Agri Aquaculture

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<p>Integrated Agri-Aquaculture SystemsA Resource Handbook for Australian Industry Development.</p> <p>A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Edited by Gooley, G. J. and Gavine, F. M.</p> <p>February 2003 RIRDC Publication No RIRDC Project No. MFR-2A</p> <p> 2003 Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.</p> <p>ISBN 0 642 58580 6) ISSN 1440-6845 Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems A Resource Handbook Publication No. 03/012 Project No. MFR-2A The views expressed and the conclusions reached in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of persons consulted. RIRDC shall not be responsible in any way whatsoever to any person who relies in whole or in part on the contents of this report. This publication is copyright. However, RIRDC encourages wide dissemination of its research, providing the Corporation is clearly acknowledged. For any other enquiries concerning reproduction, contact the Publications Manager on phone 02 6272 3186.</p> <p>Researcher Contact Details Geoff Gooley Manager Aquaculture Program Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute, Snobs Creek Private Bag 20 Alexandra Victoria 3714 Phone: Fax: Email: 03 5774 2208 03 5774 2659 geoff.gooley@nre.vic.gov.au</p> <p>In submitting this report the research has agreed to RIRDC publishing this material in its edited form.</p> <p>RIRDC Contact Details Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Level 1, AMA House 42 Macquarie Street BARTON ACT 2600 PO Box 4776 KINGSTON ACT 2604 Phone: Fax: Email: Website: 02 6272 4539 02 6272 5877 rirdc@rirdc.gov.au. http://www.rirdc.gov.au</p> <p>Published in February 2003 Printed on environmentally friendly paper by Canprint</p> <p>ii</p> <p>ForewordThe practice of integrating aquaculture and agriculture, also referred to as Integrated AgriAquaculture Systems (IAAS), is a relatively recent development in Australia. Indeed, until now much of the interest in IAAS in Australia has been centred on various RIRDC R&amp;D projects investigating different bio-technical, economic and environmental aspects of IAAS applications. The broad rationale for IAAS application in Australia is based on the need to achieve more economically viable and environmentally sustainable primary industries, and specifically to enhance farm productivity and water use efficiency through multiple water use for integrated production of both terrestrial and aquatic crops. IAAS practices were established long ago in many Asian countries for subsistence purposes, but are increasingly being developed for more commercial, income generating purposes in both Asia and developed Western countries. In Israel, very efficient, agro-industrial scale, IAAS farming, incorporating various aquaculture and irrigated horticulture operations, is now well established in what is otherwise a relatively arid production landscape, not unlike much of Australia. It is such commercially viable, large-scale IAAS ventures that are seen to have most relevance to Australian industry. The concept of IAAS in Australia is now entering a critical industry development phase as farmers endeavour to practically apply R&amp;D outcomes and their own specific IAAS innovations at farm level. Accordingly, RIRDC has recognised the need for the preparation of relevant industry extension tools, such as this Handbook. This Handbook, prepared by the Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria, covers a number of relevant topics in relation to IAAS industry development in Australia. The Handbook includes chapters on: IAAS principles and concepts; international experiences; Australian resources, species, systems and case studies; marketing; economics; legislative issues; and business planning. In practice, it is intended as a preliminary guide to Australian industry, particularly as a starting point for both existing farmers and new entrants considering commercial IAAS opportunities. It is also intended to be the first step in implementing the national R&amp;D Plan for Integrated Agri-Aquaculture (1999-2004) in Australia, released by RIRDC in 2000. This project was predominantly funded from RIRDC Core Funds, which in turn are provided by the Federal Government, although a significant contribution was also made from Fisheries Victoria (Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria). Valuable in-kind support was also provided from various other state fisheries (including aquaculture) agencies and industry (agriculture and aquaculture) practitioners from around Australia, and several international research institutions. This report, a new addition to RIRDCs diverse range of over 700 research publications, forms part of our Resilient Agricultural Systems R&amp;D program. This program aims to foster the development of agri-industry systems that have sufficient diversity, integration, flexibility and robustness to be resilient enough to respond opportunistically to continued change. Most of our publications are available for viewing, downloading or purchasing online through our website: downloads at www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/Index.htm purchases at www.rirdc.gov.au/eshop</p> <p>Simon Hearn Managing Director Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation</p> <p>iii</p> <p>AcknowledgementsThe editors would like to thank the many people who have been involved in the compilation of this Handbook. Our inter-state colleagues have provided valuable time and in-kind support to give the Handbook a National perspective. Our thanks are extended to: Dr Adrian Collins, Peter Peterson and Max Wingfield (QDPI); Tara Ingerson (PIRSA), Ian Lyall and Stephen Boyd (NSW) and Dan Machin and Peter Lacey (WA). The farmers who participated in the case studies in Chapter 6 are gratefully acknowledged for their input of time and valuable information on their experiences. Thanks are also extended to Ms Fern Hames who assisted with the editing of this manuscript. The assistance of Mr Stuart Vallis and Mrs Maureen May in finalising the document is also gratefully acknowledged.</p> <p>AbbreviationsIAAS RAS Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems Recirculating Aquaculture Systems</p> <p>iv</p> <p>ContentsForeword ............................................................................................................................................... iii Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. iv Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................ iv Chapter One ........................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction to Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems in Australia Geoff Gooley and Fiona Gavine Chapter Two........................................................................................................................................... 6 Philosophy, Principles and Concepts of Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems Peter Edwards Chapter Three ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Integration of Agri-Aquaculture Systems The Israeli Experience................................................... 14 Sagiv Kolkovski, Gideon Hulata, Yitzhak Simon, Ran Segev and Avi Koren Chapter Four ........................................................................................................................................ 