Alchemists From Pre-socrates Philosophers to Plato(in Greek)

Download Alchemists From Pre-socrates Philosophers to Plato(in Greek)

Post on 14-Jul-2015

34 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<p>O O , , , ( 600 ..) . O , , . , , , . , , .</p> <p>O</p> <p> , , . O, , : -</p> <p>1. O . H. Reussner, Pandora, 1582.</p> <p> , (. 1), , , , , , . , ( 500 ..) , , . . , , . , , , . , , , . O ( E . ..) . , , . , , . , , : , , (. 2). O , . 106 APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE</p> <p>38</p> <p> . . X 18 . : , (. O, , 3). O , , , , , . , , , , . , . , , . , , : . . , , , , . , , .</p> <p>3. . 15 .</p> <p>2. . D. Stolcius von Stolcenberg, Viridarium chymicum, 1624.</p> <p>, , . , : , (. 3), . , , , O (. , 720-730), . . 27 (39) , . O , , . , , , 39</p> <p>APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE . 106</p> <p>4. , O, , , . Hans Leisegang, Die Gnosis, Stuttgart 1985.</p> <p> , . , , . O ( O, 354c 366a) , , , ( ). , , , , 23 , , , . , , , (447-438 ..). , , (. 5), : ( 10, Diels) . O ( 1, Diels) , , , . O ( 1 10, Diels) ( 171-195 249-270, Luria) . ( 52 b) , , . , (470-399 ..). O -</p> <p> . , , , , , . O , , , , , , ( ). , , (. 4), . , , O (. , 109-201) , , . , , ( 700 ..), 40</p> <p>5. O . Biblioteque nationale, .</p> <p>. 106 APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE</p> <p> , , , . , , , , , ( 1, 642 28 ..), ( ), . , , , . 6. O () (). D. 8 9 , Stolcius von Stolcenberg, Viridarium chymicum, 1624. , , , O . , , , . , , , , . , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ( , , , , , , , ), , , , , , , , , . O . , . Turba Philosophorum , , , , , , , , , . , , , . O , , , , . , . , (. 6): , , , , . (. 7) , .APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE . 106</p> <p>41</p> <p>7. . D. Stolcius von Stolcenberg, Viridarium chymicum, 1624.</p> <p>525 ..), , , , , , , , , . O . , , , , , , , , , . O (570-470 ..), , , , , . : , , . </p> <p> , , , , , . , . , (. ) , . , , , , . O (610-546 ..) , . , , , , , , , , . , , . (58542</p> <p>8. , , . . Reussner, Pandora, 1582.</p> <p>. 106 APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE</p> <p> , (. 8), (, , 320c-321e, Burnet), , , . O (540480 ..), , , , , , , . 9. O , fugiens, 1618. , , , . , , , , , , , .., . , , , , , , , , , , . O , , , . , , . , , , , . , , , . , , , , , . , APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE . 106</p> <p> . M. Maier, Atalanta</p> <p>, . , , , (. 9). O , , . (51) : , , , , . , (53) , . . O , , . O (490-435 ..) , , , , . , 43</p> <p> , , . , (-E . ..), . , , O , , O . , , . , , . O , , ( , ) ( ) . , , , , , . , , , . O (500-428 ..), . , , , , , .. , , , , . , . , , , , , , , , , . . , , , , , . , , , 44</p> <p> : , , , , . (B.S. Guthrie, II 285), , 13 , , . O (480-410 ..), , 11 , , , . , . O , , I T, , . , , , , , . , , , , . , . O (480-410 ..) , . , , , , , , . O , . 6 9 , , , , , , , , . , , , .. 106 APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE</p> <p> , . ( 540 470 ..) , , , . E .., . . .. , . , , , 484 .. , (470-395 ..). , , 411 .. O , , . , . , , , , . , , . . , (. 10) : , : . 45</p> <p>10. O 1606.</p> <p> . O .., , . , . , , , , . . O , O. , , , , . , , , . , 570 .. APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE . 106</p> <p> , . , , : , . . , . , , . , , . O , . , -</p> <p>12. . Athanase Kircher, 1682.</p> <p>11. O , , 16 .</p> <p> . . , , , . , , , . O , , , , . . (. 11). O . , , , . . , , . 106 APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE</p> <p>46</p> <p> , , , , , . (. 12) . , . O . , , , . , , , . , , , . , O . , , , . O , . O , . . , . O , , , , , . O , . O , . . , . A . ; ; , , , (. 