specifies the global system components of acceleration due to gravity. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0). Note: This dialog is activated when Laminar flow model is selected under the “Flow Assumptions” tab of ADINA CFD “Analysis Settings” menu. • Turbulent K-Epsilon Material

Basic Density: specifies the density of the fluid. (Default is 0.0). Laminar Viscosity: specifies the coefficient of laminar viscosity. (Default is 0.0). Specific Heat: specifies the specific heat at constant pressure. (Default is 0.0). Fluid Bulk Modulus: specifies the fluid bulk modulus. (Default is 1.0E20). Laminar Thermal Conductivity: specifies the coefficient of laminar thermal conductivity. (Default is 0.0). Reference Temperature: specifies the reference temperature. (Default is 0.0).

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Coefficient of Surface Tension: specifies the coefficient of surface tension. (Default is 0.0). Coefficient of Volume Expansion: specifies the coefficient of volume expansion. (Default is 0.0). Specific Heat at Constant Volume: specifies the specific heat at constant volume. (Default is 0.0). Rate of Heat Generated/Unit Volume: specifies the rate of heat generated per unit volume. (Default is 0.0). Type: indicates whether the standard or the renormalization group (RNG) K-Epsilon model is to be utilized. (Default is Standard).

Advanced Turbulent Flow Model Constants C1: specifies the constant C1. (Default is 1.44). C2: specifies the constant C2. (Default is 1.92). C3: specifies the constant C3. (Default is 0.8). Cmu: specifies the constant Cmu. (Default is 0.09). Sigma K: specifies the constant kσ . (Default is 1.0).

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Sigma T: specifies the constant tσ . (Default is 0.9). Sigma Epsilon: specifies the constant εσ . (Default is 1.3). Von Karman Constant: specifies the Von Karman constant κ . (Default is 0.4). Dimensionless Distance from Wall Boundary: specifies the dimensionless distance from a wall boundary, where the calculations for velocity, temperature and k , ε are performed. (Default is 70). Acceleration due to Gravity: specifies the global system components of acceleration due to gravity. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).

Two-Layer Model Use Two-Layer Zonal Model: selects the type of constants input for the two-layer zonal model. (Default is OFF). OFF: deactivates the two-layer zonal model. with Default Constants: activates the two-layer zonal model with default constants for internal flows. with Input Constants: activates the two-layer zonal model with direct input constants for internal flows. cl: specifies a constant for internal flows in the two-layer zonal model. (Default is 2.43).

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Am: specifies a constant for internal flows in the two-layer zonal model. (Default is 100). Ae: specifies a constant for internal flows in the two-layer zonal model. (Default is 100). Minimum Critical Reynolds Number: specifies the minimum critical turbulent Reynolds number that defines the range of viscosity-affected near-wall layers. (Default is 50). Maximum Critical Reynolds Number: specifies the maximum critical turbulent Reynolds number that defines the range of viscosity-affected near-wall layers. (Default is 400). Preferred Number of Near-Wall Layers: specifies the preferred number of viscosity-affected near-wall layers. (Default is 10). Note 1: This dialog is activated when Turbulent K-Epsilon flow model is selected under the “Flow Assumptions” tab of ADINA CFD “Analysis Settings” menu. Note 2: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options. 1.3.2 Boundary Conditions menu The “Boundary Conditions” menu is used to define the wall, fluid-structure interaction (FSI), boundary pressure, fixed pressure, inlet velocity and inlet turbulence boundary conditions for ADINA CFD analysis. The wall, FSI, and boundary pressure boundary conditions can be applied to curve or element in 2-D model, and to surface or element in 3-D model. The fixed pressure, inlet velocity and inlet turbulence boundary conditions can be applied to point, curve, surface or node in both 2-D and 3-D models. • Wall Boundary Condition

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Velocity at Wall Boundary: specifies the type of boundary velocity. (Default is Conventional). Conventional: velocity at the boundary is controlled by the “Slip Condition” parameter. Tangential: tangential velocity. Rotational: velocity resulting from a rotating angular velocity. Tangential / AngularVelocity Magnitude: specifies the magnitude of the velocity. (Default is 0.0). Time Function: specifies the time function of the tangential velocity or angular velocity. (Default is 0). Normal to Plane formed by Boundary Normal and Tangent: specifies the normal direction of the plane determined by the boundary normal and tangential directions using the right-hand rule. Values are specified in the global coordinate system. (Default is X=1.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0). Position of Origin of Rotation: specifies the global coordinates of the origin of the axis of rotation. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0). Slip Condition: specifies the slip coefficient. When “Slip Condition” is No, the slip coefficient is 0.0 which indicates a "no-slip" condition. When “Slip Condition” is Yes, the slip coefficient is 1.0. (Default is No).

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Thermal Condition Type: specifies the type of thermal condition on the wall. (Default is Local Heat Flux). Local Heat Flux: the heat flux on the wall that is specified by the Value parameter within this command. Local Temperature: the temperature on the wall that is specified by the Value parameter within this command. Global: thermal condition is specified at the global level. Value: specifies the temperature or heat flux on the wall. (Default is 0.0). Time Function: specifies the time function of the temperature or heat flux on the wall. (Default is 0). • FSI Boundary Condition

Fluid-Structure Boundary Number: indicates the label number of a "fluid-structure boundary". This number is defined by “FSI Boundary Conditions” menu in ADINA Structures, which specifies that part of the structure that is to interact with the fluid boundary. (Default is 1). Note: A fluid-structure boundary with the specified number must be defined in the ADINA Structures model.

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All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as the “Wall Boundary Condition” dialog box. • Boundary Pressure Boundary Condition

Magnitude: specifies the boundary pressure magnitude. (Default is 0.0). Time Function: specifies the time function of the boundary pressure. (Default is 0). • Fixed Pressure Boundary Condition

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Magnitude: specifies the fixed pressure magnitude. (Default is 0.0). Time Function: specifies the time function of the fixed pressure. (Default is 0). • Inlet Velocity Boundary Condition

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Inlet Velocity X: prescribes a value for the X-velocity degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free). Inlet Velocity Y: prescribes a value for the Y-velocity degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free). Inlet Velocity Z: prescribes a value for the Z-velocity degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free). Time Function: specifies the time function of the inlet velocity. (Default is 0). • Inlet Turbulence Boundary Condition

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Load Values: indicates whether the turbulence loads, Kinetic-Energy and Energy Dissipation, are input directly or computed from other (more physical) quantities, namely, the turbulence intensity, the velocity at the boundary and the dissipation length scale. (Default is Direct Input). Direct Input: Kinetic-Energy and Energy Dissipation are input directly. Computed: Kinetic-Energy and Energy Dissipation are computed. Compute K only: compute Kinetic-Energy and set Energy Dissipation to Free. Compute E/w only: compute Energy Dissipation and set Kinetic-Energy to Free. Time Function: specifies the time function of Load Values. (Default is 0). Direct Input of Load Values Prescribed Value for Kinetic-Energy: prescribes a value for the kinetic-energy degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free). Prescribed Value for Rate of Energy Dissipation: prescribes a value for the rate of energy dissipation degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free). Compute Load Values from

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Turbulence Intensity: specifies the turbulence intensity, usually defined as the ratio of the root mean square velocity to the time-averaged velocity at the boundary. (Default is 0.025, 1.0E-5 ≤ Turbulence Intensity ≤ 1.0). Mean Velocity at Boundary: specifies the mean time-averaged velocity at the boundary. (Default is 0.0, 0.0 ≤ Mean Velocity at Boundary ≤ 1.0E8). Dissipation Length Scale: specifies the dissipation length scale such as the hydraulic diameter in internal flows. (Default is 1.0, 1.0E-8 ≤ Dissipation Length Scale ≤ 1.0E8). Note: The Turbulence Intensity, Mean Velocity at Boundary and Dissipation Length Scale are only active when Load Values is Computed or Compute K only or Compute E/w only. 1.3.3 Initial Conditions menu The “Initial Conditions” menu is used to define the initial velocity, initial pressure, initial temperature and initial turbulence for ADINA CFD analysis. The initial conditions can be applied to a surface in a 2-D model, and to a solid or volume in a 3-D model.

Initial Condition Type: defines an initial condition and assigns it to geometry entities. Velocity: specifies an initial velocity for the X, Y and Z directions. (Default is X-Velocity = 0.0, Y-Velocity = 0.0, Z-Velocity = 0.0). Pressure: specifies an initial pressure. (Default is 0.0).

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Temperature: specifies an initial temperature. (Default is 0.0). Turbulence: specifies initial K-Energy and E-Dissipation. (Defaults are K-Energy = 0.0, E-Dissipation = 0.0). 1.3.4 Analysis Settings menu The “Analysis Settings” menu is used to set all analysis specific input required for ADINA CFD. It includes detail settings for analysis type, flow assumptions, FSI and solver.

• Analysis Type Analysis Type: selects the type of analysis to be performed. (Default is Steady-State). Steady-State: steady-state analysis. Transient: time dependent analysis. Transient Analysis: Defines the time integration parameters for a transient flow analysis. Integration Method: this option chooses between the first order Euler method or the second order Runge-Kutta method (ADINA composite scheme). (Default is Euler).

