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African and south african economic history. IPSU • 2011. Johan Fourie. Geography and luck. IPSU • 2011. Johan Fourie. Die origin of man. Anatomically modern humans migrated out of Africa between 100 000 and 50 000 years ago – the so-called “Out of Africa” hypothesis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Session 1: Introduction

African and south african economic historyIPSU 2011Johan Fourie1Geography and luckIPSU 2011Johan Fourie2Die origin of manAnatomically modern humans migrated out of Africa between 100 000 and 50 000 years ago the so-called Out of Africa hypothesisThere were already groups of proto-humans (that moved out of Africa about 2.5 million years ago, Homo Erectus) in the rest of the wolrd (like the Neanderthals in Europe), but they were probably completely replaced by Homo Sapiens All people are thus biologically almost identical biology is thus not the reason why some are rich and others poorThe dominant view among scientists concerning the origin ofanatomically modern humansis the"Out of Africa"or recent African origin hypothesis,[5][6][7][8]which argues thatHomo sapiensarose in Africa and migrated out of the continent around 50,000 to 100,000 years ago, replacing populations ofHomo erectusin Asia andHomo neanderthalensisin Europe. Scientists supporting the alternativemultiregional hypothesisargue thatHomo sapiensevolved as geographically separate but interbreeding populations stemming from a worldwide migration ofHomo erectusout of Africa nearly 2.5 million years ago. This theory has been contradicted by recent evidence, although it has been suggested that non Homo sapiens Neanderthal genomes may have contributed about 4% of non African heredity, and the recently discovered Denisova hominin may have contributed 6% of the genome of Melanesians3Out of Africa

Source: Wikipedia 2011Inpaleoanthropology, therecent African origin of modern humansis the mainstream model describing the origin andearly dispersalofanatomically modern humans. The theory is called the(Recent) Out-of-Africamodel in the popular press, and academically therecent single-origin hypothesis(RSOH),Replacement Hypothesis, andRecent African Origin(RAO) model. The hypothesis that humans have a single origin (monogenesis) was published inCharles Darwin'sDescent of Man(1871). The concept was speculative until the 1980s, when it was corroborated by a study of present-daymitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based onphysical anthropologyof archaicspecimens. According to genetic and fossil evidence,archaicHomo sapiensevolved toanatomically modern humanssolely inAfrica, between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa by 60,000 years ago and over time replacing earlier human populations such asNeanderthalsandHomo erectus.4HuntersFor 99% of our history, we were hunter-gatherersNomadic lifestyleExploit natural resources with limited impact on the environment; simple technology; low population density

Until about 10000 BCE5Guns, germs and steelHistory followed different routes because of geographical differences, not biologicalUltimate causes: animal and plant domestication and the geography of continents

6The origin of agriculture

Source: Wikipedia 20117Die first settlersThe agricultural revolution occurred because of dramatic changes in the environment (climate)Some plants and animals were domesticated (as apposed to tame) People were thus not forced to search for food, but could settle close to a permanent supply of energyThey were thus the first settlers8Domestication

9Plants and animals

10The Neolithic RevolutionAgriculture settled homes higher population density surplus production specialisationSpecialisation soldiers, artists, magicians and kingsSurplus something to stealNR results in economic development (in the long-run) but also inequality

11The consequences of the NRThe equality of the hunter-gatherer disappearedAside from the new threat to security, the new towns required a new way of social organising a gap between those that work and those that manageIn short: hierarchies of wealth, status and power are characteristic of the new societies12The consequences of the NRIn the early agricultural villages of 10,000 years ago, the seeds of our own way of life were sown: economic specialization, the possibility of private as opposed to or complementary to communal life; the opportunity to accumulate wealth in material objects; the opportunity to accumulate new techniques and tools and knowledge

In the early agricultural villages of 10,000 years ago, the seeds of our own way of life were sown: economic specialization, the possibility of private as opposed to or complementary to communal life; the opportunity to accumulate wealth in material objects; the opportunity to accumulate new techniques and tools and knowledge

13

Development in the long-run

Societies adapt to changing environmentsSome adapt better than others (Jared Diamond)After the fall of the Roman empire in 476 CE, Europe in turmoilProgress in the EastEspecially in China, 700 CE 1400 CE

