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Advertising and PrOmotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective -ebook

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

Front Matter Preface The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

The Changing World of Advertising and PromotionNearly everyone in the modern world is influenced tosome degree by advertising and other forms of promo-tion. Organizations in both the private and public sectorshave learned that the ability to communicate effectivelyand efficiently with their target audiences is critical totheir success. Advertising and other types of promotionalmessages are used to sell products and services as wellas to promote causes, market political candidates, anddeal with societal problems such as alcohol and drugabuse. Consumers are finding it increasingly difficult toavoid the efforts of marketers, who are constantlysearching for new ways to communicate with them.

Most of the people involved in advertising and promo-tion will tell you that there is no more dynamic and fasci-nating a field to either practice or study. However, theywill also tell you that the field is undergoing dramaticchanges that are changing advertising and promotion for-ever. The changes are coming from all sidesclientsdemanding better results from their advertising and pro-motional dollars; lean but highly creative smaller adagencies; sales promotion and direct-marketing rms, aswell as interactive agencies, which want a larger share ofthe billions of dollars companies spend each year pro-moting their products and services; consumers who nolonger respond to traditional forms of advertising; andnew technologies that may reinvent the very process ofadvertising. As the new millennium begins, we are expe-riencing perhaps the most dynamic and revolutionarychanges of any era in the history of marketing, as well asadvertising and promotion. These changes are being driven by advances in technology and developments thathave led to the rapid growth of communications throughinteractive media, particularly the Internet.

For decades the advertising business was dominatedby large, full-service Madison Avenuetype agencies.The advertising strategy for a national brand involvedcreating one or two commercials that could be run onnetwork television, a few print ads that would run ingeneral interest magazines, and some sales promotionsupport such as coupons or premium offers. However, intodays world there are a myriad of media outletsprint,radio, cable and satellite TV, and the Internetcompet-ing for consumers attention. Marketers are lookingbeyond the traditional media to nd new and better waysto communicate with their customers. They no longeraccept on faith the value of conventional advertisingplaced in traditional media. The large agencies are rec-ognizing that they must change if they hope to survive inthe 21st century. Keith Reinhard, chairman and CEO ofDDB Worldwide, notes that the large agencies have

finally begun to acknowledge that this isnt a recessionwere in, and that were not going back to the good olddays.

In addition to redefining the role and nature of theiradvertising agencies, marketers are changing the waythey communicate with consumers. They know they areoperating in an environment where advertising messagesare everywhere, consumers channel-surf past most com-mercials, and brands promoted in traditional ways oftenfail. New-age advertisers are redefining the notion ofwhat an ad is and where it runs. Stealth messages arebeing woven into the culture and embedded into moviesand TV shows or made into their own form of entertain-ment. Many experts argue that branded content is thewave of the future, and there is a growing movement toreinvent advertising and other forms of marketing com-munication to be more akin to entertainment. Companiessuch as BMW, Levi Straus & Co., Nike, and Skyy Spiritsare among the marketers using advertainment as a wayof reaching consumers: They create short films or com-mercials that are shown on their websites.

Marketers are also changing the ways they allocatetheir promotional dollars. Spending on sales promotionactivities targeted at both consumers and the trade hassurpassed advertising media expenditures for years andcontinues to rise. In his book The End of Marketing asWe Know It, Sergio Zyman, the former head of market-ing for Coca-Cola, declares traditional marketing is notdying, but dead. He argues that advertising in general isoverrated as part of the marketing mix and notes that allelements of the marketing mix communicate, such asbrand names, packaging, pricing, and the way a productis distributed. The information revolution is exposingconsumers to all types of communications, and mar-keters need to better understand this process.

A number of factors are impacting the way marketerscommunicate with consumers. The audiences that mar-keters seek, along with the media and methods forreaching them, have become increasingly fragmented.Advertising and promotional efforts have become moreregionalized and targeted to specific audiences. Retail-ers have become larger and more powerful, forcingmarketers to shift money from advertising budgets tosales promotion. Marketers expect their promotionaldollars to generate immediate sales and are demandingmore accountability from their agencies. The Internetrevolution is well under way and the online audience isgrowing rapidly, not only in the United States and West-ern Europe but in many other countries as well. Manycompanies are coordinating all their communicationsefforts so that they can send cohesive messages to theircustomers. Some companies are building brands withlittle or no use of traditional media advertising. Many

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Preface

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

Front Matter Preface The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

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advertising agencies have acquired, started, or becomeaffiliated with sales promotion, direct-marketing, inter-active agencies, and public relations companies to betterserve their clients marketing communications needs.Their clients have become media-neutral and are ask-ing that they consider whatever form of marketing com-munication works best to target market segments andbuild long-term reputations and short-term sales.

This text will introduce students to this fast-changingfield of advertising and promotion. While advertising isits primary focus, it is more than just an introductoryadvertising text because there is more to most organiza-tions promotional programs than just advertising. Thechanges discussed above are leading marketers and theiragencies to approach advertising and promotion from anintegrated marketing communications (IMC) perspec-tive, which calls for a big picture approach to planningmarketing and promotion programs and coordinating thevarious communication functions. To understand therole of advertising and promotion in todays businessworld, one must recognize how a firm can use all thepromotional tools to communicate with its customers.

To the Student: Preparing You for the New World of Advertising and PromotionSome of you are taking this course to learn more aboutthis fascinating eld; many of you hope to work in adver-tising or some other promotional area. The changes in theindustry have profound implications for the way todaysstudent is trained and educated. You will not be workingfor the same kind of communication agencies that existed5 or 10 years ago. If you work on the client side of thebusiness, you will nd that the way they approach adver-tising and promotion is changing dramatically.

Todays student is expected to understand all themajor marketing communication functions: advertising,direct marketing, the Internet, interactive media, salespromotion, public relations, and personal selling. Youwill also be expected to know how to research and evalu-ate a companys marketing and promotional situationand how to use these various functions in developingeffective communication strategies and programs. Thisbook will help prepare you for these challenges.

As professors we were, of course, once students our-selves. In many ways we are perpetual students in thatwe are constantly striving to learn about and explain howadvertising and promotion work. We share many of yourinterests and concerns and are often excited (and bored)by the same things. Having taught in the advertising andpromotion area for a combined 50-plus years, we havedeveloped an understanding of what makes a book inthis eld interesting to students. In writing this book, wehave tried to remember how we felt about the varioustexts we used throughout the years and to incorporate thegood things and minimize those we felt were of little

use. We have tried not to overburden you with defini-tions, although we do call out those that are especiallyimportant to your understanding of the material.

We also remember that as students we were not reallyexcited about theory. But to fully understand how inte-grated marketing communications works, it is necessaryto establish some theoretical basis. The more you under-stand about how things are supposed to work, the easierit will be for you to understand why they do or do notturn out as planned.

Perhaps the question students ask most often is, Howdo I use this in the real world? In response, we providenumerous examples of how the various theories and con-cepts in the text can be used in practice. A particularstrength of this text is the integration of theory with prac-tical application. Nearly every day an example of adver-tising and promotion in practice is reported in the media.We have used many sources, such as Advertising Age,Adweek, Brandweek, The Wall Street Journal, Business-Week, Fortune, Forbes, Sales & Marketing Manage-ment, Business 2.0, eMarketer, The Internet AdvertisingReport, Promo, and many others, to nd practical exam-ples that are integrated throughout the text. We have spo-ken with hundreds of people about the strategies andrationale behind the ads and other types of promotionswe use as examples. Each chapter begins with a vignettethat presents an example of an advertising or promo-tional campaign or other interesting insights. Everychapter also contains several IMC Perspectives thatpresent in-depth discussions of particular issues relatedto the chapter material and show how companies areusing integrated marketing communications. GlobalPerspectives are presented throughout the text in recog-nition of the increasing importance of international mar-keting and the challenges of advertising and promotionand the role they play in the marketing programs ofmultinational marketers. Ethical Perspectives focusattention on important social issues and show howadvertisers must take ethical considerations into accountwhen planning and implementing advertising and pro-motional programs. Diversity Perspectives discuss theopportunities, as well as the challenges, associated withmarketers efforts to reach culturally and ethnicallydiverse target markets. There are also a number ofCareer Profiles, which highlight successful individualsworking in various areas of the field of advertising andpromotion.