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Euler: Euler method. Composite: ADINA composite scheme method. Integration Parameter: specifies the time integration parameter for implicit time stepping. When the Integration Parameter is 0.5 it corresponds to the trapezoidal rule, and a value of 1.0 corresponds to the Euler backward integration. (Default is 1.0 for Euler;

2 2 for Composite). Note: For both the Euler and Composite methods, the user can choose the Integration Parameter as follows. 0.5 ≤ Integration Parameter ≤ 1.0 for Euler method. 0.5 < Integration Parameter < 1.0 for Composite method. Automatic Time Stepping (ATS) ATS Scheme: enables automatic incrementation control during the analysis. (Default is None). Courant Number: specifies the courant number. (Default = 1.0E20).

• Flow Assumptions Flow Dimension: indicates the fluid flow dimension. (Default is General 3D).

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General 3D: 3-D fluid flow. 2D in YZ: 2-D fluid flow in the YZ plane. Flow Type: indicates the fluid flow type. (Default is Incompressible). Incompressible: incompressible flow. Low Speed Compressible: low-speed compressible flow. Slightly Compressible: slightly compressible flow. Flow Model: indicates the fluid flow model. (Default is Laminar). Laminar: no turbulence is involved. Turbulent K-Epsilon: a k-ε turbulence model is used. Includes Heat Transfer: indicates whether the heat transfer analysis is included. (Default is checked).

• FSI FSI Coupling: specifies the coupling for FSI problems. (Default is No).

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• Solver Equation Solver: selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium equation system. (Default is Sparse for FCBI elements; default is AMG1 for FCBI-C elements). Sparse: a sparse-matrix direct solver is used. AMG1: an algebraic multi-grid solver of Type 1 is used. This solver uses less memory with smoother convergence pattern. Note: The selection between FCBI and FCBI-C elements is under the ADINA CFD “General Solution Settings” menu. Sparse Solver Settings Max Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations within a time step. ADINA-CFD will terminate execution if this maximum number is reached without achieving convergence. (Default is 15). AMG1 Solver Settings (for FCBI-C Elements only) Relaxation Factors in Outer Iteration: defines the control data for outer iteration variables. Velocity: specifies the relaxation factor for velocity. (Default is 0.75).

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Pressure: specifies the relaxation factor for pressure. (Default is 0.3). Temperature: specifies the relaxation factor for temperature. (Default is 0.99). Turbulence-K: specifies the relaxation factor for turbulence-K. (Default is 0.97). Turbulence-Epsilon: specifies the relaxation factor for turbulence-Epsilon. (Default is 0.97). Reduction Numbers in Inner Iteration: defines the control data for inner iteration variables. Velocity: specifies the reduction number for velocity. (Default is 0.01). Pressure: specifies the reduction number for pressure. (Default is 0.01). Temperature: specifies the reduction number for temperature. (Default is 0.1). Turbulence-K: specifies the reduction number for turbulence-K. (Default is 0.1). Turbulence-Epsilon: specifies the reduction number for turbulence-Epsilon. (Default is 0.1). 1.3.5 General Solution Settings menu The “General Solution Settings” menu provides the settings that are part of the solution process. It mainly includes time steps, non-dimensional analysis settings, and restart analysis options.

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• General Solution Start Time: specifies the solution start time. For a restart run it must equal a solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. (Default is 0.0). • Non-Dimensional Analysis Settings Defines the scaling factors used for the non-dimensional procedure. Non-Dimensional Analysis: indicates whether the non-dimensional analysis is used. (Default is No). Coordinates of the Length Datum: specifies the coordinates of the length datum for the X, Y and Z directions. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0). Length Scale: specifies the length scale. (Default is 1.0). Velocity Scale: specifies the velocity scale. (Default is 1.0). Density Scale: specifies the density scale. (Default is 1.0). Specific Heat Scale: specifies the specific heat scale. (Default is 1.0).

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Temperature Scale: specifies the temperature scale. (Default is 1.0). Temperature Datum: specifies the temperature datum. (Default is 0.0). Mass-Ratio Scale: specifies the mass-ratio scale. (Default is 1.0). Analysis in Non-Dimensional Form: indicates whether the analysis is performed in non-dimensional form. (Default is checked). Output in Non-Dimensional Form: indicates whether the output is in non-dimensional form. (Default is unchecked). • Restart Analysis Options Restart Previous Analysis: when checked ADINA CFD performs a restart analysis, reading data from a previous run, verifies the data and executes. (Default is unchecked). Save Restart Info. for Last [ ] Results Save Steps: controls the saving of restart data. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then the restart data is saved at the last N times when porthole data is saved. (Default is 1). For example, if a user requests to save results at every other time step, and the total number of solution time steps is 11, then the porthole data will be saved at steps 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Setting N = 3 will result in restart data saved at steps 7, 9, and 11. Restart Data from Current <problem filename>.res: uses the current <problem filename>.res as the restart file. (Default is checked). File: restart file specified by user. (Default is unchecked). • Element Formulation Flow-Condition-Based Interpolation Element: selects the type of FCBI elements. (Default is Yes). Yes: FCBI elements are generated. FCBI-C: Flow-Condition-Based Interpolation Center (FCBI-C) elements are generated. • Time Steps Defines a time step sequence which controls the time/load-step incrementation during analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of constant time steps is specified.

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Number of Steps: indicates the number of steps to be taken in a time step sequence period. (Default is 1). Time Increment: indicates the constant time step magnitude, in time units, for a time step sequence period. (Default is 1.0). Output Interval: controls the output time steps at which results are saved on the FEMAP neutral file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then every N-th step will be saved for output. (Default is 1.0). 1.3.6 CFD Analyze menu Under the “CFD Analyze” menu the user can specify the job name and heading. This menu also provides the memory and processor settings. The “Create .in file” button will generate ADINA CFD .in file (ADINA-IN batch command input). The “Create .dat file” button will generate ADINA CFD .dat file (analysis data). The “Run model” button will run the job with ADINA CFD analysis.

Job Name: specifies ADINA CFD .in file as the job name. The default is the current model’s name. The user can change the default job name or its directory by using the “Select a folder” button. Heading: specifies a title for the problem. (No more than 256 characters are permitted). System Info...: shows the number of processors on the machine, the total physical memory (RAM), the available physical memory, and “Max. Memory for Solution” used if the toggle Automatic is checked. • Options

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All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as ADINA “Analyze” menu in section 1.2.7. 1.3.7 FSI Analyze menu Under the “FSI Analyze” menu the user can specify the necessary job names. This menu also provides the memory and processor settings. The “Run model” button will run the job with ADINA FSI analysis. Currently, only one-way FSI is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. In one-way FSI the fluid analysis is run first and the fluid stresses acting on the structure are saved in a file (with .fsi extension). Next, the structural analysis is run and the program reads the fluid stresses from the .fsi file as loads on the structure, resulting in the structural deformations and stresses.

ADINA Input File: specifies an ADINA Structures .dat file (analysis data). ADINA CFD Input File: specifies an ADINA CFD .dat file (analysis data). • Options Run: selects whether to run a fluid analysis only or a structural analysis only. Fluid Only: runs fluid analysis only. When running fluid only, both the fluid and structure .dat files must be specified. Structure Only: runs structural analysis only. When running structural analysis only, one can specify just the structure .dat file. All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as ADINA “Analyze” menu in section 1.2.7.

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1.3.8 Load Results menu The “Load Results” menu loads the analysis results in FEMAP neutral file format.

FEMAP Neutral File: specifies the FEMAP neutral file for post-processing. (Default is the current model’s name).

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2 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures The purpose of the ADINA Structures part of TRANSOR for FEMAP program is to integrate the ADINA Structures capabilities to FEMAP. In this way, FEMAP users can create, solve and post-process their structural models all inside FEMAP. Many NX Nastran features are available in FEMAP and also in ADINA Structures. The ADINA Structures part of TRANSOR for FEMAP complements this by providing additional capabilities (not available in NX Nastran or FEMAP) that can aid the FEMAP or NX Nastran user in the solution of their models via ADINA Structures. These capabilities can be defined using the dialog boxes under the ADINA menu. This chapter discusses how the FEMAP features relate to the ADINA Structures features and presents two useful examples. 2.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems In FEMAP basic rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are always predefined. The user can also create additional coordinate systems that are needed for the model. The basic cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems in FEMAP are translated into ADINA Structures as local cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. User defined coordinate systems in FEMAP are also translated into ADINA Structures as local coordinate systems. However, if these coordinate systems are used as nodal output coordinate systems in FEMAP, then they are translated as skew systems in ADINA Structures. 2.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities 2.2.1 Node Nodal coordinates are always translated by TRANSOR for FEMAP in the global rectangular coordinate system, no matter how they are defined in FEMAP. However, if output coordinate systems are selected, the corresponding skew systems are created during translation in order to properly specify constraints. Note that nodal permanent constraint is not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. 2.2.2 Element In FEMAP there are four main element types: line elements, plane elements, volume elements and other elements. 2.2.2.1 Line Elements