14Questions from the session?Answer a 12 year-old African kid in Zambia, who asks you why white people are rich and black people poor.Some societies adapt better to changing environments. What lessons can we learn from these trends for the future?15

AFRIcAIPSU 2011Johan Fourie16

17AfricaHow well do you know your continent?How many countriesHow many peopleJared Diamond:How Africa Became Black

Africais the world's second-largest and second most-populouscontinent, afterAsia. At about 30.2 million km (11.7 million sqmi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of theEarth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area.[2]With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, seetable) in 61 territories, it accounts for about 14.72% of theworld'shumanpopulation.The continent is surrounded by theMediterranean Seato the north, both theSuez Canaland theRed Seaalong theSinai Peninsulato the northeast, theIndian Oceanto the southeast, and theAtlantic Oceanto the west. The continent has 54sovereign states, includingMadagascar, various island groups, and theSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a member state of theAfrican Unionwhose statehood is disputed byMorocco.Africa, particularly centraleastern Africa, is widely regarded within thescientific communityto be the origin ofhumansand theHominidaeclade(great apes), asevidencedby the discovery of the earliesthominidsand their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago includingSahelanthropus tchadensis,Australopithecus africanus,A. afarensis,Homo erectus,H. habilisandH. ergaster with the earliestHomo sapiens(modern human) found inEthiopiabeing dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[3]Africa straddles theequatorand encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northerntemperateto southern temperate zones.[4]The African expected economic growth rate is at about 5.0% for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.[5]

18Africa: Where did it all begin?Cradle of mankind South Africa, Kenya?First wave moving out of AfricaSecond wave replacing first waveWithin Africa, the diversity was/is immense19What we do knowFive major human groupsBlacks, whites, African Pygmies, Khoisan and AsiansOf course, unlike European history, Africa has little written historyUse of language can tell us much about Africas past20The migration of the BantoThe Niger-Congo language family is distributed all over West Africa and most of subequatorial AfricaHow do we know where it started?English exampleSame line of reasoning suggests a significant migration of the Banto from Cameroon to the south21The Bantu migration

Since 1500 BCE Bantu settlers migrated east and south from modern day Cameroon and NigeriaBetter technology compared to existing inhabitants (Khoi and San)Conflict or amalgamation? TheBantu expansionor theBantu Migrationwas a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto-Bantulanguage group.[2][3]This group originated from modern dayCameroonandNigeria. A diffusion of language and knowledge spread among neighboring populations, and a creation of new societal groups involving inter-marriage spread to new areas and communities. The expansion is taken to have begun after the introduction of agriculture, which would indicate a date of ca. 30002500 BC for the early expansion within West Africa, followed by first eastwards and southwards migrations beyond West Africa from about 1500 to 1000 BC.[4]Bantu-speakers developed novel methods ofagricultureandmetalworking, which allowed people to colonize new areas with widely varying ecologies in greater densities than hunting and foraging permitted. They pushed out the hunter-foragerKhoisan, who formerly inhabited these areas, because theiriron weapons were superior to thestone weaponspossessed by the Khoisan. Meanwhile in Eastern and Southern Africa, Bantu-speakers adopted livestock husbandry from other peoples they encountered, and in turn passed it to hunter-foragers. Herding practices reached the far south several centuries before Bantu-speaking migrants did.Archaeological,linguistic,geneticandenvironmentalevidence all support the conclusion that the Bantu expansion was one of the most significant human migrations and cultural transformations within the past few thousand years.

22Why? What was the Bantos advantage?All of the domesticated plants in Africa stem from north of the equator coffee, yams, sorghum, oil palm and kola nutSole animal that was domesticated is the guinea fowl all others came from Middle East/Asia through tradeKhoisan and Pygmies was thus at disadvantage23The Bantu migrationBy 300 CE they reach South Africa, spread over the entire country (except the Western- and Northern Cape) Why not there?Farmers but also cattle herders, especially in the dryer parts Metal working possible bronze tools better technology than the Khoisan (who used stone tools)24

Great Zimbabwe and Monomotapa

Great Zimbabwe 1100-1450 CEMonomotapa (1430-1760)25Pre-European civilizations

26MfecaneMass migration of tribes in the North, East and Central South Afr

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