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1. African Indaba e-Newsletter Volume 13, Number 2 Page 1 For hunter-conservationists and all people who are interested in the conservation, management and sustainable use of Africas wild natural resources. African Indaba is the official CIC Newsletter on African affairs, with editorial independence. For more information about the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation CIC go to www.cic-wildlife.org Volume 13, Issue No 2 African Indaba eNewsletter April 2015 Guest Editorial: Wildlife Crime In Africa: What Can Hunters Do? Dr. John Hanks Editors Note: Dr. John Hanks is a zoologist with a degree from Magdalene College, Cambridge, and a PhD on the reproductive physiology, growth, and population dynamics of the African elephant. He has over 45 years of experience in a wide variety of applied conservation management and research projects and worked in Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Major postings: Natal Parks Board CPO; Head of the Department of Biological Sciences and Director of the Institute of Natural Resources at the University of Natal; Director of the WWF- International Africa Program; CEO of WWF-South Africa; Executive Director of Peace Parks Foundation; Director of Conservation Internationals TFCA Initiatives and Wilderness Program in Southern Africa. More recently he worked on management plans for protected areas, and in environmental education as Chairman of the Lapalala Wilderness School and Senior Fellow of GreenMatter. John published over 150 scientific papers. If anyone had even suggested in 1965 when I first started working in Africa in Zambias Kafue National Park that terrorist organizations would one day be driving, encouraging and benefiting from the killing of elephants and rhinos I would have dismissed them as living in the world of pulp fiction. Yet the reality is that the militias of North Sudan, complicit in Khartoums genocidal campaign in Darfur, have for decades been financed by ivory proceeds. By 2013 Islamic extremists were increasingly turning to the illegal wildlife trade to bankroll their operations, and there is now firm evidence that ivory and rhino horn account for a African Indaba Volume 13 Issue 2 Contents Guest Editorial: Wildlife Crime In Africa: What Can Hunters Do?...............................................................1 African Elephant Summit Kasane, Botswana.4 2014 Elephant Poaching Rates Virtually Unchanged6 Community-Led Solutions: A Key Force In Tackling Wildlife Crime.7 Africa: Can Indigenous And Wildlife Conservationists Work Together?.........................................................8 Kidnapped In Mozambique: In The Clutches Of Rhino Poachers.9 Botswana Hunting Ban Causes Job Losses In 2014.10 US Authorities Approve Import Of Namibian Black Rhino Trophies ..10 New Paper: Identification Of Policies For A Sustainable Legal Trade In Rhinoceros Horn Based On Population Projection And Socioeconomic Models..11 News From And About Africa12 The Debate On Hunting And Game Breeding in South Africa.15 SAHGCA Calls For Regulation Of Intensive Commercial Game Breeding Practices.16 PHASA Position Paper On Intensive Breeding And The Breeding Of Color Variants In The Wildlife Industry.17 South African Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) on Color Morphs.19 Response From Wildlife Ranching SA President Dr Peter Oberem to SA Hunters.20 Eulogy Of Opportunities Missed.22 Honor And Respect..24 AMOS Association of Mozambique Hunting Safari Operators25 2. African Indaba e-Newsletter Volume 13, Number 2 Page 2 For hunter-conservationists and all people who are interested in the conservation, management and sustainable use of Africas wild natural resources. African Indaba is the official CIC Newsletter on African affairs, with editorial independence. For more information about the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation CIC go to www.cic-wildlife.org significant share of the budget of the Al-Shabaab, the al-Qaeda affiliate that carried out the attacks in Nairobis Westgate Mall, and much more recent appalling slaughter of 148 people at Kenyas Garissa University. In fact, some 40 per cent of al-Shabaabs revenue comes from illicit ivory sales, a growing part of the global illegal wildlife trade that is worth a staggering $23 billion a year1 . The link between the threat of terrorism and the fate of endangered species can no longer be ignored the cost of allowing poachers free rein to traffic in what we can call blood rhino horn and blood ivory is far too high. But not all of this highly organized criminal network and illegal wildlife trade is linked to terrorism, and elsewhere the trade in animals (and plants) is just one more resource that can be obtained all too easily in Africa and sold on for massive profits. Of equal concern is that although the continents National Parks, Game Reserves and Game Management Areas should be at the forefront in efforts to guarantee the