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For line elements, the rod, bar, (linear) beam, DOF spring and gap elements are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. The rod element is translated into ADINA Structures as a truss element without torsional stiffness, i.e., only axial force is transmitted by the element. Thus, only the rod element property of area is translated into ADINA Structures to define a truss cross section. All other properties are ignored. The bar element is translated into ADINA Structures as 3-D (Hermitian) beam element. Its properties of area, moment of inertia I1, moment of inertia I2, torsional constant, Y shear area and Z shear area are translated into ADINA Structures to define a beam cross section which can only be used for elastic Hermitian beam. All other properties are ignored. The (linear) beam element is translated into ADINA Structures as 3-D (Hermitian) beam element without support of beam offsets and beam releases. Its properties of area, moment of inertia I1, moment of inertia I2, torsional constant, Y shear area and Z shear area are translated into ADINA Structures to define a general type beam cross section which can only be used for elastic Hermitian beam. All other properties are ignored. In addition, a tapered beam with different properties at each end of the beam is not supported. The DOF spring element is translated into ADINA Structures as spring element. Its properties of fucntion dependences are not supported. The gap element is translated into ADINA Structures as a nonlinear spring element where the axial properties are represented but the transverse properties are ignored. Its properties of initial gap, compression stiffness, tension stiffness and preload force are translated into ADINA Structures to define a nonlinear relationship between relative-displacement and force from which the stiffness and force of a nonlinear spring element are obtained. All other properties are ignored. 2.2.2.2 Plane Elements For plane elements, membrane element (linear and parabolic), plate element (linear and parabolic) and plane strain element (linear and parabolic) are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. The membrane and plate elements are translated into ADINA Structures as shell element. The plane strain element is translated into ADINA Structures as 2-D solid plane strain element. The thickness of the membrane element is translated into ADINA Structures to define the thinkness of shell element. The nonstructural mass/area of the memebrane element is not supported. The thickness (uniform or non-uniform) of the plate element is translated into ADINA Structures to define the thickness of shell element. All other properties are ignored.

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Please note that when the non-uniform thickness is specified, all the thickness values at each element corner cannot be zero. Note that the plane strain element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all of its properties are ignored during translation. 2.2.2.3 Volume Elements For volume elements, both axisymmetric element and solid element are supported. They are translated into ADINA Structures as 2-D solid axisymmetric element and 3-D solid element, respectively. Note that the axisymmetric element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all the properties of the solid element are ignored. 2.2.2.4 Other Elements For other elements, mass, mass matrix and rigid elements are supported. The mass and mass matrix elements are translated into ADINA Structures as concentrated mass on the nodes. The rigid element is translated into ADINA Structures as rigid link. Notes: 1. Inertia components (Ixy, Iyz, Izx), “Offset from Node” and “Heat Transfer Properties” are ignored in mass element. 2. Coordinate system for offset and inertial in mass element is ignored. The inertia components are assumed to be in the basic rectangular coordinate system. 3. Only the diagonal terms of the mass matrix element are translated. 4. Coordinate system for mass matrix element is ignored. The diagonal inertia components are assumed to be in the basic rectangular coordinate system. 5. The rigid interpolation element is not supported. 2.2.3 Material FEMAP possesses eight types of materials: isotropic, 2-D and 3-D orthotropic, 2-D and 3-D anisotropic, hyperelastic, fluid, and other types. Currently, only isotropic material and four other types of materials (NX Nastran hyperelastic materials) are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. 2.2.3.1 Isotropic Materials The general isotropic material properties of Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, mass density and thermal expansion coefficient are translated into ADINA Structures. All other properties are ignored. The function references to the isotropic material properties are not supported. In FEMAP there are four types of nonlinear properties (linear elastic, nonlinear elastic, elasto-plastic (bi-linear) and plastic) associated with the isotropic material. A stress-strain curve for nonlinear elastic or plastic materials can be defined by a “vs. Stress” function or

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“Stress vs. Strain” function which are translated into ADINA Structures. Nonlinear elastic materials can also be temperature dependent, but this is not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. Four yield criteria are available (von Mises, Tresca, Mohr-Coulomb, and Drucker-Prager) in FEMAP. Only the von Mises yield criterion without Extended Material Model is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP, which requires a nonzero initial yield stress. In addition, the isotropic+kinematic hardening rule for the plastic material is translated into the isotropic hardening rule. Creep material properties, electrical/optical material properties, and phase change material properties are not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. 2.2.3.2 Other Types Materials The NX Nastran hyperelastic materials (Mooney-Rivlin, Hyperfoam, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce and Sussman-Bathe), NX Nastran Gasket Material and NX Nastran Shape-Memory Alloy for NX Nastran advanced nonlinear analysis (SOL 601/701) are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. 2.3 Translation of Loads In FEMAP a load can be created on finite element entities (nodes, elements) or geometry (point, curve, surface). Note that if there are several load sets defined, then only the active load set is translated. 2.3.1 Finite Element Loads Loads that are applied to the nodes, elements or the entire finite element model (body loads) are translated into ADINA Structures directly. 2.3.1.1 Body Loads For body loads, the translational acceleration with or without time dependency is translated into mass proportional load in ADINA Structures. The rotational acceleration is not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP. The rotational velocity is translated into centrifugal load in ADINA Structures without the support of the time dependency. The default temperature is translated into prescribed reference temperature in ADINA Structures. 2.3.1.2 Nodal Loads The nodal loads (forces, moments, displacements, enforced rotations and nodal temperatures) with or without time dependency are translated into ADINA Structures directly. Note that nodal heat generation, nodal heat fluxes and all the fluid loads are not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP.

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The velocities, rotational velocities, accelerations and rotational accelerations are translated as initial condition by TRANSOR for FEMAP (see section 2.7). 2.3.1.3 Elemental Loads The elemental loads (distributed loads on line elements and pressure) with or without time dependency are translated into ADINA Structures directly. The distributed loads on line elements in the directions of element Y axis and element Z axis are translated into the r-s and r-t planes of beam elements in ADINA Structures. All other directions are ignored. The pressure loads on the face 1 and face 2 of plate elements are translated into the top and bottom surfaces of the shell elements in ADINA Structures. All other directions are ignored. The pressure load is not supported for 2-D solid plane strain and axisymmetric elements. Specifying a direction for pressure loads as shown in the following figure is not supported. If pressure loads are defined in this way, then TRANSOR for FEMAP will always create pressure loads normal to the selected element face.

Note that the elemental temperature and heat transfer loads (heat generation, heat flux, convection and radiation) are not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP. 2.3.1.4 Nonlinear Force Loads Nonlinear force loads are not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. 2.3.2 Geometric Loads In FEMAP the user can create loads on geometry as an alternative and/or as supplement to finite element loads. TRANSOR for FEMAP will expand the geometric loads to nodal and elemental loads upon translation and compress them after translation.

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2.4 Translation of Constraints In FEMAP a constraint can be created on finite element entities (nodes, constraint equations) or geometry (point, curve, surface). The nodal constraints are translated into ADINA Structures directly. Their directions can be specified by choosing a coordinate system, which is converted into a skew system in ADINA Structures for the selected nodes. The constraint equations between the specified nodal degrees of freedom are translated into ADINA Structures as generalized constraint equations, which are imposed using Lagrange Multipliers. The geometric constraints are expanded to nodal constraints during translation. If the nodal constraints for the nodes are also defined on the geometry, TRANSOR for FEMAP will combine both constraints during translation. There are three available approaches to defining advanced geometric constraints: Arbitrary in CSys, Surface and Cylinder/Hole. Currently, only the Arbitrary in Csys approach is supported. Notes: 1. If there are several constraint sets defined, then only the active constraint set is

translated. 2. The displacement and enforced rotation loads will not override the nodal constraint

that is defined on the same degree of freedom. 3. Permanent constraints defined on the node will not be translated. 2.5 Translation of Connections and Regions 2.5.1 Translation of Connections Creating contact in FEMAP involves three entity definitions: Connection Property, Connection Region and Connectors. The connection properties defined under NX Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601) and NX Explicit (SOL 701) for “Connect Type: 0..Contact” is translated into ADINA Structures to define contact group in which only shell and 3-D solid elements are supported. The connection properties defined under NX Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601) for “Contact Type: 1..Glued” is translated into ADINA Structures to define mesh glueing in which only 3-D solid element is supported. All other properties are ignored. The connector defines the contact relationship between the two connection regions, which is translated into ADINA Structures as a contact pair. 2.5.2 Translation of Regions In FEMAP, Nastran users can create three specialized types of regions, Fluid Regions, Bolt Regions, and Rotor Regions. Currently, only bolt region is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

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A Bolt Region is used to create a region of elements where user can apply a bolt “preload”. The element defined in a bolt region is translated into ADINA Structures as beam element with bolt behavior. The bolt “preload” defined in an active load set is translated as bolt load in ADINA Structures. 2.6 Translation of Functions Currently, nineteen types of functions are available in FEMAP. The Type 1 (vs. Time) is translated into ADINA Structures to define the time fucntion of the loads. The Type 4 (vs. Stress) and Type 13 (Stress vs. Strain) are translated into ADINA Structures to define the stress-strain curve for the nonlinear properties of an isotropic material. All other types of functions are ignored. 2.7 Translation of Initial Conditions Initial conditions (displacements, velocities or accelerations) can be used in dynamic analysis. Load sets with desired initial conditions can be created in FEMAP. The resulting load sets can then be selected in the Initial Conditions dialog box under “Model Parameters” in the ADINA menu. Note that the initial conditions created on the geometries are translated only in the global rectangular coordinate system. 2.8 Example 1 We demonstrate a beam structure subjected to an impact load with restart analysis as shown below.

