adults - wildfires - prevention

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Diapositiva 1

E-Learning Module for AdultsWildfires

1

Part 1: Prevention

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters2In part 1 of the Wildfire module , you will learn: What is a wildfire?The areas at risksThe signs of a wildfireThe impact of wildfiresHow to prevent wildfires

Part 1: Prevention

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters3 WHAT IS A WILDFIRE (causes and characteristics)

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters4Do you know what is a wildfire?Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

A wildfire is Any uncontrolled vegetation fire which requires a decision or action regarding suppression. European Glossary for Wildfires and Forest Fires (2012)

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters5Do you know what is a wildfire?Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Watch the video on the following page to learn more about wildfires and the science behind them.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters6https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8OrmGAIqI4

Part 1: Prevention Wildfires - What are they?

Do you know what causes a wildfire?e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters7The fire is the result of the chemical reaction of combustion. For combustion to take place, 3 things are required: Oxygen, Heat and Fuel.This combination is know as the Fire Triangle.

Oxygen

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

Causes of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters8In hot and dry climates, wildfires are a natural occurrence. However, the frequency of wildfires is significantly increased by the actions of humans. According to the Environmental department of Andalusia (Spain), more than 95% of wildfires in the region are caused by humans, either intentionally or due to negligence. This means that just 5% of wildfires are caused by natural means. Similar statistics exist for other countries in Europe

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

Causes of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters9In hot and dry climates, wildfires are a natural occurrence. However, the frequency of wildfires is significantly increased by the actions of humans. According to the Environmental department of Andalusia (Spain), more than 95% of wildfires in the region are caused by humans, either intentionally or due to negligence. This means that just 5% of wildfires are caused by natural means. Similar statistics exist for other countries in EuropeCan you name the different causes of wildfires?

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

Causes of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters101. Natural causes:Lightning and volcanoes.

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

Causes of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters111. Natural causes:Lightning and volcanoes. 2. Negligent acts:Lighting fires in areas at risk without the intention of starting a wildfire. Sometimes fires may be started for cooking etc. and may then not be fully extinguished, leading to a wildfire later. Other negligent acts that may start wildfires include throwing cigarettes from vehicles, leaving glass bottles on the ground and lighting fireworks.

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

Causes of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters12Intentional acts:There are a wide number of reasons why people intentionally start a wildfire: disputes regarding land and hunting grounds, vandalism and arson, economic interests (for example to clear land to enable construction etc.).

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

Causes of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters13Other potential causes:Sparks from overhead electrical power lines, sparks from trains braking, aircraft crashes, car crashes etc. Intentional acts:There are a wide number of reasons why people intentionally start a wildfire: disputes regarding land and hunting grounds, vandalism and arson, economic interests (for example to clear land to enable construction etc.).

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

Causes of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters14When looking at current causes, it is also important to acknowledge that climate change will have an impact on the number and size of wildfires that we will see in future in the UK and across Europe.

Watch the short video on the next page to learn more about wildfires and climate change

Part 1: PreventionWildfires - What are they?

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters15https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDsNq-rVplE

Part 1: Prevention

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters16WHAT DO I NEED TO BE AWARE OF?: THE AREAS AT RISK OF WILDFIRES

Part 1: Prevention The areas at risk

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters17Risk factors have a great influence on the probability of a wildfire starting and spreading within any given area. By analysing the environment, we can determine how a wildfire may spread, develop and change within a given area. Some environments are more prone to wildfires than others.

Factors to identify areas at riskCan you name the risk factors for wildfires?

Part 1: Prevention The areas at riske-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters18

Wildfire Risk FactorsRisk factors can be divided in two main categories:

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: Prevention The areas at riske-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters19

Wildfire Risk FactorsRisk factors can be divided in two main categories: Structural factors

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: Prevention The areas at riske-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters20

Wildfire Risk FactorsRisk factors can be divided in two main categories: Structural factors Atmospheric factors

Image courtesy of Junta de Andaluca

Part 1: Prevention The areas at risk e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters21

1. Structural factorsStructural factors are not responsible for the ignition of a wildfire but they will influence the behaviour of a fire and the speed at which it will spread. Examples of structural factors include (among others):

Part 1: Prevention The areas at risk e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters22

1. Structural factorsStructural factors are not responsible for the ignition of a wildfire but they will influence the behaviour of a fire and the speed at which it will spread. Examples of structural factors include (among others): Fuel characteristics: In a wildfire, vegetation acts as fuel for the fire. Some plants will burn more easily or faster than others.

Part 1: Prevention The areas at risk e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters23

1. Structural factorsStructural factors are not responsible for the ignition of a wildfire but they will influence the behaviour of a fire and the speed at which it will spread. Examples of structural factors include (among others): Fuel characteristics: In a wildfire, vegetation acts as fuel for the fire. Some plants will burn more easily or faster than others. Topography of the terrain: For example, a fire spreads faster when on a slope rather than a flat terrain. Also if the slope looks to the south, it will receive a lot of direct sunlight as opposed to a slope looking to the north which will be in the shade. In the areas more exposed to the sun, the fuel is lighter and drier, making the fire more active.

Part 1: Prevention The areas at risk e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters24

1. Structural factorsStructural factors are not responsible for the ignition of a wildfire but they will influence the behaviour of a fire and the speed at which it will spread. Examples of structural factors include (among others): Fuel characteristics: In a wildfire, vegetation acts as fuel for the fire. Some plants will burn more easily or faster than others. Topography of the terrain: For example, a fire spreads faster when on a slope rather than a flat terrain. Also if the slope looks to the south, it will receive a lot of direct sunlight as opposed to a slope looking to the north which will be in the shade. In the areas more exposed to the sun, the fuel is lighter and drier, making the fire more active.The accumulation of fuels (vegetation) on hills and mountains when they are not maintained properly.

Part 1: Prevention The areas at risk e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters25

1. Structural factorsStructural factors are not responsible for the ignition of a wildfire but they will influence the behaviour of a fire and the s

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