Each chapter features beautiful four-color illustrationsshowing examples from many of the most current andbest-integrated marketing communication campaignsbeing used around the world. We have included morethan 350 advertisements and examples of numerous othertypes of promotion, all of which were carefully chosen toillustrate a particular idea, theory, or practical applica-tion. Please take time to read the opening vignettes toeach chapter, the IMC, Global, Ethical, and DiversityPerspectives, and the Career Profiles and study thediverse ads and illustrations. We think they will stimulate

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

Front Matter Preface The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

your interest and relate to your daily life as a consumerand a target of advertising and promotion.

To the Instructor: A Text ThatReects the Changes in the Worldof Advertising and PromotionOur major goal in writing the sixth edition of Advertisingand Promotion was to continue to provide you with themost comprehensive and current text on the market forteaching advertising and promotion from an IMC per-spective. This sixth edition focuses on the many changesthat are occurring in areas of marketing communicationsand how they influence advertising and promotionalstrategies and tactics. We have done this by continuingwith the integrated marketing communications perspec-tive we introduced in the second edition. More and morecompanies are approaching advertising and promotionfrom an IMC perspective, coordinating the various pro-motional mix elements with other marketing activitiesthat communicate with a rms customers. Many adver-tising agencies are also developing expertise in directmarketing, sales promotion, event sponsorship, theInternet, and other areas so that they can meet all theirclients integrated marketing communication needsand, of course, survive.

The text is built around an integrated marketing com-munications planning model and recognizes the impor-tance of coordinating all of the promotional mixelements to develop an effective communications pro-gram. Although media advertising is often the most visi-ble part of a rms promotional program, attention mustalso be given to direct marketing, sales promotion, pub-lic relations, interactive media, and personal selling.

This text integrates theory with planning, manage-ment, and strategy. To effectively plan, implement, andevaluate IMC programs, one must understand the overallmarketing process, consumer behavior, and communica-tions theory. We draw from the extensive research inadvertising, consumer behavior, communications, mar-keting, sales promotion, and other elds to give studentsa basis for understanding the marketing communicationsprocess, how it influences consumer decision making,and how to develop promotional strategies.

While this is an introductory text, we do treat eachtopic in some depth. We believe the marketing andadvertising student of today needs a text that providesmore than just an introduction to terms and topics. Thebook is positioned primarily for the introductory adver-tising, marketing communications, or promotions courseas taught in the business/marketing curriculum. It canalso be used in journalism/communications courses thattake an integrated marketing communications perspec-tive. Many schools also use the text at the graduate level.In addition to its thorough coverage of advertising, thistext has chapters on sales promotion, direct marketingand marketing on the Internet, personal selling, and pub-

licity/public relations. These chapters stress the integra-tion of advertising with other promotional mix elementsand the need to understand their role in the overall mar-keting program.

Organization of This TextThis book is divided into seven major parts. In Part Onewe examine the role of advertising and promotion inmarketing and introduce the concept of integrated mar-keting communications. Chapter 1 provides an overviewof advertising and promotion and its role in modern mar-keting. The concept of IMC and the factors that have ledto its growth are discussed. Each of the promotional mixelements is defined, and an IMC planning model showsthe various steps in the promotional planning process.This model provides a framework for developing theintegrated marketing communications program and isfollowed throughout the text. Chapter 2 examines therole of advertising and promotion in the overall market-ing program, with attention to the various elements ofthe marketing mix and how they interact with advertis-ing and promotional strategy. We have also includedcoverage of market segmentation and positioning in thischapter so that students can understand how these con-cepts fit into the overall marketing programs as well astheir role in the development of an advertising and pro-motional program.

In Part Two we cover the promotional program situa-tion analysis. Chapter 3 describes how rms organize foradvertising and promotion and examines the role of adagencies and other rms that provide marketing and pro-motional services. We discuss how ad agencies areselected, evaluated, and compensated as well as thechanges occurring in the agency business. Attention isalso given to other types of marketing communicationorganizations such as direct marketing, sales promotion,and interactive agencies as well as public relations rms.We also consider whether responsibility for integratingthe various communication functions lies with the clientor the agency. Chapter 4 covers the stages of the con-sumer decision-making process and both the internalpsychological factors and the external factors that influ-ence consumer behavior. The focus of this chapter is onhow advertisers can use an understanding of buyerbehavior to develop effective advertising and otherforms of promotion.

Part Three analyzes the communications process.Chapter 5 examines various communication theories andmodels of how consumers respond to advertising mes-sages and other forms of marketing communications.Chapter 6 provides a detailed discussion of source, mes-sage, and channel factors.

In Part Four we consider how rms develop goals andobjectives for their integrated marketing communicationsprograms and determine how much money to spend try-ing to achieve them. Chapter 7 stresses the importance ofknowing what to expect from advertising and promotion,

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the differences between advertising and communicationobjectives, characteristics of good objectives, and prob-lems in setting objectives. We have also integrated thediscussion of various methods for determining and allo-cating the promotional budget into this chapter. Theserst four sections of the text provide students with a solidbackground in the areas of marketing, consumer behav-ior, communications, planning, objective setting, andbudgeting. This background lays the foundation for thenext section, where we discuss the development of theintegrated marketing communications program.

Part Five examines the various promotional mix ele-ments that form the basis of the integrated marketingcommunications program. Chapter 8 discusses the plan-ning and development of the creative strategy and adver-tising campaign and examines the creative process. InChapter 9 we turn our attention to ways to execute thecreative strategy and some criteria for evaluating cre-ative work. Chapters 10 through 13 cover media strategyand planning and the various advertising media. Chapter10 introduces the key principles of media planning andstrategy and examines how a media plan is developed.Chapter 11 discusses the advantages and disadvantagesof the broadcast media (TV and radio) as well as issuesregarding the purchase of radio and TV time and audi-ence measurement. Chapter 12 considers the same issuesfor the print media (magazines and newspapers). Chap-ter 13 examines the role of support media such as out-door and transit advertising and some of the many newmedia alternatives.

In Chapters 14 through 17 we continue the IMCemphasis by examining other promotional tools that areused in the integrated marketing communications process.Chapter 14 looks at the rapidly growing areas of directmarketing. This chapter examines database marketing andthe way by which companies communicate directly withtarget customers through various media. Chapter 15 pro-vides a detailed discussion of interactive media and mar-keting on the Internet and how companies are using theWorld Wide Web as a medium for communicating withcustomers. We discuss how this medium is being used fora variety of marketing activities including advertising,sales promotion and even the selling of products and ser-vices. Chapter 16 examines the area of sales promotionincluding both consumer-oriented promotions and pro-grams targeted to the trade (retailers, wholesalers andother middlemen). Chapter 17 covers the role of publicityand public relations in IMC as well as corporate advertis-ing. Basic issues regarding personal selling and its role inpromotional strategy are presented in Chapter 18.

Part Six of the text consists of Chapter 19, where wediscuss ways to measure the effectiveness of various ele-ments of the integrated marketing communications pro-gram, including methods for pretesting and posttestingadvertising messages and campaigns. In Part Seven weturn our attention to special markets, topics, and per-spectives that are becoming increasingly important incontemporary marketing. In Chapter 20 we examine the

global marketplace and the role of advertising and otherpromotional mix variables such as sales promotion, pub-lic relations, and the Internet in international marketing.

The text concludes with a discussion of the regula-tory, social, and economic environments in which adver-tising and promotion operate. Chapter 21 examinesindustry self-regulation and regulation of advertising bygovernmental agencies such as the Federal Trade Com-mission, as well as rules and regulations governing salespromotion, direct marketing, and marketing on the Inter-net. Because advertisings role in society is constantlychanging, our discussion would not be complete withouta look at the criticisms frequently levied, so in Chapter22 we consider the social, ethical, and economic aspectsof advertising and promotion.

Chapter FeaturesThe following features in each chapter enhance studentsunderstanding of the material as well as their readingenjoyment.

Chapter Objectives

Objectives are provided at the beginning of each chapterto identify the major areas and points covered in thechapter and guide the learning effort.