1.0 m 0.02 m

0.02 m

300 N E = 2.07×1011 N/m2

ρ =7800 Kg/m3

Step load applied at time 0.0. The restart analysis will continue the dynamic analysis from t=0.05. Importing the Geometry

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What

Open a new model file and import the geometry. It will be meshed with beam elements.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

File, Open

2.

Open dialog box: Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory example_1.mod Click Open

Defining the Analysis Settings

What

Define the analysis settings in the ADINA “Analysis Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

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1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, Analysis Settings

2.

Analysis Settings dialog box: Analysis Type: 2..Dynamics-Implict Click OK

Defining the Material

What

Define the material in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Material

2.

Define Material – ISOTROPIC dialog box: Enter “2.07e11” in Young's Modulus, E fieldEnter “7800” in Mass Density field Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Defining the Property

What

Define the element property in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Property

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2. Define Property dialog box: Click Elem/Property Type

3.

Element/Property Type dialog box: Line Elements: Beam Click OK

4.

Define Property dialog box: Material: 1..ISOTROPIC Material

Click “Shape” button

5.

Cross Section Definition dialog box: Shape: Rectangular Bar Enter “0.02” in Height field Enter “0.02” in Width field

Click “Draw Section” Button to check the cross sectionClick OK

6.

Define Property dialog box: Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Meshing the Model

What

Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Default Size

2.

Default Mesh Size dialog box: Size: 0.5 Click OK

3.

Mesh, Geometry, Curve

4.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

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5.

Geometry Mesh Options dialog box: Property: 1..BEAM Property (Rectangular Bar) Click OK

6.

Vector Locate dialog box: Base: 0, 0, 0 (make sure these are the X, Y, Z values for the base) Tip: 0, 0, 1 (enter these X, Y, Z values for the tip) Click OK

Defining the Time Step

What

Define the time step in the ADINA “General Solution Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings

2.

General Solution Settings dialog box: Enter “20” in Number of Steps field Enter “0.0025” in Time Increment field

3. Click OK

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Defining Constraints

What

Create the constraint set in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Constraint, Set

2.

Create or Activate Constraint Set dialog box: Title: (enter a title) Click OK

What

Create the constraint to fix the node on the left side of the beam in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Constraint, On Point

2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

3.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box: Choose Fixed radio button Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

Defining Loads

What

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Create the load set in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Load, Set

2.

Create or Activate Load Set dialog box: Title: (enter a title) Click OK

What

Apply the force load on right side of the beam in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Load, On Point

2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 2 Click OK

3.

Create Loads on Points dialog box: Force

FY: -300.0 Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

Analyze the Model

What

Define the analyze settings in the ADINA “Analyze” menu and solve the model.

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How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Analyze

2. ADINA Analyze dialog box: Enter “Beam structure subjected to impact load” in Heading field

3.

Click Create .in file

4.

Click Create .dat file

5.

Click Run model

6. Click OK

Post-Processing the Results

For this example, we will display the time history response.

What

View the time history response in a FEMAP XY data plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1. ADINA, Load Results

2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box: FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory example_1.NEU Click Open Click OK

3.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View

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Toolbar

4.

View Select dialog box: Choose XY vs Set Value radio button in XY Style section

5.

Click XY Data button

6.

Select XY Curve Data dialog box:

Select "20..Case 20 Time 5.0E-2" from drop down menu located in the Output Set section

Select "3.. T2 Translation" from drop down menu located in the Output Vectors section

Enter “3” in Node field of Output Location section

Click OK

7. View Select dialog box: Click OK

The time history response result should look like this:

8.

File, Close

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ADINA Structures Restart Analysis

What

We will use the restart analysis feature in ADINA Structures to continue the dynamic analysis with the same time step size.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings

2. General Solution Settings dialog box: Enter “0.05” in Solution Start Time field

CHECK Restart Previous Analysis

Enter “180” in Number of Steps field

3. Click OK

Analyze the Model

Analyze the model using the ADINA solver.

What

Define the analyze settings in the ADINA “Analyze” menu and solve the model.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Analyze

2.

ADINA Analyze dialog box: Enter “Restart analysis of beam structure subjected to impact load” in Heading field

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3.

Click Create .in file

4.

Click Create .dat file

5.

Click Run model

6. Click OK

Post-Processing the Results

For this example, we will display the time history response.

What

View the time history response in a FEMAP XY data plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1. ADINA, Load Results

2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box: FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory example_1.NEU Click Open Click OKOK

3.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View Toolbar

4.

View Select dialog box: Choose XY vs Set Value radio button in XY Style section

5.

Click XY Data button

6.

Select XY Curve Data dialog box:

Select "180..Case 180 Time 0.5" from drop down menu located in the

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Output Set section

Select "3.. T2 Translation" from drop down menu located in the Output Vectors section

Enter “3” in Node field of Output Location section

Click OK

7.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

The time history response of the restart analysis should look like this:

This concludes the beam structure subjected to impact load example. It is recommended to save the model file.

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2.9 Example 2 In this example we demonstrate a 3-D contact between a block and a cylinder as shown below. Block: E = 1.0×106 N/m2, ν = 0.3

0.05 m

0.1 m

0.1 m

Prescribed displacment is 0.02 m

Cylinder: E = 210.0×109 N/m2, ν = 0.3

We will determine the displacements and stesses in the block as it is pushed down 0.02 m. Importing the Geometry

What

Open a new model file and import the geometry. It will be meshed with 3-D solid elements.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

File, Open

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2.

Open dialog box: Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory example_2.mod Click Open

Defining the Model Settings

What

Define the model settings in the ADINA “Model Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Model Parameters, Model Settings

2.

Model Settings dialog box: UNCHECK Z-Translation, X-Rotation, Y-Rotation, Z-Rotation in the Master Degree of Freedom section Click OK

Defining the Material

What

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Define the material in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1. Model, Material

2.

Define Material – ISOTROPIC dialog box: Enter “cylinder” in Title field Enter “210.0e9” in Young's Modulus, E fieldEnter “0.3” in Poisson's Ratio, nu field Click OK

3.

Define Material – ISOTROPIC dialog box: Enter “block” in Title field Enter “1.0e6” in Young's Modulus, E field Enter “0.3” in Poisson's Ratio, nu field Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Defining the Property

What

Define the element property in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Property

2. Define Property dialog box: Click Elem/Property Type

3.

Element/Property Type dialog box:Volume Elements: Solid Click OK

4.

Define Property dialog box: Enter “cylinder” in Title field Material: 1.. cylinder Click OK

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5.

Element/Property Type dialog box:CHECK Parabolic Elements Click OK

6.

Define Property dialog box: Enter “block” in Title field Material: 2..block Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Meshing the Model

What

Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Default Size

2.

Default Mesh Size dialog box: Size: 0.01 Click OK

3.

Mesh, Geometry, Volume

4.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

5.

Geometry Mesh Options dialog box: Property: 1..cylinder Click OK

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6.

Default Mesh Size dialog box: Size: 0.02 Click OK

7.

Mesh, Geometry, Volume

8.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 2 Click OK

9.

Geometry Mesh Options dialog box: Property: 2.. block Click OK

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Defining the Time Step

What

Define the time step in the ADINA “General Solution Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings

2. General Solution Settings dialog box: Enter “10” in Number of Steps field

3. Click OK

Defining the Time Function

What

Define the time function in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Function

2.

Function Definition dialog box: Select "1..vs. Time" from Type drop down menu

3.

Choose Single Value radio button

4.

Enter these values into the corresponding fields: X: 0, Y: 0 Click More button X: 10, Y: 0.02

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5. Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Defining Constraints

What

Create the constraint set in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Constraint, Set

2.

Create or Activate Constraint Set dialog box: Title: (enter a title) Click OK

What

Create the constraints to fix the nodes at the base of the cylinder in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Constraint, On Surface

2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 4 Click More button ID: 5 Click OK

3.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box: Choose Fixed radio button Click OK

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4.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 9 Click OK

5.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box: Choose Arbitrary in Csys radio button

6.

CHECK TX Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

Defining Loads

What

Create the load set in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Load, Set

2.

Create or Activate Load Set dialog box: Title: (enter a title) Click OK

What

Apply the prescribed displacement on top of the block in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Load, On Surface

2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 9

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Click OK

3.

Create Loads on Surfaces dialog box: Displacement

TY: -1.0

Time/Freq Dependence: 1..vs. Time Function Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

Defining Connections In order for surface to surface contact to occur during analysis, several parameters must be defined. In general, Connection Regions are created, a Connection Property is defined, and then a Connector ("contact pair") is created to define the contact relationship between the two Connection Regions.

