al-andalus & the christian kingdoms. 2 º eso best compilation
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The conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
By the early 8th century, muslims expanded on the
Arabian Peninsula, and controlled most of North
Africa. In 711 they crossedthe Iberian Peninsula.
Muslims conquest of the Iberian Peninsulawas a continuation of
Islamic expansionacross the
It was also made possibleby a civil war between
rival groups of the Visigothnobility. In 711, one
faction requested helpfrom Musa, a Muslim ruler
in North Africa.
The Muslim defeatedthe Visigoth king
Roderic in the Battleof Guadalete.
However the Muslimruler Musa and his
leading general Tariqdid not hand power
over to their Visigothallies.
In just a fewyears theyoccupied
nearly all of the IberianPeninsula
Muslims neverconquered themountainousregions of theNorth-West.
The conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
Muslims called the new territory Al-Andalus, and madeCrdoba its capital. The emirate of Al-Andalus wasdependent on the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus
In the mid 8th Century, most members of the
ruling Umayyad family in Damascus were killed
when the new Abbasiddynasty took power.
The emirs of Crdoba established a state onthe Iberian peninsula,
bur local leaders still heldconsiderable power.
Abd al-Rahmanfounded the Emirateof Crdoba in 756.
The emir of Crdoba was independent, but
he accepted thereligious supremacy of
Ummayad prince calledAbd al-Rahman
escaped to the Iberianpeninsula.
The indepent emirate of Crdoba (756-926)
The fragmention of Al-Andalus. THE TAIFA STATES (1031-1086)
INTRODUCTIONAfter the collapse of the Caliphateof Crdoba in 1031, there wassignificant ethnic and politicaldivision in Andalusi society. Al-Andalus split into smallindependent Muslim states calledtaifas.
CHARACTERISTICSThe larger states, like Seville andToledo fought with each other, to takecontrol of the smaller taifas.
The Christian kingdoms in the northtook advantage of the lack of unity ofAl-Andalus. They attacked the taifasand forced their rulers to pay parias,or tribute.
The Christian kingdoms where a growing threat tothe taifas, especially after they took Toledo in 1085.The following year the Muslims called for help fromthe Almoravids, who had established a Berberempire in northern Africa.
CALIPHATE OF CRDOBA
THE ALMORAVIDS AND THE ALMOHADS (1086-1212)
Twice, Al-Andalus recieved military assistance from Berber Muslim empiresin North Africa, where a much stricter version of Islam was practised.
The Almoravids crossed over to theIberian Peninsula in 1086. Request ofMuslim rulers took over most of the taifastates. Won some victories, did notmantain the domination of Al-Andalus forvery long, and it fragmented once againinto many small taifa states in the 1140s.
The Almohads were the successors of the Almoravids in North Africa, and crossed over in 1147. They, too, conquered the taifa states as well as resisting the Christian kingdoms. Despite Almohadresistance, the christian kingdom continiued to expand in the 12th and 13th centuries.
In early 13th century, the Christians created a large army,. They achieved a greatvictory over the Almohads in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212).
Life in Al-andalus
Conquerors: The conquerosrs and their descendants became themost powerful groups in theirv society.
Arabs: Were the land owning of aristrocazy, who also held politicalpower.
Berbers: From the North Africa, helped to conquer the IberianPeninsula.
As Muslims conquered they let jews and christianspractice their religion, but only if they paid taxes:
Muladis: were christians who converted to Islam and adopted their customs
Mozarabs: were christians that didnt convert to Islam. Jews: were merchants, artisans and scholars. They lived in
1.- Caliphate architecture. The most excepcional buildingWas great Mosque of Cdoba. The palace at MedinaAzahara, near Crdoba, was also a fine example of caliphate architecture.
2.- Tarifa architecture. The rulers of the tarifa states built fortresses, like thecastle in Mlaga. They also built palaces, such as the Aljaefera Palace in Zaragoza.
3.- Almohad architecture. Buildings were fairly plain in the north African style, but theyhad decorative patterns. The Giralda and the Tower of Gold in Seville were outstandingexamples pf Almohad architecture.
4.- Nasrid architecture. Abundant decoration was revived. Walls were covered in plasterworkand ceramics.The Alhambra and the Generalife in granada are exceptional examples.
