Aircrfaft Reciprocating Engine Mock Up

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    AIRCRFAFT RECIPROCATING ENGINE MOCK UP

    MUHAMAD NADHIR KHALIS BIN MOHD NASIR

    53156112019

    NUR AZIZI BIN LAILA MURAT

    531561102145

    EN IMRAN BIN MOHD SALLEH

    SUPERVISOR

    DIPLOMA OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY IN

    AEROPLANE MAINTENANCE

    SEMESTER 5

    UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

    MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY

    JANUARY 2012

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    AIRCRAFT RECIPROCATING ENGINE MOCK UP FOR TEACHING AID ON THE

    OPERATION OF RECIPROCATING ENGINE

    MUHAMAD NADHIR KHALIS BIN MOHD NASIR

    53156112019

    NUR AZIZI BIN LAILA MURAT

    53156112045

    SEMESTER 5

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page No.

    Title

    Declaration i

    Approval ii

    Acknowledgement iii

    List of Tables vii

    List of Figures viii

    Abstract x

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Introduction to Project 1

    1.2 Problem Statement 1

    1.3 Project Objective 2

    1.4 Limitation of Project 2

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    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1Introduction 3

    2.2 Types of reciprocating engine 4

    2.3 Operating Principles 7

    2.4 Piston Engine Configuration 10

    2.5 Piston Engine Component 11

    2.6 Cylinder Numbering 15

    2.7 Firing Order 15

    2.8 Engine Horsepower 15

    2.9 Engine Efficiency 16

    2.10 Reciprocating Engine Manufacturer 17

    CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Collecting Data 18

    3.2 Preparing Equipment and Materials 18

    3.3 Built the Mock-up 18

    3.4 Tools 22

    3.5 Safety Precaution 26

    3.6 Procedure 28

    3.7 Complete Paper Work 28

    3.8 Cost 29

    3.9 Weekly Progress 30

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    CHAPTER 4: RESULT & DISCUSSION

    4.1 Result 31

    4.2 Discussion 32

    CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION

    5.1 Conclusion 35

    5.2 Suggestion 35

    References 36

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    LIST OF TABLES

    Page No.

    Table 1: Project Cost 29

    Table 4: Work Progress 30

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    Page No.

    Figure 1: Radial Engine 4

    Figure 2: In Line Engine 5

    Figure 3: V Engine 5

    Figure 4: Opposed Engine 6

    Figure 5: Wankel Engine 6

    Figure 6: Four Stroke Cycle 8

    Figure 7: Two Stroke Cycle 9

    Figure 8: Piston Engine Configuration 10

    Figure 9: Crankcase 11

    Figure 10: Crankshaft 11

    Figure 11: Connecting Rod 12

    Figure 12: Piston 12

    Figure 13: Cylinder 13

    Figure 14: Valve 13

    Figure 15: Camshafts 14

    Figure 16: Spark Plug 14

    Figure 17: Grinding Process 19

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    Figure 18: Spraying Process 20

    Figure 19: Cleaning Process 21

    Figure 20: Measuring Tape 22

    Figure 21: Spray Paint 22

    Figure 22: Wrench Set 23

    Figure 23: File 23

    Figure 24: Grinder 24

    Figure 25: Valve Spring Tool 24

    Figure 26: Cleaning Solvent 25

    Figure 27: Sandpaper 25

    Figure 28: Workshop Attire 26

    Figure 29: Safety Shoe 26

    Figure 30: Safety Glove 27

    Figure 31: Safety Glass 27

    Figure 32: Methodology Chart 33

    Figure 33: Finish Product 30

    Figure 34: Finish Product 30

    ABSTRACT

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    The general purpose of this project about aircraft reciprocating engine is to educate the student

    and help the lecturer in teaching by using our mock-up as a learning aid. The aircraft

    reciprocating engine can been helpful to all UniKL MIAT students. It is also important to help

    the students with their understanding about the operation of piston engine. Now days, we found

    that only three of aircraft reciprocating engine mock-up available and only one of them can be

    operated.