What

Create the Connection Regions.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Connect, Connection Region

2.

Connection Region dialog box: Title: cylinder Type: Deformable Defined By: Surfaces Surface: 3

3.

Click Add Click OK

4.

Connection Region dialog box: Title: block Type: Deformable Defined By: Surfaces Surface: 11

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5.

Click Add Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

What

Create the Connection Property.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Connect, Connection Property

2.

Define Connection Property dialog box: Click the NX Adv Nonlin tab

Surface Extension Factor: 0.01 in the Standard Contact Algorithm section

Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

What

Create the Connector (contact pair).

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Connect, Connector

2.

Define Contact Connector dialog box: Property: 1..Untitled Master (Target): 1..cylinder Slave (Source): 2..block

Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

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Analyze the Model

Analyze the model using the ADINA solver.

What

Define the analyze settings in the ADINA “Analyze” menu and solve the model.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Analyze

2. ADINA Analyze dialog box: Enter “3-D contact between a block and a cylinder” in Heading field

3.

Click Create .in file

4.

Click Create .dat file

5.

Click Run model

6. Click OK

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Post-Processing the Results

For this example, we will display two types of results: deformation and Von Mises Stress.

What

View the deformation results in a FEMAP deformation plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1. ADINA, Load Results

2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box: FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory example_2.NEU Click Open Click OK

3.

View, Options or press the F6 Key

4.

View Options dialog box: Choose Labels, Entities and Color radio button in Category section

Options: Node

UNCHECK Draw Entity Click Apply

Options: Node - Perm Constraint

UNCHECK Draw Entity Click OK

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5.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View Toolbar

6.

View Select dialog box: Choose Deform radio button in Deformed Style section

7.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button

8.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Select "10..Case 10 Time 10.0" from drop down menu located in the Output Set section

Select " 1.. Total Translation " from Deformation drop down menu located in the Output Vectors section

Click OK

9.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

10.

View, Options or press the F6 Key

View Options dialog box: Choose PostProcessing radio button in Category section

Options: Deformed Style Note: The options on the right side of the dialog box change

UNCHECK % of Model (Actual) Click OK

11. Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command

Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The deformation result should look like this:

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What

View the Von Mises Stress results in a FEMAP contour vector plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View Toolbar

2.

View Select dialog box:

Choose Deform radio button in Deformed Style section

Choose Contour radio button in Contour Style section

3. Click Deformed and Contour Data button

4.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Select "10..Case 10 Time 10.0" from drop down menu located in the Output Set section

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Select " 60031.. Solid Von Mises Stress" from Contour drop down menu located in the Output Vectors section

Click OK

5.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

6. Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command

Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The Von Mises Stress result should look like this:

This concludes the 3-D contact between a block and a cylinder example. It is recommended to save the model file.

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3 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA CFD FEMAP possesses only a few features that are applicable to ADINA CFD. Additional capabilities not supported by FEMAP can be defined using the dialog boxes under the ADINA CFD menu. In this chapter the translations of ADINA CFD features supported by FEMAP are described first. Next, the additional features provided by TRANSOR for FEMAP are explained in detail and a useful example is provided. 3.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems In FEMAP basic rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are always predefined. The user can also create additional coordinate systems that are needed for the model. The basic cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems in FEMAP are translated into ADINA CFD as local cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. User defined coordinate systems in FEMAP are also translated into ADINA CFD as local coordinate systems. 3.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities 3.2.1 Node Nodal coordinates are always translated by TRANSOR for FEMAP in the global rectangular coordinate system, no matter how they are defined in FEMAP. Note that nodal permanent constraint and output coordinate system are not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. 3.2.2 Element In FEMAP there are four main element types: line elements, plane elements, volume elements, and other elements. 3.2.2.1 Line Elements There is no support for line elements of FEMAP. 3.2.2.2 Plane Elements For plane elements, linear plane strain element (3-node triangle and 4-node quadrilateral) is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. It is translated into ADINA CFD as planar 2-D fluid element.

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Note that the plane strain element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all of its properties are ignored during translation. 3.2.2.3 Volume Elements For volume elements, both axisymmetric element (3-node triangle and 4-node quadrilateral) and solid element (4-node tetrahedral, 6-node wedge and 8-node brick) are supported. They are translated into ADINA CFD as axisymmetric 2-D fluid element and 3-D fluid element, respectively. Note that the axisymmetric element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all the properties of solid element are ignored during translation. 3.2.2.4 Other Elements There is no support for other elements of FEMAP. 3.2.3 Material All the fluid materials are directly defined in the add-on ADINA CFD menu. The materials defined in FEMAP are not applicable to ADINA CFD and, therefore, are not translated by TRANSOR for FEMAP. However, at least one material needs to be defined in FEMAP so that the corresponding property can be created. This material will be ignored during translation. 3.3 Translation of Loads TRANSOR for FEMAP translates the thermal loads defined on finite element entities (nodes, elements) or geometry (point, curve, surface). For details, see Table 3.1. The default temperature under body loads is translated into the prescribed reference temperature in ADINA CFD. The fluid loads and all other loads are not suppoted in TRANSOR for FEMAP. Note that if there are several load sets defined, then only the active load set is translated.

Table 3.1 Translation of FEMAP thermal loads

Thermal Loads Node Element Point Curve Surface ADINA CFD

Temperature --- Temperature Element Temperature --- --- ---

Heat Flux --- Concentrated Heat Flow

Element Heat Flux --- --- Distributed Heat Flux

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Heat Generation --- --- Element Heat Generation --- --- ---

Convection --- --- Heat Transfer Convection Boundary Condition

Radiation --- --- Heat Transfer Radiation Boundary Condition

3.4 Translation of Constraints There is no support for constraints of FEMAP. 3.5 Translation of Functions The Type 1 (vs. Time) function is translated into ADINA CFD to define the time function of the boundary conditions. All other types of functions are ignored. 3.6 ADINA CFD Material Models The following two material models can be defined under the ADINA CFD menu of TRANSOR for FEMAP. • Constant material model (when “Laminar Flow Model” is selected under the

“Analysis Settings” menu). • K-ε turbulence model and RNG K-ε turbulence model (when “Turbulent K-Epsilon

Flow Model” is selected under the “Analysis Settings” menu). 3.6.1 Constant Material Model This is the simplest, yet most frequently used material model in ADINA CFD. It is applicable to formulations of incompressible, slightly compressible and low-speed compressible flows (with or without heat transfer). In this material model, all fluid properties are assumed to be constant. These are ρ : fluid density µ : fluid viscosity g : gravitational acceleration vector

pC : specific heat at constant pressure

vC : specific heat at constant volume k : thermal conductivity coefficient

Bq : rate of heat generated per unit volume β : coefficient of volume expansion or thermal expansion coefficient

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0θ : reference temperature in buoyancy force σ : coefficient of surface tension κ : bulk modulus of elasticity The default values for these parameters are all zero except for κ which has a default value of 10 . Note that not all these parameters are required for a given problem. The parameters that must be given depend on the problem to be solved.

20

For incompressible flows, the bulk modulus of elasticity κ and the specific heat at constant volume C are not required. In this case v κ is assumed to be infinite and is forced to be equal to . If heat transfer is not considered, then C , , ,

vC

pC p k Bq β and 0θ can be further ignored. For slightly compressible flows, is forced to be equal to C and, therefore, can be

ignored in the input. C , , , vC p

p k Bq β and 0θ can also be omitted if heat transfer is not included. For low-speed compressible flows, κ is not used and is therefore ignored. The density ρ is determined through the state equation as a function of pressure and temperature and is not required. All other material data must be given. 3.6.2 K-ε Turbulence Model This material model can only be applied in the turbulent K-ε flow model. It is applicable to formulations of incompressible, slightly compressible and low-speed compressible flows (with or without heat transfer). Both the fluid properties and the empirically determined model constants must be input. The fluid properties are ρ : fluid density µ : fluid viscosity g : gravitational acceleration vector

pC : specific heat at constant pressure

vC : specific heat at constant volume k : thermal conductivity coefficient

Bq : rate of heat generated per unit volume β : coefficient of volume expansion or thermal expansion coefficient

0θ : reference temperature in buoyancy force σ : coefficient of surface tension κ : bulk modulus of elasticity Not all these parameters are required in a problem. The parameters that must be given depend on the problem to be solved.

