admin. lesson 3: the u.s. navy in the napoleonic era 1783-1815
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The U.S. Navy in the Napoleonic Era 1783-1815Learning ObjectivesComprehend the influence of European events upon American trade and naval policy during this period. Understand and be able to explain the term Battle of Annihilation. Know the causes and operations of the Quasi-War with France.Know the background of Jeffersons defensive naval strategy including the use of gunboats and forts. Learning ObjectivesKnow and be able to recall operations against the Barbary corsairs during this period. Comprehend the main factors of the European war and their effect on causing the War of 1812. Understand and be able to explain the term Guerre de Course. Know the U.S. and British Naval Strategy during the war.
Learning ObjectivesComprehend the Great Lakes campaign and its importance to the U.S. war effort. Comprehend (compare and contrast) the naval strategies of Rodgers and Decatur. Comprehend the significance of the Washington and New Orleans campaigns. Know the contributions of the U.S. Navy during the war of 1812, and assess the state of the Navy after the treaty of Ghent .A New NationArticles of ConfederationWeak central governmentNo power of taxationCongress unable to fund a Navy after Rev War. 1785 - All Continental Navy warships decommissionedNew maritime trade marketsLarge American merchant fleetChina and Mediterranean SeaAmerican merchant ships were no longer protected by the Royal Navy. A word on NeutralityUS wanted to trade with anyone, anywhereFree ships make free goodsBelligerents didnt want US taking their trade during warWe want to make money.Gets us into trouble with French, British, and everyone else.We hold on to this philosophy until World War I, when Monroe Doctrine isabandoned, we start fighting wars, and our interests look more like the Europeanbelligerents.
We are grappling with our identity and our legitimacyA New NationBarbary States -- North AfricaDemands for tribute to guarantee safe passage in Mediterranean.War of the French Revolution -- U.S. neutral rights violated.Great Britain - Orders in CouncilFrench Privateers seize American merchants We want to make a buck; caught between Britain and France
Order in Council: an order issued by the British sovereign on the advice of theprivy council, or by the governor general of a Commonwealth country with the advice of a similar council. Such orders are usually issued to deal with anemergency (these were in response to the Continental System)
Britain ordered cruisers to secretly seize American shipping operating in FrenchWest IndiesNaval Policy Debate BeginsU.S. Constitution - 1788.Stronger federal government with ability to tax.The Congress shall have Power To provide and maintain a Navy.The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States.Federalists: New England -- Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, John AdamsProponents of a strong Navy.Ensure neutral rights on the seas and protect vital trade interests.Republicans: Middle and Southern States -- Thomas Jefferson, Patrick HenryStrong U.S. Navy would provoke European powers.Navies are expensive and imperialistic - a luxury.Constitution authorizes congress to maintain a Navy but does not require it -- Sectionalism as well N vs. S and W.
Question of States RightsTyrannyNavy means a stronger Federal government and tax collection base *** These are Jeffersonian Republicans, not Lincoln Republicans
John Adams was also a Federalist, but he did not trust Alexander Hamilton and interceded between Hamilton and the Jeffersonian Republicans
Beginnings of the U.S. NavyNavy Act of 1794Navy is part of the Department of War. Secretary of War Henry Knox.Large 44-gun frigates planned.More heavily armed than normal frigates.Faster than Ships of the Line.1797: United States, 44 and Constitution, 44 completed -- called Humphreys frigates.Marines deployed on Navy ships.Continue tradition of British Royal Marines.Protect Captain and officers from the crew.Provide musket fire from quarterdeck and fighting tops.Beginning of the Navy in reaction to Euro events
27 March John Adams signs Navy Act 1794: Six frigates authorized for defense of shipping in Mediterranean
Knox FrigatesGeorgia Live Oak, standard of excellencecost doubles from $688,888 to $1,152,110
Joshua Humphreys: local shipbuilderJosiah Fox: a friendCreate the new brand of American frigate
Too Little Too LatePinckney Treaty1794 Breakdown Portuguese-Algerian Relations1796 Treaty with AlgiersTreaties with Morocco, Tripoli, and TunisThe Med is reopened to American trading without a Naval response!Pinckney Treaty with Spain (who controlled Louisianna at that time) opened upAmerican use of the Mississippi
1794 Portugal/Algerian treaty done, Portuguese start convoying Americanmerchantmen, so Algerians are ready to talk