Chapter Opening Vignettes

Each chapter begins with a vignette that shows the effec-tive use of integrated marketing communications by acompany or ad agency or discusses an interesting issuethat is relevant to the chapter. These opening vignettes aredesigned to draw the students into the chapter by present-ing an interesting example, development, or issue thatrelates to the material covered in the chapter. Some of thecompanies, brands, and organizations proled in the open-ing vignettes include the U.S. Army, BMW, Samsung,TiVo, Red Bull, Nike, Skyy Spirits, and Rolling Stonemagazine. In addition, some of the chapter openers dis-cuss current topics and issues such as branding, conver-gence, the role of advertising versus public relations, andthe controversy over the advertising of hard liquor on net-work television.

IMC Perspectives

These boxed items feature in-depth discussions of inter-esting issues related to the chapter material and the practical application of integrated marketing communi-cations. Each chapter contains several of these insightsinto the world of integrated marketing communications.Some of the companies/brands whose IMC programs arediscussed in these perspectives include Jet Blue, DellComputer, Jupiter Media Matrix, BMW Mini-Cooper,Intel, USA Today, PT-Cruiser, and Dunkin Donuts.Issues such as the use of music to enhance the effective-ness of commercials, the value of stadium naming rights,

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public relations blunders, and problems that companieshave encountered when using contests and sweepstakesare also discussed in the IMC Perspectives.

Global Perspectives

These boxed sidebars provide information similar to thatin the IMC Perspectives, with a focus on internationalaspects of advertising and promotion. Some of the com-panies/brands whose international advertising programsare covered in the Global Perspectives include MTV,Microsoft, Sony, McDonalds, and Nike. Topics such asthe Cannes international advertising awards, celebritieswho appear in commercials in Japan while protectingtheir image in the United States, advertising in China,and the challenges of communicating with consumers inThird World countries are also discussed.

Ethical Perspectives

These boxed items discuss the moral and/or ethicalissues regarding practices engaged in by marketers andare also tied to the material presented in the particularchapter. Issues covered in the Ethical Perspectivesinclude subliminal advertising, the battle between televi-sion networks and advertisers over tasteful advertising,and controversies arising from the increase in direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and the com-mercialization of schools.

Diversity Perspectives

These boxed items discuss topics related to the opportu-nities and challenges facing companies as they developintegrated marketing communications programs for mar-kets that are becoming more ethnically diverse. TheDiversity Perspectives include the rapid growth of theHispanic market and issues involved in communicatingwith this important segment, the emergence of Spanish-language television stations in the United States, and theuse of sales promotion to target the African-Americanmarket.

Career Proles

Also included are Career Proles of successful individu-als working in the communications industry. The indi-viduals featured in Career Profiles include an accountexecutive for the Leo Burnett advertising agency, adirector of corporate communications for JetBlue air-lines, the vice president of the iDeutsch interactiveagency, the manager of Corporate Communications andCreative Services for Savin Corporation, a media sales-person for Rolling Stone magazine, the vice president ofmarketing and communication for Cox Target Media, amarketing and sales promotion analyst for Chicken ofthe Sea International, the president of eMarketer, and thepresident of the Ipsos-ASI, Inc., global marketing andadvertising research rm.

Key Terms

Important terms are highlighted in boldface throughoutthe text and listed at the end of each chapter with a pagereference. These terms help call students attention toimportant ideas, concepts, and denitions and help themreview their learning progress.

Chapter Summaries

These synopses serve as a quick review of important top-ics covered and a very helpful study guide.

Discussion Questions

Questions at the end of each chapter give students anopportunity to test their understanding of the materialand to apply it. These questions can also serve as a basisfor class discussion or assignments.

Four-Color Visuals

Print ads, photoboards, and other examples appearthroughout the book. More than 400 ads, charts, graphs,and other types of illustrations are included in the text.

Changes in the Sixth EditionWe have made a number of changes in the sixth editionto make it as relevant and current as possible, as well asmore interesting to students:

Updated Coverage of the Emerging Field of Integrated Marketing Communications Thesixth edition continues to place a strong emphasis on studying advertising and promotion from an integrated marketing communications perspective.We examine developments that are impacting theway marketers communicate with their customers,such as the movement toward branded content,whereby marketers and agencies are becoming moreinvolved in creating an entertainment product andintegrating their messages into it. New technologiessuch as personal video recorders and the conver-gence of television, computers, and the Internet arechanging the way companies are using advertisingalong with other marketing tools to communicatewith their customers. In this new edition we examinehow these cutting-edge developments are impactingthe IMC program of marketers.

Updated Chapter on the Internet andInteractive Media The sixth edition includes up-to-date information on the Internet and other formsof interactive media and how they are being usedby marketers. We also discuss developments suchas wireless communications as well as regulationsaffecting the use of the Internet and importantissues such as privacy. This chapter also discussesthe latest developments in areas such as audience

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measurement and methods for determining theeffectiveness of Internet advertising. Discussion ofthe emerging role of the Internet as an importantintegrated marketing communications tool and ofthe ways it is being used by marketers is integratedthroughout the sixth edition.

Diversity PerspectivesNew to This EditionIn this edition we introduce a new feature calledDiversity Perspectives. These boxed items aredesigned to focus attention on the increase in thediversity of the consumer market in the UnitedStates. The 2000 census showed that the Hispanicmarket grew by 58 percent over the past decade,and another 35 percent increase is forecast over thenext 10 years. Marketers are recognizing the impor-tance of being able to communicate with a diversemarket that includes Hispanics, African-Americans,Asian-Americans, and other ethnic groups. Thisnew feature focuses on the opportunities and chal-lenges facing companies as they develop integratedmarketing communications programs for marketsthat are becoming more ethnically diverse.

Online Cases Six short cases written tocorrespond to various sections of the text are avail-able online and can be downloaded for classroomuse and assignments. These cases are designed tobuild on the material presented in the text and pro-vide students with the opportunity to apply variousIMC tools and concepts. The cases include compa-nies and organizations such as Gateway, the U.S.Armed Forces, Chicken of the Sea International,the Partnership for a Drug Free America, and theU.S. Ofce of National Drug Control Policy. Theonline cases include information beyond thatprovided in the text and require that students evalu-ate an advertising and promotional issue and makea decision and recommendation.

New Chapter Opening Vignettes All of the chap-ter opening vignettes in the sixth edition are newand were chosen for their currency and relevance tostudents. They demonstrate how various companiesand advertising agencies use advertising and otherIMC tools. They also provide interesting insightsinto some of the current trends and developmentsthat are taking place in the advertising world.

New and Updated IMC Perspectives All of theboxed items focusing on specic examples of howcompanies and their communications agencies areusing integrated marketing communications arenew or updated, and they provide insight into manyof the most current and popular advertising andpromotional campaigns being used by marketers.The IMC Perspectives also address interestingissues related to advertising, sales promotion, directmarketing, marketing on the Internet, and personalselling.

New and Updated Global and EthicalPerspectives Nearly all of the boxed items focus-ing on global and ethical issues of advertising andpromotion are new; those retained from the fthedition have been updated. The Global Perspectivesexamine the role of advertising and other promo-tional areas in international markets. The EthicalPerspectives discuss specic issues, developments,and problems that call into question the ethics ofmarketers and their decisions as they develop andimplement their advertising and promotionalprograms.

New Career Profiles The sixth edition has allnew Career Profiles that discuss the career path ofsuccessful individuals working in various areas ofadvertising and promotion, including clients,advertising agencies, and the media. Theseprofiles provide students with insight into varioustypes of careers that are available in the area ofadvertising and promotion on the client andagency side as well as in media. They discuss theeducational backgrounds of the individualsprofiled, some of the responsibilities and require-ments of their positions, and their career paths.This feature has been very popular among studentsand in this edition we provide eight new profiles.These profiles have been written by the individu-als themselves and provide students with insightinto the educational background of the personsprofiled, how they got started in the field of adver-tising and promotion, their current responsibilities,and interesting aspects of their jobs as well asexperiences.

