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  • Ahsan Choudhuri, Ph.D. Professor and Chair, Department of Mechanical Engineering Mr. and Mrs. MacInstosh Murchison Chair II Professor in Engineering Director, NASA MIRO Center for Space Exploration & Technology Research University of Texas at El Paso

    Ryan Wicker, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Mr. and Mrs. MacIntosh Murchison Distinguished Chair I Professor in Engineering Director, W. M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation The University of Texas at El Paso

    2015 HBCU/UCR Joint Kickoff Meeting Crosscutting Research Technology Program National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy

    27-28 October, 2015

    Morgantown, WV

  • 2

     Project Title: METAL THREE DIMENSIONAL (3D) PRINTING OF LOW-NITROUS OXIDE (NOX) FUEL INJECTORS WITH INTEGRATED TEMPERATURE SENSORS

     Award No: DE-FE0026330  Investigators: Dr. Ahsan Choudhuri, Email: [email protected], Phone: 915-747-6905

    Dr. Ryan Wicker, Email: [email protected] ,Phone: 915-747-7443  DOE Project Manager: Maria Reidpath, Email: [email protected], Phone: 304-285-4140  UTEP Business Contact: Irene Holguin, Email: [email protected], Phone: 915-747-5680  Period pf Performance: 10/01/2015-09/30/2018  Project Amount: $250,000  Research Team: Jorge Mireles and Jaime Torres  UTEP Research Centers: W. M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation

    NASA MIRO Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research

    mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected]

  •  Project Information  Objectives  Background  Technical Methods

     Task Descriptions

     Timeline  Milestone Log  Decision Points

    3

  • 4

     Objective 1: Development of design methodologies for Low-NOx fuel injectors with embedded temperature capabilities for Electron Beam Melting (EBM) based 3D Manufacturing.

     Design for Additive Manufacturing: Component Design Features; Geometric Tolerance and Dimensioning

     Design Features; Process Parameters and Part Quality

     Objective 2: Development of optimum EBM process parameters and powder removal techniques to remove sintered powder from internal cavities and channels of Low- NOx fuel injectors with embedded temperature sensors.

     Dry ice blasting, ceramic blasting, water jetting, chemical etching, ultrasonics (patented technology by UTEP – U.S. Patent No. 8,828,311 B2), and megasonic baths

     Objective 3: Testing of the EBM fabricated Low-NOx fuel injector with integrated temperature measurement capabilities in a High Pressure Laboratory Turbine Combustor

     Functionality and operability in a realistic environment (combustor pressure up to 1.2 MPa (~175 psi) using natural gas)

  • 5

    Additive manufacturing is a process of creating parts directly from a computer model in a

    layer-by-layer fashion

     Seven classes of technologies

     Material Extrusion

     Material Jetting

     Binder Jetting

     Directed energy deposition

     Vat photopolymerization

     Sheet lamination

     Powder bed fusion

    Scan direction

    Melted Particles

    High-energy beam

    Melting

    Deposited powder

    Un-melted powder

  • A2

    Two Build Tanks 200 x 200 x 350mm (7.8 x 7.8 x 13.75 in)

    Ø = 300mm, h = 200mm (Ø = 11.81, h = 7.8 in.)

    S12 (modified for high temperatures)

    One Build Tank 200 x 200 x 180mm (7.8 x 7.8 x 7.0 in.)

  • Heat Shield

    Build Table

    Electron Gun

    Powder Distributor

    Powder Container

    Optics

    Filament

     Arcam Released Materials  Titanium Ti-6Al-4V

     Titanium Ti-6Al-4V ELI

     Titanium Grade 2

     Cobalt-Chrome, ASTM F75

     Research Materials  Ti-6Al-4V

     TiAl

     CoCrMo

     Rene alloys

     Inconel 625

     Inconel 718

     Copper

     Niobium

     Iron based alloys

     Other proprietary alloys

  • 8

     Sensors can be embedded (without post-production component modifications) in EBM-fabricated components through two distinct processes:

     Stop and Go of the fabrication process which allows sensor placement within a cavity during fabrication where the process is allowed to continue upon sensor placement

     Post-integration of sensors in customized compartments selectively built within the part.