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For incompressible flows, the bulk modulus of elasticity κ and the specific heat at constant volume C are not required. In this case v κ is assumed to be infinite and is forced to be equal C . If heat transfer is not considered, then , , ,

vC

p pC k Bq β and 0θ can be ignored. For slightly compressible flows, is forced to be equal to C and, therefore, can be

ignored. , , , vC p

pC k Bq β and 0θ can also be omitted if heat transfer is not included. For low-speed compressible flows, κ is not used in the computation. The density ρ is determined through the state equation and is not required. All other material data must be input. Aside from the above fluid properties, the following additional model constants must be specified, and their default values are:

1C = 1.44, = 1.92, C = 0.8 2C 3

Cmu = 0.09, Sigma K = 1.0, Sigma T = 0.9, Sigma Epsilon = 1.3 Von Kaman Constant = 0.4 Dimensionless Distance from Wall Boundary = 70 3.6.3 RNG K-ε Turbulence Model This material model can only be applied in the turbulent K-ε flow model. The data required in this model is the same as in the K-ε turbulence material model. The default values of the empirical constants are the same as for the standard K-ε model. Another conventional set of these data are: C1= 1.42, C2 = 1.68, C3 = 0.8 Cmu = 0.085, Sigma K = 0.7179, Sigma T = 0.9, Sigma Epsilon = 0.7179 Von Kaman Constant = 0.4 Dimensionless Distance from Wall Boundary = 70 3.7 ADINA CFD Boundary Conditions The following boundary conditions can be defined under the ADINA CFD menu of TRANSOR for FEMAP. • Wall: applied to rigid solid boundaries. When a turbulence flow model is used, the

wall function is also applied on the walls.

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• Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI): applied to fluid boundary where fluid-structure interaction is modeled.

• Boundary Pressure: applied to inlet or outlet as ambient pressure. • Fixed Pressure: used only in enclosure problems, where pressure must be fixed at

some node(s). • Inlet Velocity: prescribed velocity at inlet. • Inlet Turbulence: prescribed turbulence variables at inlet. 3.7.1 Wall Boundary Conditions At the interface of a fluid and a fixed solid, no-slip or slip conditions are usually applied. In case of the wall boundary condition, the boundary is fixed. In other words, the boundary displacement is zero. Wall boundary conditions can only be applied to lines and surfaces of 2-D and 3-D computational domains, respectively. • No-slip condition on fixed walls When a no-slip condition on walls is applied, the fluid velocity vector on that wall is prescribed to be zero, i.e. . This condition is usually applied to wall boundaries in viscous flows. It is clear that this condition is equivalent to applying a zero velocity or prescribed zero velocity to all components of the velocity.

0=v

Figure 3.1 No-slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and

low-speed compressible flows

• Slip condition on fixed walls

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When a slip wall condition is applied, the normal component of the velocity vector is prescribed to be zero, i.e. , while the tangential components are free or computed as unknown variables from the governing equations.

0⋅ =v n

In principle, this condition can be replaced by a prescribed zero normal velocity. However, in case of irregular boundaries, the procedure of defining the normal directions is tedious. It is much more convenient to use this slip condition. This condition is usually applied to symmetric boundaries and to wall boundaries where viscous effects are negligible. In certain applications such as when boundary layers are modeled which require a large number of elements and computational power, then a slip condition may be used.

Figure 3.2 Slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and

low-speed compressible flows

3.7.2 FSI Boundary Conditions A fluid-structure interface is a moving wall for which the interface displacement is the solution of a solid model. However, fluid-structure interaction means much more than just specifying an interface. First, a solid model must have been created to which the fluid is coupled. In this solid model, fluid-structure interfaces must be specified that correspond to the interfaces specified in the fluid model, so that the program knows which parts of the fluid and solid models are interacting. Second, since the Lagrangian formulation is used along the interface, the displacement as well as the fluid velocity are determined by the solid solution on the interface. This condition is called the kinematic condition of the fluid model. On the other hand, the fluid force must be applied to the solid interface to ensure that the forces are balanced on the interface. This condition is called the dynamic condition of the solid model.

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Third, the nonlinear-coupled system must be solved to ensure that the kinematic and dynamic conditions are satisfied. The methods can be either iterative (between the fluid model and the solid model), or direct (a combined matrix system is solved). Currently, only iterative coupling is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. This condition can only be applied to boundary lines and surfaces of 2-D and 3-D computational domains, respectively. The boundary geometries must coincide with their counterparts that are defined in the solid model. 3.7.3 Boundary Pressure Boundary Conditions This is one of the most important boundary conditions. It can only be applied to boundary lines and surfaces of 2-D and 3-D computational domains, respectively. In this condition, a time-dependent normal stress (called boundary pressure)

( )nn tτ = ⋅ ⋅n τ n is prescribed. The stress is integrated to an equivalent nodal force condition:

( ) ( )vnnt h t dτ= ∫F S

and then added to the right-hand side of the momentum equations as the concentrated force load. Here is the virtual quantity of velocity on the boundary. vh Note that the normal stress consists of the pressure and the normal shear stress. Along open boundaries, the normal shear stress is usually negligible compared with the pressure. Therefore, a boundary pressure is usually applied to open boundaries where the pressure is known. In particular, when ( ) 0nn tτ = , the application of the boundary pressure is trivial because it is equivalent to no boundary pressure. This condition has no effect on the nodes where a normal velocity condition is prescribed, since the normal momentum equation has been replaced by the normal velocity condition. 3.7.4 Fixed Pressure Boundary Conditions For this condition, a time-dependent pressure is directly prescribed:

( )p p t= and applied to boundaries. The continuity equations at the boundary nodes are replaced by this condition. The fixed pressure boundary condition is usually applied to confined flow problems to ensure a mathematically well-defined problem. Along open boundaries where the pressure is known, a boundary condition of boundary pressure is more appropriate.

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3.7.5 Inlet Velocity Boundary Conditions For this condition, a time-dependent velocity is directly prescribed:

( )i iv v t= and applied to boundaries. The ix -momentum equations at the boundary nodes are then replaced by this condition. The inlet velocity boundary condition is usually applied to inlet boundaries where velocities are known. It can also be applied to fixed solid walls. Note that the inlet velocity can only be applied in the global coordinate system. 3.7.6 Inlet Turbulence Boundary Conditions This boundary condition can only be applied to a K ε− turbulence model. Time-dependent turbulence variables are directly prescribed

( )K K t= ( )tε ε=

and applied to boundaries. The and K ε equations at boundary nodes are then replaced by these equations. In addition to directly given values, they can also be prescribed indirectly via

( )232

K i v=

( )32 0.3K Lε =

where, v , L and i are velocity scale, length scale and turbulence intensity, respectively. This condition is usually applied to inlet boundaries. 3.8 ADINA CFD Initial Conditions The following initial conditions can be defined under the ADINA CFD menu of TRANSOR for FEMAP. • Initial velocity: initial velocity in global Y, Z directions for 2-D models and global X,

Y, Z directions for 3-D models.

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• Initial pressure • Initial temperature: only temperatures that differ from the prescribed reference

temperature need to be assigned. • Initial turbulence The initial conditions are applied to the nodes of the model. The variables of the initial condition thus refer to the degree-of-freedom system at each node, which is the global coordinate system. In transient analysis all solution variables must be specified. The default initial conditions to all variables are zeros. Although initial conditions are not required in steady-state analyses, they are used as a “guessed” solution at the start of the equilibrium iterations. A good initial condition may accelerate the convergence during equilibrium iterations. In certain cases, the initial condition may become a key factor in obtaining converged solutions. 3.9 ADINA CFD Elements 3.9.1 2-D FCBI elements (3- and 4-node) 2-D FCBI elements include 3-node and 4-node elements. They can be used for two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric flows. The following figures show the definitions of FCBI 2-D elements.

Figure 3.3 FCBI 2-D elements

All solution variables are defined at corner nodes. Since step functions are used for weighting functions, FCBI elements are eventually equivalent to their counterparts in finite volume methods. Each element is thus equally divided into sub-control-volumes and integrations on both faces and surfaces are performed within elements. A flow-condition-based interpolation function for velocity on a face, say from the point

1( , ) ,02

r s =

to point 1 1) ,

2 2r s =

( , in a 4-node element, is defined as

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1 21 4

2 3

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )v v

Tv v

h hx x s

h h

=

h h h h s

with

11, , ( )1

k

k

q r kk k

q

yex q yye

ρµ

− − ⋅∆= = = −

v x h

where and 1 2

2 1 3,∆ = − ∆ = −x x x x x x4 v is the average velocity on the face. With these functions, the upwinding-effect is automatically captured in a natural way. On the other hand, pressure, temperature and coordinates are interpolated using linear or bi-linear functions. For a 4-node element, these functions are defined as

( )( )

0 0 01 2 1 2 1

0 0 04 3 1 2 2

( , ) ( ), ( ) ( )

( , ) ( ), ( ) ( )

h h h r h r h s

h h h r h r h s

=

=

where . 0 0

1 21 ,h r h= − = r

s

For a 3-node element, they are defined as

1

2

3

0 1 2 3

1h rh rh sh h h h

= − −===

3.9.2 3-D FCBI elements (4-, 5-, 6- and 8-node) These elements can be used for three-dimensional flows. The following figures show the definitions of FCBI 3-D elements.