Contemporary Examples The eld ofadvertising and promotion changes very rapidly,and we continue to keep pace with it. Whereverpossible we updated the statistical information pre-sented in tables, charts, and gures throughout thetext. We reviewed the most current academic andtrade literature to ensure that this text reects themost current perspectives and theories on advertis-ing, promotion, and the rapidly evolving area ofintegrated marketing communications. We alsoupdated most of the examples and ads throughoutthe book. Advertising and Promotion continues tobe the most contemporary text on the market,offering students as timely a perspective as possible.

Support MaterialA high-quality package of instructional supplementssupports the sixth edition. Nearly all of the supplementshave been developed by the authors to ensure their coor-dination with the text. We offer instructors a supportpackage that facilitates the use of our text and enhancesthe learning experience of the student.

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Instructors Manual

The instructors manual is a valuable teaching resourcethat includes learning objectives, chapter and lectureoutlines, answers to all end-of-chapter discussion ques-tions, transparency masters, and further insights andteaching suggestions. Additional discussion questionsare also presented for each chapter. These questions canbe used for class discussion or as short-answer essayquestions for exams.

Manual of Tests

A test bank of more than 1,500 multiple-choice questionshas been developed to accompany the text. The questionsprovide thorough coverage of the chapter material,including opening vignettes and IMC, Global, Diversity,and Ethical Perspectives.

Computerized Test Bank

A computerized version of the test bank is available toadopters of the text.

Instructor CD-ROM

This exciting presentation CD-ROM allows the profes-sor to customize a multimedia lecture with originalmaterial from the supplements package. It includesvideo clips, commercials, ads and art from the text, elec-tronic slides and acetates, the computerized test bank,and the print supplements.

Electronic Slides

A disk containing nearly 300 PowerPoint slides isavailable to adopters of the sixth edition for electronicpresentations. These slides contain lecture notes, charts,graphs, and other instructional materials.

Home Page

A home page on the Internet can be found at www.mhhe.business/marketing/

It contains Web Exploration Links (hot links to otherwebsites) as well as various other items of interest. Forinstructors, the home page will offer updates of exam-ples, chapter opener vignettes and IMC, Global, and Eth-ical Perspectives; additional sources of advertising andpromotion information; and downloads of key supple-ments. Adopters will be able to communicate directlywith the authors through the site (contact your McGraw-Hill/ Irwin representative for your password).

Four-Color Transparencies

Each adopter may request a set of over 100 four-coloracetate transparencies that present print ads, photo-boards, sales promotion offers, and other materials thatdo not appear in the text. A number of important models

or charts appearing in the text are also provided as colortransparencies. Slip sheets are included with each trans-parency to give the instructor useful background infor-mation about the illustration and how it can be integratedinto the lecture.

Video Supplements

A video supplement package has been developed speci-cally for classroom use with this text. The first set ofvideos contains nearly 200 television and radio commer-cials that are examples of creative advertising. It can beused to help the instructor explain a particular concept orprinciple or give more insight into how a company exe-cutes its advertising strategy. Most of the commercialsare tied to the chapter openings, IMC and Global Per-spectives, or specic examples cited in the text. Insightsand/or background information about each commercialare provided in the instructors manual written specifi-cally for the videos. The second set of videos containslonger segments on the advertising and promotionalstrategies of various companies and industries. Includedon this video are three segments showing campaignschosen as Ogilvy Award Winners by the AdvertisingResearch Foundation. Each segment shows howresearch was used to guide the development of an effec-tive advertising campaign. Other segments include high-lights of promotions that won Reggie Awards (giveneach year to the best sales promotion campaigns) andcase studies of the integrated marketing communicationsprograms used by the U.S. Army, Skyy Spirits, Mazda,and Chicken of the Sea International.

AcknowledgmentsWhile this sixth edition represents a tremendous amountof work on our part, it would not have become a realitywithout the assistance and support of many other people.Authors tend to think they have the best ideas, approach,examples, and organization for writing a great book. Butwe quickly learned that there is always room for ourideas to be improved on by others. A number of col-leagues provided detailed, thoughtful reviews that wereimmensely helpful in making this a better book. We arevery grateful to the following individuals who workedwith us on earlier editions. They include

Lauranne Buchanan, University of IllinoisRoy Busby, University of North TexasLindell Chew, University of MissouriSt. LouisCatherine Cole, University of IowaJohn Faier, Miami UniversityRaymond Fisk, Oklahoma State UniversityGeoff Gordon, University of KentuckyDonald Grambois, Indiana UniversityStephen Grove, Clemson UniversityRon Hill, University of PortlandPaul Jackson, Ferris State College

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Don Kirchner, California State UniversityNorthridgeClark Leavitt, Ohio State UniversityCharles Overstreet, Oklahoma State UniversityPaul Prabhaker, Depaul University, ChicagoScott Roberts, Old Dominion UniversityHarlan Spotts, Northeastern UniversityMary Ann Stutts, Southwest Texas State UniversityTerrence Witkowski, California State University

Long BeachRobert Young, Northeastern UniversityTerry Bristol, Oklahoma State UniversityRoberta Ellins, Fashion Institute of TechnologyRobert Erffmeyer, University of Wisconsin

Eau ClaireAlan Fletcher, Louisiana State UniversityJon B. Freiden, Florida State UniversityPatricia Kennedy, University of NebraskaSusan Kleine, Arizona State UniversityTina Lowry, Rider UniversityElizabeth Moore-Shay, University of IllinoisNotis Pagiavlas, University of TexasArlingtonWilliam Pride, Texas A&M UniversityJoel Reedy, University of South FloridaDenise D. Schoenbachler, Northern Illinois

UniversityJames Swartz, California State UniversityPomonaRobert H. Ducoffe, Baruch CollegeRobert Gulonsen, Washington UniversityCraig Andrews, Marquette UniversitySubir Bandyopadhyay, University of OttawaBeverly Brockman, University of AlabamaJohn H. Murphy II, University of TexasAustinGlen Reicken, East Tennessee State UniversityMichelle Rodriquez, University of Central FloridaElaine Scott, Blueeld State College

We are particularly grateful to the individuals whoprovided constructive comments on how to make thisedition better: Craig Andrews, Marquette University;Christopher Cakebread, Boston University; Robert Cut-ter, Cleveland State University; Don Dickinson, Port-land State University; Karen James, Louisiana StateUniversityShreveport; Robert Kent, University ofDelaware; Herbert Jack Rotfield, Auburn University;Lisa Sciulli, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Janice

Taylor, Miami University, and Richard Wingerson,Florida Atlantic University. A very special thank-yougoes to Roberta Elins and the faculty at the FashionInstitute of Technology, who provided many usefulinsights and interesting examples.

We would also like to acknowledge the cooperationwe received from many people in the business, advertis-ing, and media communities. This book contains severalhundred ads, illustrations, charts, and tables that havebeen provided by advertisers and/or their agencies, vari-ous publications, and other advertising and industryorganizations. Many individuals took time from theirbusy schedules to provide us with requested materialsand gave us permission to use them. A special thanks toall of you.

A manuscript does not become a book without a greatdeal of work on the part of a publisher. Various individu-als at Irwin/McGraw-Hill have been involved with thisproject over the past several years. Our sponsoring editoron the sixth edition, Barrett Koger, provided valuableguidance and was instrumental in making sure this wasmuch more than just a token revision. A special thanksgoes to Nancy Barbour, our developmental editor, for allof her efforts and for being so great to work with. Thanksalso to Natalie Ruffatto for doing a superb job of manag-ing the production process. We also want to acknowl-edge the outstanding work of Charlotte Goldman for herhelp in obtaining permissions for most of the ads thatappear throughout the book. Thanks to the other mem-bers of the product team, Keith McPherson, JudyKausal, Joyce Chappetto, Debra Sylvester, and CraigAtkins, for all their hard work on this edition.

We would like to acknowledge the support we havereceived from the College of Business at San DiegoState University. As always, a great deal of thanks goesto our families for putting up with us while we wererevising this book. Once again we look forward toreturning to normal. Finally, we would like to acknowl-edge each other for making it through this ordeal again.Our mother to whom we dedicate this edition, will behappy to know that we still get along after all thisthough it is denitely getting tougher and tougher.

George E. BelchMichael A. Belch

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Chapter Objectives

1. To examine the promotional function and thegrowing importance of advertising and otherpromotional elements in the marketingprograms of domestic and foreign companies.