1.- Describe the social structure of Al-Andalus. Was it an equalsociety? Explain your answer.
2.- Explain the following terms:
The origins of Christian
1.1Christian survival in the north
In Cantabria, the kingdom of Asturias wascreated. In the Pyrenees, the Kingdom of Navarrewas established. While the Aragonese andCatalan counties emerged further East.
From 711, the muslims conquered mostof the Iberian Peninsula, but they nevertook control of the north. In the 8th and9th centuries, a group of small Christiansstates were precursors of the laterHispanic kingdoms:
1.2 Christian survival in the north
For nearly 800 years, Al Andalus and a series, of christian statesexisted together on the Iberian Peninsula.Al- Andalus was stronger up to the 10th century. From then on, the Christian kings grew in power and began to take Muslimterritories.
The Kingdom of Asturias
In the early 8th century, an Asturian orVisigoth noble called Pelayo establishedthe Kingdom of Asturias. Pelayo and hisfollowers defeated the Muslims in theBattle of Covadonga in 722. That was thestarted of the Christian Reconquest of Al-Andalus.
Over two centuries, the Kingdom ofAsturias expanded into Al- Andalus. UnderPelayos successors, Oviedo became itscapital city. Alfonso III (886-910) tookadvantage of conflicts in the emirate ofCordoba to advance into the Duero rivervalley.
In the 10th century, thecapital was moved to thecity of Leon, and thekingdom became knownas the Kingdom of Leon.
Counties and Kingdoms of the Pyrenees
The Pyreenes formed part of the Carolingian Empire afterCarlemagne established the Hispanic March as a defensive frontireregion to defend his Empire against the Muslims. In the 9th century
the Carolingian Empire broke apart and developed 3 regions:
1. Navarre the countIigo Arista expelledthe Franquish form
Pamplona and declared himself King
of Pamplona. Thatlater became kingdom
2. Aragn - thecounties of
Aragon, Sobrarbe and
Ribagorza broke away. In 820 Count
Aznar Galindez rose
3. The Catalan counties thecount Wilfredo the Hairywon the independence
from the Franquish. Theymaintained good relations
with the Caliphs of Cordoba. The
independence consolidatedin the 10th century.
The christians kingdoms of Leonand Castile
During the 11 , 12, 13 centuries, thiskingdoms were linked. Theywerent like the modern states:
They expanded is they conquerednew territories, but they were alsodivided as a result of royal inheritance .
Were sometimes ruled by thesame monarchs, and sometimesformed separate kingdoms.
LEON AND CASTILE (Relationship)
Leon was Christian Kingdomin the 10 century and early 11
centuries. Castile was a sparsely populated group of countries in the east of the
kigndom .Castile was near the frontier
with Al-andalus so it was a zone of comflict where
numerous castles were built.
KingsThe power and
influence increasedwhen Fernando I
became king in 1035
After Fernandos I deathLeon and castile were
divided and then becameagain one state.
Fernando III inherited the kingdomos castile in 1217, and the kingdom of
leon from his father in 1230. from1230 onwards, the two kingodomswere definitevely united under de
name of the crown od castile.
Despite its complicated dinastic history, the kingdom of castile and leon emerged as the largezst and strongest kingdom onthe iberian peninsula in the 12th and 13th century.
It played a key role in the reconquestwhich brought it prestige and new territories. Portugal separates from therest of the rest of the kingdom, becoming independent in the mid-12th century
Index:1. Kingdom of Navarre
Introduction Sancho III
2. Kingdom of Aragn to thecrown of Aragn Introduction
Navarre was ruled by the Jimena dinasty. Under Sancho III, the kingdom of Navarre became the largest
Christian Power on the Peninsula.
Sancho III acquired the counties of Aragn, Castile and part of Len.
Sancho s death in 1035 the kingdom was divided
among his sons:
Fernando I (1035-1065)
Ramiro I (1035-1063)
Gonzalo (1035-1045) inheritedthe counties of Sobrarbe and
THE KINGDOM OF ARAGN TO THE CROWN OF ARAGN
Count of Barcelona, became engagedto marry Petronilla of Aragn. This
united Aragn and the Catalancounties, and led to the creation of
the Crown of Aragn.
Reunited the Kin