13). 13. O . S. Trismosin, Splendor Solis, 16 . , APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE . 106</p> <p>47</p> <p>14. . M. Maier, Scrutinium Chymicum, 1687</p> <p> , (. 14) . , , , , . , , , , , . , , . , . , . O . , , 48</p> <p> ( , , , 40 , , , , ). : (. 15) , , . . , . , . , , , , . , , . , , , . , , , . , , (. , 4). , , , , , , , . , , , , , (, , 783) (. 16). : , (, , 790). , , . ( 450 ..), , , . 106 APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE</p> <p>15. O . Joseph Wright (1734-1789).</p> <p> , . 18 . , , . , , . , , , , , , , , , , , . , -</p> <p>, , , , . , , . , , Quinta Essential , , 20 . , , ( E .. ..). , , , . . , , . . , , . O APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE . 106</p> <p>16. 11 . .</p> <p>49</p> <p> (460-370 ..) (. 17). , . (Diels, . 247), , , . . , , . , . 17. O . M. Maier, Symbola aureae mensae, 1617. ( ) (= ), , ( ) , . , . , . , . , , () ( , , . 7 .. . O, , 7). , H E , .X. . . , , , , , , . , . . , , , , : , , . , (. 983b, 7 . . 44). , O , , . , . , , , , , , , . E , .., . , , .., , , , , , . . 50. 106 APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE</p> <p> , , , , , ( , , .. , , ). O O , , O, , ( , . 2327, . 169, . , . 79): , . , , , . . . , , , . , . O , , O (). , . O 7 8 (. , . 7v): : , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , . (. 2250, . 245): , , , , , , , , O, , APXAIOOIA &amp; TEXNE . 106</p> <p>, , , , O , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . .</p> <p>The Alchemists from the Pre-Socratic Philosophers to Plato Thales of Miletus and the followers of the Ionian School are the first to introduce the scientific conception of the origin and reason of the creation of the world. Water, according to Thales, is the original substance of creation, while his contemporary Anaximenes argues in favor of air who, when fierce would become fire, when thick would become clouds and water, earth and stones. Other theories, more profound, succeed these rather vague ones. Parmenides and his Eleatic School believe in the reduction of every substance to an eternal and motionless Being, an idea also shared by the alchemists in their dogma The whole is one and from the whole becomes everything. The alchemists simply follow the doctrines of these great philosophers and strive to reproduce in their furnaces the circumstances that would have prevailed in the creation of the world by combining the suitable natural bodies, according to the divine dictum of Hermes Trismegistus, whatever exists up, in the macrocosm, exists down, in the microcosm. Thus, a wide spectrum of theories has been developed: the monistic theory, represented by Thales (water), Anaximenes (air), Heracletus (fire), according to which reality consists of a single substance; the pluralistic theory, represented by Parmenides (light and darkness) and Empedocles (water, air, earth and fire), according to which reality consists of more than one independent element; Anaxagoras theory of the omnipotent Mind that rules and regulates the chaotic, primitive mass of all things; Democritus theory of atom, the basis of all form of matter, and Void that has an equal right with reality. In the oldest catalogue of the world wide illustrious Greek alchemists, called Ecumenicals by their contemporaries, which was compiled by the Anonymous Philosopher (Lyon, Bibliotheque Municipale, ms 2327, f. 169; Biblioteca Marciana, f. 79) the names of the ancient Greek philosophers are listed as names of alchemist writers and in this capacity they are mentioned in most of the extant relevant treatises. 51</p>