2. To introduce the concept of integratedmarketing communications (IMC) and considerhow it has evolved.

3. To examine reasons for the increasingimportance of the IMC perspective in planningand executing advertising and promotional programs.

4. To introduce the various elements of the promo-tional mix and consider their roles in an IMC program.

5. To examine how various marketing and promo-tional elements must be coordinated to commu-nicate effectively.

6. To introduce a model of the IMC planningprocess and examine the steps in developing amarketing communications program.

An Introduction to IntegratedMarketing Communications

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Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

I. Introduction to Integrated MarketingCommunications

1. An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications

The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

During the early to mid 1990s, the U.S. Army had

little trouble attracting enough young men to

enlist for military service. The collapse of the

Soviet Union had all but ended, and the cold war

and military warfare was becoming more high-

tech, which meant that fewer soldiers were

needed. Thus, the Army was downsized by 40

percent, making it easy to reach modest recruit-

ment goals. Recruitment advertising used the

Be All That You Can Be tagline and relied pri-

marily on expensive television commercials to

deliver the self-actualization message. The ads

also emphasized how joining the Army provided

opportunities for career training, college scholar-

ships, and other nancial incentives.

While its recruitment marketing strategy

worked well in the early to mid 90s, by the later

part of the decade the Army found itself losing

the battle to recruit Americas youth. The military

recruiting environment had changed as the

booming economy of the 90s created many

other opportunities for high school graduates.

The Armys nancial package was not enough to

attract qualified recruits, and many high school

graduates were not willing to endure the

demands of basic training. However, the core

challenge facing the Army was deeply rooted

negative perceptions of the military. Research

showed that 63 percent of young adults 1724

said there was no way they would enlist in the

military, and only 12 percent indicated an inter-

est in military service. Comments such as, not

for people like me, for losers, and, only for

those with no other options were typical of the

feelings young people held toward military ser-

vice. Moreover, even for many of those who

would consider enlisting in the service, the Army

was their fourth choice among the branches of

the military as it had major image problems on

key attributes considered important in a post-

high school opportunity.

All of these factors resulted in the Army miss-

ing its recruiting goals three out of the ve years

during the late 90s, despite spending more

money on recruitment advertising than any

branch of the military. In early 2000, Secretary of

the Army Louis Caldera announced that: We are

totally changing the way we do Army advertis-

ing. We have to adopt the kinds of practices that

the best marketing companies use to attract

todays youth. His new marketing strategy

called for a new advertising campaign and a new

media strategy that included less reliance on

television ads and greater use of the Internet,

and e-recruiting to complement the Armys

transformation into a more mobile, high-tech

force. In June of 2000, Caldera announced the

hiring of Leo Burnett USA, Chicago, as its new

agency, replacing Young & Rubicam which had

created Army ads since 1987.

One of the first decisions facing Leo Burnett

was whether to continue with the long running

Be All That You Can Be tagline. Although

highly recognizable, the agency felt that the

An Army of One Campaign Accomplishes Its Mission

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

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1. An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications

The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

tagline had lost its relevance with young adults

and could not be used to reposition the Army and

forge a connection with this target audience. The

agency came up with a new advertising and posi-

tioning theme that would be the basis for the inte-

grated marketing campaignAn Army of One.

The creative strategy behind the theme is that it

would bring to the forefront the idea that soldiers

are the Armys most important resource and high-

light that each individual can and does make a dif-

ference; that his/her contributions are important to

the success of the whole team. The An Army of

One campaign would send a message that a sol-

dier is not nameless or faceless, but part of a uni-

fied group of individuals who together create the

strength of the U.S. Army.

A major goal of the An Army of One cam-

paign is to provide young adults with an accurate

look into what it means to be a soldier in todays

Army. A key phase of the campaign was called

Basic Training which uses a reality based televi-

sion format made popular by the hit show Survivor.

The unscripted TV spots feature brief proles of six

actual army recruits as they progress through basic

training, giving viewers a glimpse of their personal

experiences and opinions as they transform from

civilians into soldiers. The ads also encourage

prospective recruits to visit the Army website

(GoArmy.com) to experience a complete, in-depth

multimedia webisode presentation including

commentary from the recruits. The Web site was

re-designed in early 2001 by Chemistri, an interac-

tive agency which is a subsidiary of Leo Burnett,

with the goal of making it a more effective recruit-

ment tool. The site serves as a resource for poten-

tial recruits interested in learning about the Army

and helps them overcome fears about basic train-

ing, increases their understanding of career oppor-

tunities available, and introduces them to soldiers

similar to themselves.

The An Army of One campaign has been a

great success. Although its media budget was 20

percent lower than the previous year, the Army ful-

filled its 2001 recruiting goal of 115,000 new

recruits one month early. Television, print, radio

and online ads were effective in driving traffic to

GoArmy.com as visits to the Web site doubled and

online leads were up by 75 percent. The Web site

has won several awards including a prestigious

Cannes Cyber Lion and has become a focal point

for the Armys recruitment efforts. The overall An

Army of One integrated campaign also won an

Efe Award as one of the most effective marketing

programs of the year. Mission accomplished.

Sources: 2002 Efe Awards Brief of Effectiveness, Leo BurnettUSA; Kate MacArthur, The Army of One meets Survivor,Advertising Age, www.AdAge.com February 02, 2001; MichaelMcCarthy, Army enlists Net to be all it can be, USA Today,April 19, 2000, p. 10B.

4

The opening vignette illustrates how the roles of advertising and other forms of promo-tion are changing in the modern world of marketing. In the past, marketers such as theU.S. Army relied primarily on advertising through traditional mass media to promotetheir products. Today many companies are taking a different approach to marketing andpromotion: They integrate their advertising efforts with a variety of other communica-tion techniques such as websites on the Internet, direct marketing, sales promotion,publicity and public relations (PR), and event sponsorships. They are also recognizingthat these communication tools are most effective when they are coordinated with otherelements of the marketing program.

The various marketing communication tools used by the U.S. Army as part of itsrecruitment efforts exemplify how marketers are using an integrated marketing com-munications approach to reach their customers. The U.S. Army runs recruitmentadvertising in a variety of media including television, radio, magazines, newspapers,and billboards. Banner ads on the Internet as well as in other media encourage con-sumers to visit the GoArmy.com website which provides valuable information aboutthe U.S. Army such as career paths, the enlistment process, and benets (Exhibit 1-1).Direct marketing efforts include mailings to high school seniors and direct response

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

I. Introduction to Integrated MarketingCommunications

1. An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications

The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

television ads which encourage young peopleto request more information and help gener-ate leads for Army recruiters. Publicity forthe U.S. Army is generated through pressreleases and public relation activities as wellas in movies and television shows. At thelocal level the Army sponsors athletic eventsand participates in activities such as careerfairs to reach its target audience as well asother groups or individuals who can inuenceits brand image. Recruiters work in localrecruitment offices and are available to meetindividually with potential recruits to answerquestions and provide information about theArmy. Recruitment efforts for the U.S. Armyalso include promotional incentives such as cash enlistment bonuses and educationalbenets.

The U.S. Army and thousands of othercompanies and organizations recognize thatthe way they must communicate with consumers and promote their products and ser-vices is changing rapidly. The fragmentation of mass markets, the explosion of newtechnologies that are giving consumers greater control over the communicationsprocess, the rapid growth of the Internet and electronic commerce, the emergence ofglobal markets, and economic uncertainties are all changing the way companiesapproach marketing as well as advertising and promotion. Developing marketingcommunications programs that are responsive to these changes is critical to the suc-cess of every organization. However, advertising and other forms of promotion willcontinue to play an important role in the integrated marketing programs of mostcompanies.

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Advertising and promotion are an integral part of our socialand economic systems. In our complex society, advertisinghas evolved into a vital communications system for both con-sumers and businesses. The ability of advertising and otherpromotional methods to deliver carefully prepared messagesto target audiences has given them a major role in the marketing programs of most orga-nizations. Companies ranging from large multinational corporations to small retailersincreasingly rely on advertising and promotion to help them market products and ser-vices. In market-based economies, consumers have learned to rely on advertising andother forms of promotion for information they can use in making purchase decisions.