long-term security of species and landscapes, their ability to do so is being seriously compromised by a major shortfall in financial support for virtually all of those designated and listed by IUCN. This highly unsatisfactory situation is compounded by inadequate law enforcement linked to widespread corruption, a lack of a political commitment to biodiversity conservation2 , and the continued alienation of adjacent rural communities by punitive measures to protect wildlife, which in too many cases make little or no attempt to help these people develop alternative sustainable livelihoods3 . Furthermore, far too many of these designated conservation areas are becoming isolated from one another through an unprecedented rate of deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, agricultural expansion and urbanization, condemning to extinction thousands of species far less charismatic than rhino and elephants, and impacting directly and indirectly on the security of the protected areas. How can hunters respond to these threats to the security of designated GMAs and the species that live there and elsewhere on the continent? In short, there is no single solution, but there are a number of options that can and should be more actively pursued to reduce wildlife crime. Increased field protection of valuable species must be top of the list, with every effort being made to ensure the survival of as many individuals as possible in those areas that are most likely to be successful. Unfortunately the GMAs and private land-owners get little or no assistance from the plethora of NGOs funding anti-poaching programs, in spite of 25% of South Africas rhinos alone being on private land, areas which today hold more rhinos than the combined population in the rest of Africa. Even the Kruger National Park, which receives over a million visitors each year, cannot manage to stop wildlife crimes in spite of massive external aid from many NGOs, and the $24 million from US philanthropist Howard Buffett for protecting rhinos, with further assistance from 180 military personnel deployed in the park. The Professional Hunters Association of South Africa is already donating generously to a variety of anti-poaching activities, including helping with the training of over 900 conservation staff from other African countries at the Southern African Wildlife College with a significant emphasis on anti-poaching. Enhanced field security means more, better-trained, better-motivated and led and better-equipped staff, and there is no doubt that the presence of professional hunting teams in GMAs is providing this much-needed expertise with their visible presence during the hunting season being a significant deterrent to poaching, which should ideally be continued during the off-season, and welcomed by the countries that still have viable GMAs. The professional hunting associations all over Africa, as well as the amateur hunting associations in Southern Africa and their international counterparts around the globe could also help with the funding, training, equipping and mentoring of independent rapid deployment teams with trackers and dogs which should be on-call in high-risk areas for wildlife crimes. The capacity of most 3. African Indaba e-Newsletter Volume 13, Number 2 Page 3 For hunter-conservationists and all people who are interested in the conservation, management and sustainable use of Africas wild natural resources. African Indaba is the official CIC Newsletter on African affairs, with editorial independence. For more information about the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation CIC go to www.cic-wildlife.org state organizations to respond effectively and timeously is regrettably declining, and an independent initiative of this nature has the potential to be a significant deterrent. Hunters provide already the Boots on the Ground in most, if not all African countries with hunting tourism programs. Identify and prosecute the middle-men - the drivers of wildlife crime: The criminal enterprises involved in the illegal wildlife trade are far better organized today than they were when rhino poaching started to increase significantly in South Africa in 2011. International NGOs and their donors need to understand that apprehending poachers in the field will not stop rhino poaching unless there is a simultaneous effort to strike at, disrupt and eventually destroy the central nervous system of the criminal networks that supply the weapons and ammunition, bribe the police, customs officials and wildlife authorities, and then transport and sell rhino horns to end-users. Conventional approaches to intelligence gathering are likely to fail when corrupt government officials learn that their complicity will be exposed. Options for unconventional methods of disrupting the criminal networks, which avoid government departments and their parastatals, need to be developed and implemented. With the extent of corruption in the majority of countries that still have rh