     The Stop and Go process requires an extremely accurate re-alignment of the powder- bed during the restart process.

     Metallization and shorting of sensors due to a considerable high temperature of the EBM process creates significant fabrication challenges and limit the types of sensors that can be embedded.

     The Post-Integration of sensors is a practical alternative for components that can be effectively designed and fabricated with pre-built complex sensor compartments without the need for post-production component modifications.

  • 9

    Embedded sensor

    Sensor lead

    Conductive material

    Nonconductive material

    Nonconductive material

    Piezoceramic sensor

    Partial part with pocket (Ti-6Al-4V)

    Partial part with embedded sensor

    (PZT/LiNbO3)

    Smart part with embedded sensor

    Cross section of smart part

     Metallic components with embedded piezoceramic sensor for high efficiency energy system

     Fabrication of complex structures

     Real time performance feedback from desired location

     Structural health monitoring

    Pressure tube demonstration

    Embedded Piezoceramic sensor

  • 10

    EBM Fabricated Pintle-Injector for a 9 KN LO2/Methane Rocket Engine

    LOX

    LCH4

  • 11

     Certain challenges are foreseen when creating internal cavities/channels within AM parts fabricated using powder bed fusion AM technologies such as electron beam melting

     Geometric Tolerance and Dimensioning of internal cavities and channels

     Removal of powder from internal channels/cavities as the powder to be removed has been lightly sintered during the fabrication process

  • 12

     Test Component: Low-NOx fuel injector with integrated temperature sensors (derived from the Solar Turbine low-NOx fuel injector for natural gas )

     Ceramic Insulated High Temperature Thermocouple: OMEGA® Nextel/XC-14-J-12

     Inconel 718 and Inconel 625

     3.2 to 3.8 mm diameter slender circular channels

  • 13

    Objective 1: Development of design methodologies of Low-NOx fuel injectors with embedded temperature capabilities for EBM based 3D Manufacturing.

    Task 1.1: Fabrication of test part for technology evaluation

     parts will be fabricated (Inconel 718, Inconel 625, and/or Titanium alloys) to assess the dimensional accuracy of EBM-fabricated parts

     various geometric shapes and features that can be potentially implemented in fuel injectors.

    Letter Feature Factor To be Tested

    A Square base

    Dimensional accuracy

    B (+) Lateral ridges

    C (-) Lateral ridges

    D (+) Descending cylinders

    E (-) Descending cylinders

    F (+) Staircase

    G (-) Staircase

    H (+) Cylinders

    I (-) Cylinders

    J Ramps Surface Roughness

    K Rectangular prisms Linear displacement

    error

    L Tensile Bar Ultimate tensile strength

  • 14

    Task 1.2: Evaluation of test parts

     Dimensional accuracy

     OGP Smartscope Flash 250

     Mitutoyo SJ-201P surface roughness tester

     Mechanical testing will be completed using the specification of the E8/E8M ASTM standard

  • 15

     Task 1.3: Design for AM of Low-NOx fuel injector

     Develop designs to fabricate the complete injector (using Inconel 718, Inconel 625, and Titanium alloys) in a single EBM build run.

     The task will run in parallel to the powder removal tasks (Objective 2)

     Final design will be created upon determining the appropriate powder removal strategies

     Task 1.4: Designs for sensor integration as an assembly process

     Cavities for placement of sensors

     Implementation of fasteners or caps

  • 16

    Objective 3: Testing of the EBM fabricated Low-NOx fuel injector with integrated temperature measurement capabilities in a High Pressure Laboratory Turbine Combustor

    Task 2.1: Powder removal for internal channels

     methods for powder removal to be explored include, but are not limited to, dry ice blasting, ceramic blasting, water jetting, chemical etching, ultrasonics, and megasonic baths

     3 parts of each sized cavity will be fabricated and tested with each method

    Task 2.2: Powder removal for internal cavities

     To determine the appropriate number of outlets and outlet size that allow improved powder removal

    Task 2.3: Process parameter modifications for improved optimal powder sintering

    • To change the heat input to the sintered powder which consists of changing parameters such as beam speed, beam power, and beam focus.

    • An improved parameter set would allow for the powder bed to become more or less sintered and easier to remove via the pow