Evidence of the increasing importance of advertising and promotion comes fromthe growth in expenditures in these areas. In 1980, advertising expenditures in theUnited States were $53 billion, and $49 billion was spent on sales promotion tech-niques such as product samples, coupons, contests, sweepstakes, premiums, rebates,and allowances and discounts to retailers. By 2002, nearly $240 billion was spent onlocal and national advertising, while spending on sales promotion programs targetedtoward consumers and retailers increased to more than $250 billion.1 Companies bom-barded the U.S. consumer with messages and promotional offers, collectively spend-ing more than $30 a week on every man, woman, and child in the countrynearly 50percent more per capita than in any other nation.

Promotional expenditures in international markets have grown as well. Advertisingexpenditures outside the United States increased from $55 billion in 1980 to nearly$214 billion by 2002.2 Both foreign and domestic companies spend billions more onsales promotion, personal selling, direct marketing, event sponsorships, and publicrelations, all important parts of a rms marketing communications program.

The tremendous growth in expenditures for advertising and promotion reflects inpart the growth of the U.S. and global economies and the efforts of expansion-mindedmarketers to take advantage of growth opportunities in various regions of the world.

The Growth of Advertising and Promotion

Exhibit 1-1 The U.S. Armyprovides potential recruitswith valuable informationthrough the GoArmy.comwebsite on the Internet

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

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1. An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications

The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

C A R E E R P R O F I L E

Thomas L. AielloVice President, Account SupervisorLeo Burnett, USA

I graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1993with a bachelors of science degree in engineeringmanagement. After West Point, I spent five years serv-ing in the U.S. Army in the armored cavalry where I ledgroups of 50 or more soldiers. As a Captain, I wasawarded the Army Commendation Medal for myaccomplishments during real-world deployment toPanama, Korea, and Kuwait. My military training andexperiences taught me valuableskills about leadership, project man-agement, and strategic decisionmaking. But the most valuablething the Army taught me wasabout people and what makes themtickthis human insight is the coreof all good advertising.

In 1998, I transitioned to the cor-porate world and accepted a posi-tion with Leo Burnett in Chicago. Ihad interviewed with Fortune-500companies for careers in sales,operations and even manufactur-ing. When I interviewed with LeoBurnett, the advertising job seemedthe best fit for my skills and I wasattracted to the strong values andculture of the agency. Working at amajor agency like Leo Burnett hasmany advantages. We have bigagency resources with a smallagency attitude in terms of ouradaptability to move the clientsbusiness forward. My first positionat Leo Burnett was in the Client Ser-vice Department working with theChicagoland McDonalds accountteam. I played an integral role inhelping Chicago become one ofMcDonalds top sales regions.

In 1999, I began working on national assignmentsfor McDonalds and was the catalyst in winning newMcDonalds business for the agency. After a promotionto account supervisor, I took the lead role on theMcDonalds Happy Meal calendar team. I helpeddevelop programs to launch new products such asMighty Kids Meals and the Kid Dessert Menu.

Although I was learning through experience and LeoBurnetts training program, I felt a need to expand mybusiness skills. I began night school and in early 2002 I

finished my MBA from Northwestern Universitys Kel-logg Graduate School of Management evening pro-gram with majors in marketing and finance. Theundertaking of working full-time and going to busi-ness school was tasking, but I was able to directly applymy class work to my job at Leo Burnett. I then moved tothe U.S. Army account, where I supervise the ROTC busi-ness and all local advertising and field marketing.

Working on an account like the U.S.Army is very rewarding given itsimportance in a post 9/11 world. Per-sonally, it seemed like my years ofmilitary experience, advertising, andbusiness school had come together.

The Army is a great accountbecause of the diversity of people Iget to work with. My client partnersare Army officers and Departmentof Defense civilians. They bring agreat deal of experience and driveto the business. Our approach onArmy is integrated, so I get to workwith a diverse cross-functionalteam spanning creative, planning,media, web, PR, direct mail, sportsmarketing, and ethnic experts. Coor-dinating all of these areas into flaw-less execution is half art, halfscience, and a lot of hard work. Mypeers on the Army account createdthe Army of One integrated cam-paign. It has helped the Armyachieve their recruiting missionover the last two years and wonmany ad industry awards.

I also do volunteer work for vari-ous organizations which help pro-mote the advertising business suchas the Ad Council which is a leading

producer of public service advertisements (PSAs)since 1942. I am also an ambassador for the Advertis-ing Education Foundation (AEF). The AEF is a not-for-profit organization created and supported by adagencies to improve the perception and understand-ing of the social, historical, and economic roles ofadvertising. As an ambassador I visit students and fac-ulty of various colleges and universities to talk on theadvertising process and issues such as global advertis-ing and ethics, gender, and ethnicity in advertising.

The Army is agreat accountbecause of thediversity of peopleI get to work with.

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

I. Introduction to Integrated MarketingCommunications

1. An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications

The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

The growth in promotional expenditures also reflects the fact that marketers aroundthe world recognize the value and importance of advertising and promotion. Promo-tional strategies play an important role in the marketing programs of companies asthey attempt to communicate with and sell their products to their customers. To under-stand the roles advertising and promotion play in the marketing process, let us firstexamine the marketing function.

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Before reading on, stop for a moment and think about how you woulddefine marketing. Chances are that each reader of this book will come upwith a somewhat different answer, since marketing is often viewed interms of individual activities that constitute the overall marketing process. One popu-lar conception of marketing is that it primarily involves sales. Other perspectives viewmarketing as consisting of advertising or retailing activities. For some of you, marketresearch, pricing, or product planning may come to mind.

While all these activities are part of marketing, it encompasses more than just theseindividual elements. The American Marketing Association (AMA), which representsmarketing professionals in the United States and Canada, denes marketing as

the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizationalobjectives.3

Effective marketing requires that managers recognize the interdependence of suchactivities as sales and promotion and how they can be combined to develop a market-ing program.

Marketing Focuses on ExchangeThe AMA denition recognizes that exchange is a central concept in marketing.4 Forexchange to occur, there must be two or more parties with something of value to oneanother, a desire and ability to give up that something to the other party, and a way tocommunicate with each other. Advertising and promotion play an important role in theexchange process by informing consumers of an organizations product or service andconvincing them of its ability to satisfy their needs or wants.

Not all marketing transactions involve the exchange of money for a tangible prod-uct or service. Nonprofit organizations such as charities, religious groups, the arts,and colleges and universities (probably including the one you are attending) receivemillions of dollars in donations every year. Nonprofits often use ads like the one inExhibit 1-2 to solicit contributions from the public. Donors generally donot receive any material benefits for their contributions; they donate inexchange for intangible social and psychological satisfactions such asfeelings of goodwill and altruism.

Relationship MarketingToday, most marketers are seeking more than just a one-time exchangeor transaction with customers. The focus of market-driven companies ison developing and sustaining relationships with their customers. Thishas led to a new emphasis on relationship marketing, which involvescreating, maintaining, and enhancing long-term relationships with indi-vidual customers as well as other stakeholders for mutual benefit.5

The movement toward relationship marketing is due to several factors.First, companies recognize that customers have become much moredemanding. Consumers desire superior customer value, which includesquality products and services that are competitively priced, convenient topurchase, delivered on time, and supported by excellent customer service.They also want personalized products and services that are tailored to theirspecic needs and wants. Advances in information technology, along withexible manufacturing systems and new marketing processes, have led tomass customization, whereby a company can make a product or deliver aservice in response to a particular customers needs in a cost-effective

What Is Marketing?

Exhibit 1-2 Nonprotorganizations useadvertising to solicitcontributions and support

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

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The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

way.6 New technology is making it possible to congure and personalize a wide arrayof products and services including computers, automobiles, clothing, golf clubs, cos-metics, mortgages, and vitamins. Consumers can log on to websites such as MattelInc.s barbie.com and design their own Barbie pal doll or Fingerhuts myjewelry.com todesign their own rings. Technological developments are also likely to make the masscustomization of advertising more practical as well.7

Another major reason why marketers are emphasizing relationships is that it isoften more cost-effective to retain customers than to acquire new ones. Marketersare giving more attention to the lifetime value of a customer because studies haveshown that reducing customer defections by just 5 percent can increase future profitby as much as 30 to 90 percent.8 Exhibit 1-3 shows an ad for Dell Computer, a com-pany that recognizes the importance of developing long-term relationships with itscustomers.