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Figure 3.4 FCBI 3-D elements

All variables are defined at corner nodes. The interpolation functions for velocity are similar to those used for FCBI 2-D elements. The interpolation functions for pressure, temperature and coordinates are linear or bi-linear. For 8-node and 4-node elements, they are defined respectively as

0 0 01 4 1 1

0 0 05 8 1 2

0 0 02 3 2 1

0 0 06 7 2 2

( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )

h h r h s h th h r h s h t

h h r h s h t

h h r h s h t

=

=

=

=

hh

h

h

where h and 0 0 0

1 2( ) ( ( ) ( ))r h r h r= 0 01 21 ,h r h r= − = .

and

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1

2

3

4

0 1 2 3 4

1h r sh rh sh th h h h h

= − − −====

t

For 5-node and 6-node elements, they are defined respectively as

( ) ( )

(1 )(1 )(1 )

1

(1 )i

r sr s

th rs

r st

− − − − = −

and

[ ]1 4

2 5

3 6

11

h h r sh h r t th h s

− − = −

3.9.3 FCBI-C elements These elements consist of 2-D triangle and quadrilateral, and 3-D tetrahedron, pyramid, prism and brick. All degrees of freedoms are defined at the center of the elements. Solution variables are assumed to be piecewise constant during computation, while the final solution is interpolated at corner nodes for post-processing purpose. The following figures show the definitions of all FCBI-C elements.

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Figure 3.5 FCBI-C elements

FCBI-C elements are used for incompressible, slightly compressible and low-speed compressible flows. 3.10 Example In this example, we demonstrate a 3-D fluid flow within a pipe subjected to an inlet pressure as shown below.

Inlet pressure 1.0 Pa

Inlet diameter 0.05m

1.0m

Water: µ =1.3×10-3 N-s/m2, ρ =1000.0 kg/m3

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Step UI Command/Display

1.

File, Open

2.

Open dialog box: Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory example_3.mod Click Open

This problem could be solved using a 2-D analysis, but we choose to solve it using a 3-D analysis as a demonstration. Importing the Geometry

What

Open a new model file and import the geometry of the cylinder. It will be meshed with 3-D solid elements.

How

Defining the Analysis Settings

What

Define the analysis settings in the ADINA CFD “Analysis Settings” menu.

How

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Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, Analysis Settings

2. Analysis Settings dialog box: Click the Flow Assumptions tab

3.

UNCHECK Includes Heat Transfer

4. Click OK

Defining the Material

Define the fluid material with constant properties for 3-D fluid element.

What

Define the fluid material in the ADINA CFD “Materials” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Materials

2. Define Material with Constant Properties dialog box: Click Add

3. Enter “1000.0” in Density field Enter “0.0013” in Viscosity field

4. Click OK

Defining the Property

What

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Define the 3-D fluid element property in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Property

2. Define Property dialog box: Click Elem/Property Type

3.

Element/Property Type dialog box: Volume Elements: Solid Click OK

4.

Define Property dialog box: Click OK Click Yes (to create material)

Note: The fluid material is defined in the ADINA CFD “Materials” menu. However, a dummy material with the same material number needs to be defined in FEMAP. TRANSOR for FEMAP will replace the dummy material with the fluid material during the analysis.

5. Define Material - ISOTROPIC dialog box: Click OK

6.

Define Property dialog box: Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Meshing the Model

What

Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Size Along Curve

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2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 3 Click OK

3.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box: Number of Elements: 8 Click OK

4.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

5.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box: Number of Elements: 16 Click OK

6

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 5 Click OK

7.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box: Number of Elements: 6 Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

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8.

Mesh, Geometry, Volume

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

Property: 1..SOLID Property Click OK

9.

Tools, Check, Coincident Nodes

Entity Selection dialog box: Click Select All Click OK

Check/Merge Coincident dialog box: CHECK Merge Coincident Entities Click OK

Defining the Time Step

Chapter 3: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA CFD

What

Define the time step in the ADINA CFD “General Solution Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings

2. General Solution Settings dialog box: Enter “2” in Number of Steps

3. Click OK

Defining the Time Function

What

Define the time function in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Function

2.

Function Definition dialog box: Select "1..vs. Time" from Type drop down menu

3.

Choose Single Value radio button

4.

Enter these values into the corresponding fields: X: 0, Y: 0 Click More button X: 2, Y: 1

5. Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

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Defining the Boundary Conditions

We will apply the no-slip wall boundary condition on the pipe walls and the boundary pressure boundary condition at the channel inlet.

What

Define the boundary conditions in the ADINA CFD “Boundary Conditions” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Boundary Conditions

2.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box: Click Add

3.

Boundary Condition Type: Wall

4.

Apply to: Surface

5.

Click Pick

6.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

7.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box: Click Add

8.

Boundary Condition Type: Boundary Pressure

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9.

Apply to: Surface

10.

Click Pick

11.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 2 Click OK

12.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box: Enter “1.0” in Magnitude field

13.

Select “1” from Time Function drop down menu

14.

Click OK

Analyze the Model

Analyze the model using the ADINA CFD solver.

What

Define the analyze settings in the ADINA CFD “CFD Analyze” menu and solve the model.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, CFD Analyze

2. ADINA CFD Analyze dialog box: Enter “3-D fluid flow within a pipe subjected to an inlet pressure” in Heading field

3.

Click Create .in file

4.

Click Create .dat file

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5.

Click Run model

6. Click OK

Post-Processing the Results

For this example, we will display two types of results: velocity and pressure.

What

View the pressure results in a FEMAP contour plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1. ADINA CFD, Load Results

2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box: FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory example_3.NEU Click Open Click OK

3.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View Toolbar

4.

View Select dialog box:

Choose None – Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section

Choose Section Cut radio button in Contour Style section

5. Click Deformed and Contour Data button

6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Select "2..Case 2 Time 2.0" (should be Step 2, but may differ based on machine set-up) from drop down menu located in the Output Set section

Select "31..Pressure" from Contour drop down menu located in the

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Output Vectors section

Click OK

7.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

8. Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command

Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The pressure results should look like this:

What

View the velocity results in a FEMAP contour vector plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View

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Toolbar

2.

View Select dialog box:

Choose None – Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section

Choose Vector radio button in Contour Style section

3. Click Deformed and Contour Data button

4. Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Click Contour Vectors button

5.

Contour Vector Options dialog box:

Select "11..Total Velocity" from drop down menu located in the Vector 1 of Elemental Output Vectors section

Click OK

6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Click OK

7.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

8. Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command

The velocity result should look like this:

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This concludes the 3-D fluid flow within a pipe example. It is recommended to save the model file.

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4 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction

4.1 Introduction In certain FSI problems the structural deformations are small and it can be assumed that the structural deformation does not affect the fluid flow. However, the analyst can be interested in the stresses on the structure due to the fluid forces acting on it. This class of problems can be handled most effectively using the one-way FSI coupling feature. When computing one-way FSI problems, all the control parameters are specified in the individual fluid and solid solvers. Therefore, there are possible discrepancies between the fluid and solid solution times. At certain times when the fluid stresses are not available, a linear interpolation is performed to provide the fluid stress for the solid model (see Fig. 4.1). If the solution time is out of the range of the times for which the fluid stresses were saved, then a linear extrapolation is applied. In order to have more accurate solutions, the fluid stresses should be saved more frequently to cover the time steps that may be used for the solid model.

Figure 4.1 Interpolation of fluid stresses in time when computing one-way FSI models

4.2 Running One-way FSI In one-way FSI the fluid analysis is run first and the fluid stresses acting on the structure are saved in a file (with .fsi extension). Next, the structural analysis is run and the program reads the fluid stresses from the .fsi file as loads on the structure, resulting in the structural deformations and stresses. When running fluid analysis only, both the fluid and structure .dat files must be specified. When running structural analysis only, the user can specify just the structure .dat file only.

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4.3 Example In this example we demonstrate a one-way FSI analysis of fluid flow over a flexible structure inside a 2-D channel as shown below.

40 cm 30 cm

0.05 cm

15 cm

100.0 cm Boundary

pressure 0.04 dyne/cm2

Fluid: µ =1.7×10-4 g/cm-s, ρ =0.001 g/cm3

Structure: E=100.0 dyne/cm2, υ =0.3 (elastic material) In the solution of this problem we use a fluid model for the fluid in the channel and a solid model for the flexible structure. • Create ADINA Structures Model Importing the Geometry

What

Open the FEMAP model file containing the geometry of the flexible structure. It will be meshed with 2-D solid elements.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

File, Open

2.

Open dialog box: Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory example_4a.mod Click Open

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Defining the Model Settings

What

Define the model settings in the ADINA Structures “Model Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Model Parameters, Model Settings

2.

Model Settings dialog box: In the Master Degree of Freedom section UNCHECK X-Translation, X-Rotation, Y-Rotation, Z-Rotation

3.

In the Kinematics Settings section Displacements/Rotations: Large

4. Click OK

Defining the Property and Material

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What

Define the 2-D element property and material in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Property

2. Define Property dialog box: Click Elem/Property Type

3.

Element/Property Type dialog box: Plane Elements: Plane Strain Click OK

4.

Define Property dialog box: Click OK Click Yes (to create material)

5.

Define Material - ISOTROPIC dialog box:Enter “100.0” in Young's Modulus, E field Enter “0.3” in Poisson's Ratio, nu field

Click OK

Define Property dialog box: Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Meshing the Model

What

Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

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1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Size Along Curve

2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 4 Click More button ID: 6 Click OK

3.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box: Number of Elements: 5 Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

4.

Mesh, Geometry, Surface

5.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

6.

