ages of computer

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<ul><li> 1. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER </li></ul> <p> 2. 1ST generation A first-generation programming language is a machine-level programming language. Originally, no translator was used to compile or assemble the first-generation language. The first-generation programming instructions were entered through the front panel switches of the computer system. A first generation (programming) language (1GL) is a grouping of programming languages that are machine level languages used to program first-generation computers. The instructions were given through the front panel switches of these computers, directly to the CPU. There was originally no compiler or assembler to process the instructions in 1GL. The instructions in 1GL are made of binary numbers, represented by 1s and 0s. This makes the language suitable for the understanding of the machine but very much more difficult to interpret and learn by the human programmer. 3. The main advantage of programming in 1GL is that the code can run very fast and very efficiently, precisely because the instructions are executed directly by the CPU. One of the main disadvantages of programming in a low level language is that when an error occurs, the code is not as easy to fix. First generation languages are very much adapted to a specific computer and CPU, and code portability is therefore significantly reduced in comparison to higher level languages. Modern day programmers still occasionally use machine level code, especially when programming lower level functions of the system, such as drivers, interfaces with firmware and hardware devices. Modern tools, such as native-code compilers are used to produce machine level from a higher-level language. 4. 2nd generation The second generation of computer and video games began in 1976 with the release of the Fairchild Channel F and Radofin Electronics' 1292 Advanced Programmable Video System. It coincided with and was partly fuelled by the golden age of arcade video games, a peak era of popularity and innovation for the medium. The early period saw the launch of several consoles as various companies decided to enter the market; later releases were in direct response to the earlier consoles. The Atari 2600 was the dominant console for much of the second generation, with other consoles such as Intellivision, the Odyssey 2, and Coleco Vision also enjoying market share. 5. The second generation had a mixed legacy affected by the video game crash of 1983 two years before the arrival of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in the United States. The Atari 2600 was discontinued on January 1, 1992, ending the second generation. The duration between the start of the 2nd generation in 1976 and the start of the 3rd generation in 1983 was seven years. 6. 3rd GENERATION During the period of 1964 to 1971 Third generation computers were developed. The third generation computers emerged with the development of IC (Integrated Circuits). The invention of the IC was the greatest achievement done in the period of third generation of computers. IC was invented by Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby in 1958-59. IC is a single component containing a number of transistors. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. 7. Keyboards and monitors developed during the period of third generation of computers. The third generation computers interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. 8. 4th Generation In this generation, there were developments of large- scale integration or LSI (1000 devices per chip) and very large-scale integration or VLSI (10000 devices per chip). These developments enabled the entire processor to fit into a single chip and in fact, for simple systems, the entire computer with processor; main memory and I/O controllers could fit on a single chip. Core memories now were replaced by semiconductor memories and high-speed vectors dominated the scenario. Names of few such vectors were Cray1, Cray X-MP and Cyber205. A variety of parallel architectures developed too, but they were mostly in the experimental stage. 9. Core memories now were replaced by semiconductor memories and high-speed vectors dominated the scenario. Names of few such vectors were Cray1, Cray X-MP and Cyber205. A variety of parallel architectures developed too, but they were mostly in the experimental stage. 10. 5th generation The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project (FGCS) was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in 1982, to create a computer using massively parallel computing/processing. It was to be the result of a massive government/industry research project in Japan during the 1980s. It aimed to create an "epoch-making computer" with-supercomputer-like performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence. There was also an unrelated Russian project also named as fifth-generation computer (see Kronos (computer)). 11. In his "Trip report" paper, Prof. Ehud Shapiro (which focused the FGCS project on concurrent logic programming as the software foundation for the project) captured the rationale and motivations driving this huge project: "As part of Japan's effort to become a leader in the computer industry, the Institute for New Generation Computer Technology has launched a revolutionary ten-year plan for the development of large computer systems which will be applicable to knowledge information processing systems. These Fifth Generation computers will be built around the concepts of logic programming. In order to refute the accusation that Japan exploits knowledge from abroad without contributing any of its own, this project will stimulate original research and will make its results available to the international research community." 12. THANK YOU Name: G.SREE NAVEEN CLASS: 10TH SEC:B ROLL NO. : 17 </p>