The Marketing MixMarketing facilitates the exchange process and the development of relationships bycarefully examining the needs and wants of consumers, developing a product or ser-vice that satises these needs, offering it at a certain price, making it available througha particular place or channel of distribution, and developing a program of promotionor communication to create awareness and interest. These four Psproduct, price,place (distribution), and promotionare elements of the marketing mix. The basictask of marketing is combining these four elements into a marketing program to facili-tate the potential for exchange with consumers in the marketplace.

The proper marketing mix does not just happen. Marketers must be knowledgeableabout the issues and options involved in each element of the mix. They must also beaware of how these elements can be combined to provide an effective marketing pro-gram. The market must be analyzed through consumer research, and the resultinginformation must be used to develop an overall marketing strategy and mix.

The primary focus of this book is on one element of the marketing mix: the promo-tional variable. However, the promotional program must be part of a viable marketingstrategy and be coordinated with other marketing activities. A firm can spend largesums on advertising or sales promotion, but it stands little chance of success if theproduct is of poor quality, is priced improperly, or does not have adequate distributionto consumers. Marketers have long recognized the importance of combining the ele-ments of the marketing mix into a cohesive marketing strategy. Many companies alsorecognize the need to integrate their various marketing communications efforts, suchas media advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, and public relations, toachieve more effective marketing communications.

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Exhibit 1-3 DellComputer recognizes theimportance of developingrelationships with customers

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The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

For many years, the promotionalfunction in most companies wasdominated by mass-media adver-tising. Companies relied primarily on their advertising agencies for guidance in nearlyall areas of marketing communication. Most marketers did use additional promotionaland marketing communication tools, but sales promotion and direct-marketing agen-cies as well as package design firms were generally viewed as auxiliary services andoften used on a per-project basis. Public relations agencies were used to manage theorganizations publicity, image, and affairs with relevant publics on an ongoing basisbut were not viewed as integral participants in the marketing communications process.

Many marketers built strong barriers around the various marketing and promo-tional functions and planned and managed them as separate practices, with differentbudgets, different views of the market, and different goals and objectives. Thesecompanies failed to recognize that the wide range of marketing and promotional toolsmust be coordinated to communicate effectively and present a consistent image totarget markets.

The Evolution of IMCDuring the 1980s, many companies came to see the need for more of a strategic inte-gration of their promotional tools. These firms began moving toward the process ofintegrated marketing communications (IMC), which involves coordinating the var-ious promotional elements and other marketing activities that communicate with afirms customers.9 As marketers embraced the concept of integrated marketing com-munications, they began asking their ad agencies to coordinate the use of a variety ofpromotional tools rather than relying primarily on media advertising. A number ofcompanies also began to look beyond traditional advertising agencies and use othertypes of promotional specialists to develop and implement various components oftheir promotional plans.

Many agencies responded to the call for synergy among the promotional tools byacquiring PR, sales promotion, and direct-marketing companies and touting them-selves as IMC agencies that offer one-stop shopping for all their clients promotionalneeds.10 Some agencies became involved in these nonadvertising areas to gain controlover their clients promotional programs and budgets and struggled to offer any realvalue beyond creating advertising. However, the advertising industry soon recognizedthat IMC was more than just a fad. Terms such as new advertising, orchestration, andseamless communication were used to describe the concept of integration.11 A taskforce from the American Association of Advertising Agencies (the 4As) developedone of the rst denitions of integrated marketing communications:

a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a com-prehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplinesfor example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion, and public relationsandcombines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communicationsimpact.12

The 4As definition focuses on the process of using all forms of promotion toachieve maximum communication impact. However, advocates of the IMC concept,such as Don Schultz of Northwestern University, argue for an even broader perspec-tive that considers all sources of brand or company contact that a customer orprospect has with a product or service.13 Schultz and others note that the process ofintegrated marketing communications calls for a big-picture approach to planningmarketing and promotion programs and coordinating the various communicationfunctions. It requires that firms develop a total marketing communications strategythat recognizes how all of a rms marketing activities, not just promotion, communi-cate with its customers.

Consumers perceptions of a company and/or its various brands are a synthesis ofthe bundle of messages they receive or contacts they have, such as media advertise-ments, price, package design, direct-marketing efforts, publicity, sales promotions,websites, point-of-purchase displays, and even the type of store where a product orservice is sold. The integrated marketing communications approach seeks to have all

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Integrated Marketing Communications

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The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

of a companys marketing and promotional activities project a consistent, unifiedimage to the marketplace. It calls for a centralized messaging function so that every-thing a company says and does communicates a common theme and positioning.

Many companies have adopted this broader perspective of IMC. They see it as away to coordinate and manage their marketing communications programs to ensurethat they give customers a consistent message about the company and/or its brands.For these companies, the IMC approach represents an improvement over the tradi-tional method of treating the various marketing and communications elements as vir-tually separate activities. However, as marketers become more sophisticated in theirunderstanding of IMC, they recognize that it offers more than just ideas for coordinat-ing all elements of the marketing and communications programs. The IMC approachhelps companies identify the most appropriate and effective methods for communicat-ing and building relationships with their customers as well as other stakeholders suchas employees, suppliers, investors, interest groups, and the general public.

Tom Duncan and Sandra Moriarty note that IMC is one of the new-generationmarketing approaches being used by companies to better focus their efforts in acquir-ing, retaining, and developing relationships with customers and other stakeholders.They have developed a communication-based marketing model that emphasizes theimportance of managing all corporate or brand communications, as they collectivelycreate, maintain, or weaken the customer and stakeholder relationships that drivebrand value.14 Messages can originate at three levelscorporate, marketing, and mar-keting communicationssince all of a companys corporate activities, marketing-mixactivities, and marketing communications efforts have communication dimensionsand play a role in attracting and keeping customers.

At the corporate level, various aspects of a firms business practices and philoso-phies, such as its mission, hiring practices, philanthropies, corporate culture, and waysof responding to inquiries, all have dimensions that communicate with customers andother stakeholders and affect relationships. For example, Ben & Jerrys is a companythat is rated very high in social responsibility and is perceived as a very good corporatecitizen in its dealings with communities, employees, and the environment.15 Ben &Jerrys capitalizes on its image as a socially responsible company by supporting vari-ous causes as well as community events (Exhibit 1-4).

At the marketing level, as was mentioned earlier, companies send messages to cus-tomers and other stakeholders through all aspects of their marketing mixes, not just pro-motion. Consumers make inferences about a product on the basis of elements such asits design, appearance, performance, pricing, service support, and where and how it isdistributed. For example, a high price may symbolize quality to customers, as may theshape or design of a product, its packaging, its brand name, or the image of the stores inwhich it is sold. Montblanc uses classic design and a distinctive brand name as well as a

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Exhibit 1-4 Ben & Jerryshas a very strong image andreputation as a sociallyresponsible company

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high price to position its watches and pens as high-quality, high-statusproducts. This upscale image is enhanced by the companys strategy ofdistributing its products only through boutiques, jewelry stores, andother exclusive retail shops. Notice how the marketing-mix elementsthat help shape the brands distinctive image are reected in the Mont-blanc ad shown in Exhibit 1-5.

At the marketing communications level, Duncan and Moriartynote that all messages should be delivered and received on a platformof executional and strategic consistency in order to create coherentperceptions among customers and other stakeholders. This requiresthe integration of the various marketing communications messagesand the functions of various promotional facilitators such as ad agen-cies, public relations firms, sales promotion specialists, packagedesign firms, direct-response specialists, and interactive agencies.The goal is to communicate with one voice, look, and image across allthe marketing communications functions and to identify and positionthe company and/or the brand in a consistent manner.

Many companies are realizing that communicating effectively withcustomers and other stakeholders involves more than traditional mar-keting communications tools. Many marketers, as well as advertisingagencies, are embracing the IMC approach and adopting total com-munication solutions to create and sustain relationships between companies or brandsand their customers. Some academics and practitioners have questioned whether theIMC movement is just another management fad.16 However, the IMC approach isproving to be a permanent change that offers significant value to marketers in therapidly changing communications environment they are facing in the new millen-nium.17 We will now discuss some of the reasons for the growing importance of IMC.