    Due to the lack of mock-up model inside the workshop, we have decided to make one to

    use as a teaching aid. To make sure all the component of our aircraft reciprocating mock-up

    model working well, we had gathered and study all the information of the piston engine from

    various sources including textbook and internet to prepare ourselves in doing this project. Last

    but not least, troubleshooting and testing will be done before completely finish this project to

    avoid any mistake and all the process and details of this project has been compiled into this

    thesis for evaluation

    CHAPTER

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    engine operates. Furthermore, we also gain more knowledge, skills and experiences regarding

    piston engine operation. In this project, we try to show the operation of a piston engine with a

    cross sectional view, we choose to cut only half section of the piston engine so that the

    mechanism and component such as valve, piston, and connecting rod can be seen when it is

    operating. Half section or cross sectional view is the best method of depicting internal

    arrangement of 3D object.

    1.4 LIMITATION

    To complete this project, there are always limitation and risks that will be encountered. After

    study the theory and the mock up of other researchers, the problem was found while conducting

    this experiment. They are:

    1. What type of cutter that we are going to used cut a smooth and precise section of the piston

    engine?

    2. The arrangement of the component inside engine might be displaced, damaged, or not

    functioning.

    3. Some of the component inside the reciprocating engine is missing.

    4. Majority of the workshops do not have the equipment used to cut the piston engine

    component.

    CHAPTER

    2

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    LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 INTRODUCTION

    An early known example of rotary to reciprocating motion can be found in a number ofRomansaw mills(dating to the 3rd to 6th century AD) in which a crank and connecting rod

    mechanism converted the rotary motion of the waterwheel into the linear movement of the saw

    blades.[2]

    The reciprocating engine developed in Europe during the 18th century, first as theatmospheric

    enginethen later as thesteam engine.These were followed by theStirling engineandinternal

    combustion enginein the 19th century. Today the most common form of reciprocating engine is

    the internal combustion engine running on the combustion ofpetrol,diesel,Liquefied petroleum

    gas(LPG) orcompressed natural gas(CNG) and used to powermotor vehicles.

    One notable reciprocating engine from the WWII Era was the 28-cylinder, 3,500hp(2,600 kW)

    Pratt & Whitney R-4360"Wasp Major" radial engine. It powered the last generation of large

    piston-engined planes before jet engines and turboprops took over from 1944 onward. It had a

    total engine capacity of 71.5 L (4,360 cu in), and a high power-to-weight ratio.

    The largest reciprocating engine in production at present, but not the largest ever built, is the

    Wrtsil-Sulzer RTA96-Cturbocharged two-stroke diesel engine of 2006 built by Japans Diesel

    United, Ltd. It is used to power the largest modern container ships such as theEmma Mrsk.It

    is five stories high (13.5 m or 44 ft), 27 m (89 ft) long, and weighs over 2,300 metric tons (2,500

    short tons) in its largest 14 cylinders version producing more than 84.42 MW (114,800 bhp).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empirehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empirehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocating_engine#cite_note-Tullia_et_al._.282007.29_161-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocating_engine#cite_note-Tullia_et_al._.282007.29_161-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocating_engine#cite_note-Tullia_et_al._.282007.29_161-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_fuelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_fuelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_fuelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed_natural_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed_natural_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed_natural_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horsepowerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horsepowerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horsepowerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pratt_%26_Whitney_R-4360http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pratt_%26_Whitney_R-4360http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C3%A4rtsil%C3%A4-Sulzer_RTA96-Chttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C3%A4rtsil%C3%A4-Sulzer_RTA96-Chttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_M%C3%A6rskhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_M%C3%A6rskhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_M%C3%A6rskhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_M%C3%A6rskhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C3%A4rtsil%C3%A4-Sulzer_RTA96-Chttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pratt_%26_Whitney_R-4360http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horsepowerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed_natural_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_fuelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_enginehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocating_engine#cite_note-Tullia_et_al._.282007.29_161-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empirehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire
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    Each cylinder has a capacity of 1,820 L (64 cu ft), making a total capacity of 25,480 L

    (900 cu ft) for the largest versions.

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