1796 American treaty with Algiers: pay lots of bribe money plus give themAmerican-built frigate Crescent
Second Washington Administration signs treaties with Morocco, Tripoli, and TunisDiplomacy and Naval PolicyNapoleonic Wars Naval Confrontation Fleet engagements between Royal Navy and French Navy and French allies navies:Battle of the Glorious First of June -- 1794Battle of Cape St. Vincent -- February 1797Battle of Camperdown -- October 1797Battle of the Nile -- 1 August 1798Battle of Copenhagen -- 2 April 1801Battle of Trafalgar -- 21 October 1805Admiral Horatio NelsonHighly successful through the use of melee tactics.Concept of Operations to ship captains prior to battle.*** *** 1st of June, 1794 (Potter, p. 57) Britain declared foodstuffs contraband - French attempt to protect in convoy Am ships Brit and Fr fleets meet - Brit Adm Howe grabs the weather gage versus Fr Adm Villaret and issues Signal 34 - ships will pass astern and go to leeward - can rake and lee guns on Fr might not be ready as this was non-standardBrits victorious- but enough Fr get away to save the grain shipsHowe produced a genuine melee (thinks hes superior gunnery at close range) as some ships got through the Fr line and others did not - both sides claim victory - Glorious***Cape St. Vincent 1797 (Potter, p.60) - same place as Rev War battle which had general chase and saved Gibraltar from SpanishSp (Cordoba) versus Brits - Jervis breaks the line and orders turns in succession vice simultaneous Brits victorious due to superior skill, but Nelson watches this screw-up and wont take part boards 2 ships - so shows how you can divide your force to use it where most effective - start of Nelsons fame- knight *** Then Battle of Camperdown later in 1797 versus Dutch - more maneuver and melee tactics - *** Battle of the Nile 1798 (p.68)- Napoleon invades Egypt, Fr fleet at anchor, wild goose chased by Nelson across Med, Nelson takes initiative and attacks - in effect he doubles the French due to initiative given and taken by his captains*** Battle of Copenhagen 1801 (p.72)-Danes at anchor, Nelson 2nd in command, ignores signal to discontinue - better to stand, no good retreat- *** Battle of Trafalgar - 1805 (p.79) another wild goose chase in Atlantic/Carib - Grand Design (invasion of Eng) Nelson HMS Victory - defeats Fr, Sp - wasted and anchors Thank God I have done my duty ,God and Country
Jays Treaty -- 1794Spring 1794: Congress finds out about British Orders in Council against US shipping
30-day embargo on all American exports to Britain
Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton engineer John Jays appointment as emissary to London
Hamiltons Instructions: Do not contravene Franco-American alliance of 1778British West Indies opened to American tradeJays Treaty not so popular, but maybe not fairly so
*** Britain in need of food from US*** Washington sends Jay to London to negotiate w/Brits
The ResultsBritain promises to relinquish northwest fortsOpened British East Indies to American tradeMFN status to Americans trading in the British home IslesBut . . .No headway on neutral rightsSeizure of goods bound for FranceAbandons Free ships make free goodsRestrictions on shipping in British West IndiesPresident Washington delays proclamation of the treaty until 2 February 1796Neutral Rights - Conceded British right to seize goods bound for France on American ships
Tonnage limits on trading in British West Indies
So what did we get? Not much. Not a popular treaty.
Treaty was brought home, signed, in November 1794Washington waits almost a year and a half to announce it
But, it slightly improves British-American relations, and leaves us to get into itwith FranceFrance now the VillainFranco-American Alliance1796 French seizure of commerce in West IndiesEject American minister Charles C. PinckneyJohn Adams calls special session of CongressNon-partisan council to go to FranceMoney for NavyA provisional ArmyCongress answers 1 July 1797United States, Constitution, and Constellation back in the game
French do not see how the Jay Treaty is reconcileable with Alliance Treaty of 1778
1796: French: Free ships do not make free goods; unleash warships and privateers against American merchantmen in West Indies- eject American minister, Charles C. Pinckney
Adams special session of Congress:- The French refusal to receive Pinckney until we have acceded to their demands without discussion and without investigation is to treat us neither as allies nor as friends, nor as a sovereign state- Ask Congress for legislation to protect American maritime enterprise: 2,000 miles of coastline embracing fisheries, navigation, and commerce, protection vital to wealth, strength and resources of the nation.. Congress empowers president to man and employ frigates: United States, Constitution, and Constellation as he saw fitThe XYZ AffairTalleyrand wants bribeXYZ AffairAmerican delegation to Paris insulted - Congress and American