Reasons for the Growing Importance of IMCThe move toward integrated marketing communications is one of the most signicantmarketing developments that occurred during the 1990s, and the shift toward thisapproach is continuing as we begin the new century. The IMC approach to marketingcommunications planning and strategy is being adopted by both large and small com-panies and has become popular among firms marketing consumer products and ser-vices as well as business-to-business marketers. There are a number of reasons whymarketers are adopting the IMC approach. A fundamental reason is that they under-stand the value of strategically integrating the various communications functionsrather than having them operate autonomously. By coordinating their marketing com-munications efforts, companies can avoid duplication, take advantage of synergyamong promotional tools, and develop more efcient and effective marketing commu-nications programs. Advocates of IMC argue that it is one of the easiest ways for acompany to maximize the return on its investment in marketing and promotion.18

The move to integrated marketing communications also reflects an adaptation bymarketers to a changing environment, particularly with respect to consumers, technol-ogy, and media. Major changes have occurred among consumers with respect todemographics, lifestyles, media use, and buying and shopping patterns. For example,cable TV and more recently digital satellite systems have vastly expanded the numberof channels available to households. Some of these channels offer 24-hour shoppingnetworks; others contain 30- or 60-minute direct-response appeals known as infomer-cials, which look more like TV shows than ads. Every day more consumers are surngthe Internets World Wide Web. Online services such as America Online and MicrosoftNetwork provide information and entertainment as well as the opportunity to shop forand order a vast array of products and services. Marketers are responding by develop-ing home pages on which they can advertise their products and services interactivelyas well as transact sales. For example, travelers can use American Airlines AA.comwebsite to plan flights, check for special fares, purchase tickets, and reserve seats, aswell as make hotel and car-rental reservations (Exhibit 1-6).

Even as new technologies and formats create new ways for marketers to reach con-sumers, they are affecting the more traditional media. Television, radio, magazines,

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Exhibit 1-5 Montblancuses a variety of marketingmix elements includingprice, product design, brandname, and distributionstrategy to create a high-quality, upscale image for itswatches

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

I. Introduction to Integrated MarketingCommunications

1. An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications

The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

and newspapers are becoming more fragmented andreaching smaller and more selective audiences. A recentsurvey of leading U.S. advertising executives on trendsthat will shape the industry identied the segmentation ofmedia audiences by new media technologies as the mostimportant development.19

In addition to facing the decline in audience size formany media, marketers are facing the problem of con-sumers being less responsive to traditional advertising.They recognize that many consumers are turned off byadvertising and tired of being bombarded with sales mes-sages. These factors are prompting many marketers tolook for alternative ways to communicate with their targetaudiences, such as making their selling messages part ofpopular culture. For example, marketers often hire productplacement firms to get their brands into TV shows andmovies. MGM/United Artists created special scenes in therecent James Bond movie Die Another Day to feature theAston Martin V12 Vanquish sports car. It is estimated thatthe British automaker, which is owned by Ford MotorCompany, paid $70 million to have the car featured in themovie. In an arrangement with Columbia Pictures, Daim-ler-Benz agreed to spend several million dollars on com-mercials, private screenings, and other promotions to havethe redesigned Mercedes-Benz E500 automobile featuredin the movie Men in Black II.20 IMC Perspective 1-1 dis-cusses how marketers are nding new ways to reach con-sumers and disguise their promotional messages by

making them part of popular culture.The integrated marketing communications movement is also being driven by

changes in the ways companies market their products and services. A major reason forthe growing importance of the IMC approach is the ongoing revolution that is chang-ing the rules of marketing and the role of the traditional advertising agency.21 Majorcharacteristics of this marketing revolution include:

A shifting of marketing dollars from media advertising to other forms of promotion,particularly consumer- and trade-oriented sales promotions. Many marketers feelthat traditional media advertising has become too expensive and is not cost-effective.Also, escalating price competition in many markets has resulted in marketers pouringmore of their promotional budgets into price promotions rather than mediaadvertising. A movement away from relying on advertising-focused approaches, whichemphasize mass media such as network television and national magazines, to solvecommunication problems. Many companies are turning to lower-cost, more targetedcommunication tools such as event marketing and sponsorships, direct mail, salespromotion, and the Internet as they develop their marketing communicationsstrategies. A shift in marketplace power from manufacturers to retailers. Due to consolidationin the retail industry, small local retailers are being replaced by regional, national, and international chains. These large retailers are using their clout to demand largerpromotional fees and allowances from manufacturers, a practice that often siphonsmoney away from advertising. Moreover, new technologies such as checkoutscanners give retailers information on the effectiveness of manufacturers promotionalprograms. This is leading many marketers to shift their focus to promotional tools thatcan produce short-term results, such as sale promotion. The rapid growth and development of database marketing. Many companies arebuilding databases containing customer names; geographic, demographic, and psycho-graphic proles; purchase patterns; media preferences; credit ratings; and other charac-teristics. Marketers are using this information to target consumers through a variety of

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Exhibit 1-6 Travelers canuse American Airlineswebsite to purchase ticketsand reserve seats

Belch: Advertising and Promotion, Sixth Edition

I. Introduction to Integrated MarketingCommunications

1. An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications

The McGrawHill Companies, 2003

13

IMC PERSPECTIVE 1-1

Whats the Buzz?Consumers have long had a love-hate relationship withadvertising. We enjoy watching music- and celebrity-laden commercials that are often more entertaining,humorous, or interesting than the programs they aresponsoring. We purchase magazines such as Glamour,Vogue, and GQ, which contain more ad pages than arti-cles. But many consumers are tired of being bom-barded with sales messages and are turned off byadvertising. This is especially true of Generation Y, theage cohort born between 1979 and 1994, which is 60million strong. The Generation Y cohort is three timesthe size of its Gen X predecessor, and its members con-stitute the biggest group to hit the U.S. market sincethe 72 million baby boomers, who are their parents.Having grown up in an even more media-saturated,brand-conscious world than their parents did, theyrespond to advertising differently and prefer toencounter marketing messages in different places orfrom different sources.

Marketers recognize that to penetrate the skepti-cism and capture the attention of the Gen Ys they haveto bring their messages to these people in a differentway. To do so, many companies are turning to a stealth-type strategy known as buzz marketing, wherebybrand come-ons become part of popular culture andconsumers themselves are lured into spreading themessage. Marketers are turning their brands into care-fully guarded secrets that are revealed to only a fewpeople in each community. Each carefully cultivatedrecipient of the brand message becomes a powerfulcarrier, spreading the word to yet more carriers, whotell a few more, and so on. The goal of the marketer isto identify the trendsetters in each community andpush them into talking up the brand to their friendsand admirers. As the senior vice president at BatesU.S.A., who developed a buzz campaign for LuckyStrike cigarettes, notes, Ultimately, the brand bene-fits because an accepted member of the social circlewill always be far more credible than any communica-tion that could come directly from the brand.

A number of marketers have used buzz marketingsuccessfully. Rather than blitzing the airways with 30-second commercials for its new Focus subcompact,Ford Motor Company recruited 120 trendsetters in fivekey markets and gave them each a Focus to drive forsix months. According to Fords marketing communi-cations manager, who planned and implemented theprogram, We werent looking for celebrities. We werelooking for the assistants to celebrities, party plan-ners, disc jockeysthe people who really seemed toinfluence what was cool. The recruits duties weresimply to be seen with the car, to hand out Focus-themed trinkets to anyone who expressed an interest

in the car, and to keep a record of where they took thecar. The program helped Ford get the Focus off to abrisk start, selling 286,166 units in its first full year.

Vespa motor scooter importer Piagio U.S.A. hired agroup of attractive models to find the right cafes inand around Los Angeles and to interact with peopleover a cup of coffee or iced latte and generate buzz forthe European bikes.

Even ad agencies that are heavily invested in tradi-tional brand-building techniques acknowledge thatbuzz marketing has become a phenomenon. MalcolmGladwells book The Tipping Point: How Little ThingsCan Make a Big Differencewhich describes how asmall number of consumers can ignite a trend, iftheyre the right oneshas become must readingamong