Automesh Surfaces dialog box: Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property Click OK

Defining Constraints

What

Create the constraint set in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Constraint, Set

2.

Create or Activate Constraint Set dialog box: Title: (enter a title) Click OK

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What

Create the constraint to fix the node on the bottom of the flexible structure in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Constraint, On Curve

2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 5 Click OK

3.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box: Choose Fixed radio button Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

Defining the FSI Boundary Conditions

What

Define the FSI boundary conditions in the ADINA Structures “FSI Boundary Conditions” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Model Parameters, FSI Boundary Conditions

2.

Define Fluid-Structure-Interaction Boundary dialog box: Click Add

3.

Model Type: 2D in YZ

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4.

Apply to: Curve

5.

Click Pick

6.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 4 Click More button ID: 6 Click OK

7.

Define Fluid-Structure-Interaction Boundary dialog box: Click OK

Generating the ADINA Structures data file

What

Generate the ADINA Structures data file in the ADINA “Analyze” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA, Analyze

2 ADINA Analyze dialog box: Enter “Fluid flow over a flexible structure in a 2-D channel, ADINA Structures input” in Heading field

3.

Model Type: 2D in YZ

4.

Click Create .in file

5.

Click Create .dat file

6. Click OK

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• Create ADINA CFD Model Importing the Geometry

What

Open the FEMAP model file containing the geometry of the 2-D channel. It will be meshed with 2-D fluid elements.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

File, Open

2.

Open dialog box: Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory example_4f.mod Click Open

Defining the Analysis Settings

What

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Define the analysis settings in the ADINA CFD “Analysis Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, Analysis Settings

2. Analysis Settings dialog box: Click the Flow Assumptions tab

3.

Flow Dimension: 2D in YZ

4.

UNCHECK Includes Heat Transfer

5.

Click the FSI tab: FSI Coupling Scheme: Iterative Coupling

6. Click OK

Defining the Material

Define the fluid material with constant properties for 2-D fluid element.

What

Define the fluid material in the ADINA CFD “Materials” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Materials

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2. Define Material with Constant Properties dialog box: Click Add

3. Enter “0.001” in Density field Enter “1.7E-4” in Viscosity field

4. Click OK

Defining the Property

What

Define the 2-D fluid element property in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Property

2. Define Property dialog box: Click Elem/Property Type

3.

Element/Property Type dialog box: Plane Elements: Plane Strain Click OK

4.

Define Property dialog box: Click OK Click Yes (to create material)

Note: The fluid material is defined in the ADINA CFD “Materials” menu. However, a dummy material with the same material number needs to be defined in FEMAP. TRANSOR for FEMAP will replace the dummy material with the fluid material during the analysis.

5. Define Material - ISOTROPIC dialog box: Click OK

6.

Define Property dialog box: Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

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Meshing the Model

What

Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Mapped Divisions on Surface

2.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click OK

3.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box: Enter “30” in s field of Number of Elements Enter “10” in t field of Number of Elements Enter “0.25” in s field of Bias Click OK

4.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 2 Click OK

5.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box: Enter “10” in s field of Number of Elements Enter “10” in t field of Number of Elements Click OK

6.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 3 Click OK

7.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box: Enter “30” in s field of Number of Elements Enter “6” in t field of Number of Elements Enter “0.25” in s field of Bias Click OK

8.

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 4 Click OK

9.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box: Enter “10” in s field of Number of Elements Enter “6” in t field of Number of Elements

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Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)

10. Mesh, Geometry, Surface

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 1 Click More button ID: 2 Click OK

Automesh Surfaces dialog box: Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property Click OK

11 Mesh, Geometry, Surface

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 3 Click OK

Automesh Surfaces dialog box: Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property Click OK

12 Mesh, Geometry, Surface

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 4 Click OK

Automesh Surfaces dialog box: Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property Click OK

13.

Tools, Check, Coincident Nodes

Entity Selection dialog box: Click Select All Click OK

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Check/Merge Coincident dialog box: Maximum Distance to Merge: 0.001

CHECK Merge Coincident Entities Click OK

Defining the Time Step

What

Define the time step in the ADINA CFD “General Solution Settings” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings

2. General Solution Settings dialog box: Enter “70” in Number of Steps

3. Click OK

Defining the Time Function

Chapter 4: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction

What

Define the time function in FEMAP.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

Model, Function

2.

Function Definition dialog box: Select "1..vs. Time" from Type drop down menu

3.

Choose Single Value radio button

4.

Enter these values into the corresponding fields: X: 0, Y: 0.0 Click More button X: 1, Y: 0.0001 Click More button X: 2, Y: 0.0003 Click More button X: 3, Y: 0.0008 Click More button X: 20, Y: 0.0024 Click More button X: 30, Y: 0.0044 Click More button X: 40, Y: 0.01 Click More button X: 70, Y: 0.04

5. Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command)

Defining the Boundary Conditions

We will apply the no-slip wall boundary condition on the pipe walls and the boundary pressure boundary condition at the channel inlet.

What

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Define the boundary conditions in the ADINA CFD “Boundary Conditions” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Boundary Conditions

2.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box: Click Add

Boundary Condition Type: Wall

Apply to: Curve

Click Pick

Entity Selection dialog box: Select the four curves that make up the top and bottom of the channel ID: 5 Click More button ID: 13 Click More button ID: 23 Click More button ID: 31 Click OK

3.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box: Click Add

Boundary Condition Type: Fluid-Structure Interaction

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Apply to: Curve

Click Pick,

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 22 Click More button ID: 32 Click OK

4.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box: Click Add

Boundary Condition Type: Boundary Pressure

Apply to: Curve

Click Pick

Entity Selection dialog box: ID: 14 Click More button ID: 30 Click OK

Define Boundary Condition dialog box: Enter “0.001” in Magnitude field

Select “1” from Time Function drop down menu

Click OK

Generating the ADINA CFD data file

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What

Generate the ADINA CFD data file in the ADINA CFD “CFD Analyze” menu.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, CFD Analyze

2. ADINA CFD Analyze dialog box: Enter “Fluid flow over a flexible structure in a 2-D channel, ADINA CFD input” in Heading field

3.

Click Create .in file

4.

Click Create .dat file

6. Click OK

Analyze the one-way FSI Model

Analyze the one-way FSI model using the ADINA FSI solver.

What

Define the analyze settings in the ADINA CFD “FSI Analyze” menu and solve the model.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

ADINA CFD, FSI Analyze

2.

ADINA FSI Analyze dialog box:Go to the working directory example_4a.dat Click Open

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3.

Run: Fluid Only

Click Run model

4.

Run: Structure Only

Click Run model

5. Click OK

Post-Processing the Results

For this example, we will display the contour plot of pressures and the contour vector plot of velocities in the ADINA CFD model and deformations of the flexible structure in the ADINA Structures model.

What

View the pressures results of ADINA CFD model in a FEMAP contour plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1. ADINA CFD, Load Results

2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box: FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory example_4f.NEU Click Open Click OK

3.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View Toolbar

4.

View Select dialog box:

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Choose None – Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section

Choose Contour radio button in Contour Style section

5.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button

6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Select "70..Case 70 Time 70.0" (should be Step 70, but may differ based on machine set-up) from drop down menu located in the Output Set section

Select "31..Pressure" from Contour drop down menu located in the Output Vectors section

Click OK

7.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

8. Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command

The pressure results should look like this:

What

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View the velocity results of the ADINA CFD model in a FEMAP contour vector plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View Toolbar

2.

View Select dialog box:

Choose None – Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section

Choose Vector radio button in Contour Style section

3. Click Deformed and Contour Data button

4. Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Click Contour Vectors button

5.

Contour Vector Options dialog box:

Select "11..Total Velocity" from drop down menu located in the Vector 1 of Elemental Output Vectors section

Click OK

6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Click OK

7.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

8. Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command

The velocity results should look like this:

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What

View the deformation results of the ADINA Structures model in a FEMAP deformation plot.

How

Step UI Command/Display

1. ADINA, Load Results

2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box: FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory example_4a.NEU Click Open Click OK

3.

View, Select

Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View Toolbar

4.

View Select dialog box:

Choose Deform radio button in Deformed Style section

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5.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button

6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:

Select "1..Case 1 Time 1.0" from drop down menu located in the Output Set section

Select " 1.. Total Translation " from Contour drop down menu located in the Output Vectors section

Click OK

7.

View Select dialog box:

Click OK

8. Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command

The deformation results should look like this:

This concludes the one-way FSI analysis example. It is recommended to save the model file.

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Appendix-1: List of Figures

Appendix-1: List of Figures Figure 3.1 No-slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and

low-speed compressible flows .................................................................................. 89 Figure 3.2 Slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and

low-speed compressible flows .................................................................................. 90 Figure 3.3 FCBI 2-D elements.......................................................................................... 93 Figure 3.4 FCBI 3-D elements.......................................................................................... 95 Figure 3.5 FCBI-C elements ............................................................................................. 97 Figure 4.1 Interpolation of fluid stresses in time when computing one-way FSI models

................................................................................................................................. 110

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Appendix-2: List of Tables

Appendix-2: List of Tables Table 3.1 Translation of FEMAP thermal loads............................................................... 85

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