24 Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems - The Asian Experience David Little and James Muir Chapter Five......................................................................................................................................... 37 Resources, Systems and Species for Australian Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems Fiona Gavine and Geoff Gooley Chapter Six........................................................................................................................................... 63 Australian Case Studies for Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems Fiona Gavine and Geoff Gooley Adrian &amp; Anna Kay, Mooravale Fishery,Tongala, Victoria. ............................................................... 65 Rick Mailer, Kularoo, Jerilderie, NSW............................................................................................. 68 Marsia Thompson, Gloucester, NSW................................................................................................ 71 Ken and Anne Warren, Undera, Victoria........................................................................................... 74 Paul Mc Veigh, Dalby, Queensland................................................................................................... 77 Tailor-Made Fish Farm, Port Stephens, NSW................................................................................... 81 Glen And Danielle Sheehan, Kangarilla, South Australia ................................................................. 84 Roger Strother, MeningieWest, South Australia ............................................................................... 87 Paul Gilmore, Rubicon Mountain Pty Ltd, Thornton, Victoria............................................................ 90 Mark Wallace, Mount Barker, Western Australia .............................................................................. 93 Pemberton Aquaculture Products,Western Australia........................................................................ 96 Chapter Seven ..................................................................................................................................... 99 Legislative Framework for Integrated Agri-Aquaculture in Australia Anthony Forster Chapter Eight ..................................................................................................................................... 112 Economic Analysis of the Australian IAAS Opportunity Peter E. Rawlinson &amp; William D. Dalton Chapter Nine ...................................................................................................................................... 125 Marketing of Inland Aquaculture Produce in Australia an Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems Perspective Kate Stoney Chapter Ten........................................................................................................................................ 138 Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems and Water-use Sustainability Geoff Gooley and Fiona Gavine</p> <p>v</p> <p>Chapter Eleven .................................................................................................................................. 143 IAAS Investment Risk, Industry Development and Business Planning Geoff Gooley and Fiona Gavine Appendix I .......................................................................................................................................... 156 Key Contacts for Business Planning Annex II............................................................................................................................................... 162 Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Food Species (ANZECC, 1992) Appendix III ........................................................................................................................................ 164 Notes on potential culture species 1. Atlantic salmon ................................................................................................................ 164 2. Barramundi ...................................................................................................................... 166 3. Eels (Shortfin and longfin) ............................................................................................... 168 4. Marron ............................................................................................................................. 170 5. Murray cod....................................................................................................................... 172 6. Ornamentals .................................................................................................................... 174 7. Redclaw ........................................................................................................................... 176 8. Silver perch...................................................................................................................... 178 9. Trout ................................................................................................................................ 180 10. Yabbies............................................................................................................................ 182</p> <p>vi</p> <p>Chapter OneIntroduction to Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems in AustraliaGeoff Gooley and Fiona GavineAquaculture Program, Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute, Private Bag 20, Alexandra, Victoria 3714.</p> <p>BackgroundIntegrated agri-aquaculture systems (IAAS) are those which link aquaculture to conventional farming systems. The development of such systems has been driven by different needs in different parts of the world, including a desire to improve food security on small, subsistence family farms; or to minimise pollution and use valuable resources (such as water) more efficiently and effectively. From an Australian perspective, the advantages of integrated agri-aquaculture systems over conventional farming systems include: Increases in farm productivity and profitability without any net increase in water consumption; Farm diversification into higher value crops, including aquatic species; Re-use of otherwise wasted on-farm resources (capture and re-use of nutrients, saline water etc); Reduction of net environmental impacts of semi-intensive farming practices; Net economic benefits by offsetting existing farm capital and operating expenses. The multiple use of farm water resources for aquaculture can result in many environmental benefits. As aquaculture predominantly does not consume water, rather borrows it for temporary use, this practice can be integrated into a farming system before the water is used for its primary purpose, such as irrigating crops or pastures. In this way, nutrients are also added in organic form to the water before irrigation, which may subsequently reduce the need for additional inorganic fertiliser application. The multiple use of water in itself will mean that the farm is more efficient in terms of the value of production per unit of water used, and more environmentally sustainable. Additional benefits are provided to the farming community in that the day to day operational requirements of IAAS are not gender, or age specific, thus allowing broad participation by the workforce - including most family members for smaller farming operations. Water au...</p>

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