all writers and poets

Post on 07-Aug-2018

215 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/20/2019 All Writers and Poets

    1/106

    MARTIN LUTHER 

    Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) initiated the Protestant Reformation  !s a "riest and theo#o$y  "rofessor% he &onfronted indu#$en&e  sa#esman 'ohann ete# *ith his The Ninety-Five Theses  in 151+

    ,uther stron$#y dis"uted their aim that freedom from -od.s "unishment of sin &ou#d be "ur&hased *ith money /is refusa# to retra&t a## of his *ritin$s at the demand of  Po"e ,eo  in 150 and the /o#y Roman 2m"eror  har#es  at the 2di&t of orms meetin$ in 151 resu#ted in his e&ommuni&ation by the "o"e and &ondemnation as an out#a*  by the em"eror 7artin ,uther tau$ht that sa#vation is not from $ood *ors% but a free $ift of -od% re&eived on#y by $ra&e throu$h faith in 'esus as redeemer from sin /is theo#o$y &ha##en$ed the authority of the "o"e of the Roman atho#i& hur&h by tea&hin$ that the 9ib#e is the on#y sour&e of divine#y revea#ed no*#ed$e:;

    and o""osed sa&erdota#ism by &onsiderin$ a## ba"tised hristians to be a ho#y "riesthood  hose

    *ho identify *ith ,uther.s tea&hin$s are &a##ed ,utherans

    /is trans#ation of the 9ib#e  into the #an$ua$e of the "eo"#e (instead of ,atin) made it more a&&essib#e% &ausin$ a tremendous im"a&t on the &hur&h and on -erman &u#ture

  • 8/20/2019 All Writers and Poets

    2/106

  • 8/20/2019 All Writers and Poets

    3/106

    /e "resided over the Phi#ade#"hia onvention that drafted the Dnited @tates onstitution in 1+8+  be&ause of $enera# dissatisfa&tion *ith the !rties of onfederation ashin$ton be&ame President of the Dnited @tates in 1+8> and estab#ished many of the &ustoms and usa$es of the ne* $overnment.s ee&utive de"artment /e sou$ht to &reate a nation &a"ab#e of survivin$ in a *or#d torn asunder by *ar bet*een 9ritain and Fran&e /is uni#atera# Proamation of Neutra#ity  of 1+>3 "rovided a basis for avoidin$ any invo#vement in forei$n &onf#i&ts /e su""orted "#ans to bui#d a stron$ &entra# $overnment  by fundin$ the nationa# debt% im"#ementin$ an effe&tive ta

    system% and &reatin$ a nationa# ban  ashin$ton avoided the tem"tation of *ar and a de&ade of "ea&e *ith 9ritain be$an *ith the 'ay reaty in 1+>5K he used his "resti$e to $et it ratified over intense o""osition from the 'effersonians !#thou$h never offi&ia##y Loinin$ the Federa#ist Party% he su""orted its "ro$rams and *as its ins"irationa# #eader ashin$ton.s fare*e## address *as a  "rimer on re"ub#i&an virtue and a stern *arnin$ a$ainst "artisanshi"% se&tiona#ism% and invo#vement in forei$n *ars

    ashin$ton *as a*arded the very first on$ressiona# -o#d 7eda# *ith the hans of on$ress :8;

    ashin$ton died in 1+>>% and the funera# oration de#ivered by /enry ,ee stated that of a##

    !meri&ans% he *as Bfirst in *ar% first in "ea&e% and first in the hearts of his &ountrymenB :>;

     ashin$ton has been &onsistent#y raned by s&ho#ars as one of the $reatest D@ Presidents

    Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson (!"ri# 13% 1+43 – 'u#y 4% 186):; *as the third President of the Dnited @tates  (1801–180>)% the "rin&i"a# author of the Iearation of

  • 8/20/2019 All Writers and Poets

    4/106

    7aLor events durin$ his "residen&y inude the ,ouisiana Pur&hase (1803) and the ,e*is and #ar 2"edition (1804–1806)% as *e## as es&a#atin$ tensions *ith both 9ritain and Fran&e that #ed to *ar *ith 9ritain in 181% after he #eft offi&e

    !s a "o#iti&a# "hi#oso"her% 'efferson *as a man of the 2n#i$htenment and ne* many inte##e&tua# #eaders in 9ritain and Fran&e /e idea#ied the inde"endent yeoman farmer  as eem"#ar of re"ub#i&an virtues% distrusted &ities and finan&iers% and favored states. ri$hts and a stri&t#y #imited

    federa# $overnment 'efferson su""orted the se"aration of &hur&h and state :4;

     and *as the authorof the ir$inia @tatute for Re#i$ious Freedom (1++>% 1+86) /e *as the e"onym of 'effersonian demo&ra&y and the &ofounder and #eader of the Iemo&rati&ARe"ub#i&an Party% *hi&h dominated !meri&an "o#iti&s for 5 years 'efferson served as the *artime -overnor of ir$inia (1++>–  1+81)% first Dnited @tates @e&retary of @tate (1+8>–1+>3)% and se&ond i&e President (1+>+–  1801)

    !  "o#ymath% 'efferson a&hieved distin&tion as% amon$ other thin$s% a horti&u#turist% "o#iti&a# #eader% ar&hite&t% ar&haeo#o$ist% "a#eonto#o$ist% inventor% and founder of the Dniversity of ir$inia hen President 'ohn F =ennedy *e#&omed 4> Nobe# Prie *inners to the hite /ouse in 1>6 he said% B< thin this is the most etraordinary &o##e&tion of ta#ent and of human

    no*#ed$e that has ever been $athered to$ether at the hite /ouse – *ith the "ossib#e e&e"tionof *hen homas 'efferson dined a#oneB:5; o date% 'efferson is the on#y "resident to serve t*o fu## terms in offi&e *ithout vetoin$ a sin$#e bi## of on$ress 'efferson has been &onsistent#y raned by s&ho#ars as one of the $reatest of D@ "residents

    homas 'efferson *as born on !"ri# 13% 1+43:; into a fami#y ose#y re#ated to some of the most  "rominent individua#s in ir$inia% the third of ei$ht &hi#dren /is mother *as 'ane Rando#"h% dau$hter of

  • 8/20/2019 All Writers and Poets

    5/106

    o#taire *as one of severa# 2n#i$htenment fi$ures (a#on$ *ith 7ontesHuieu% 'ohn ,o&e% homas /obbes% and 'eanA'a&Hues Rousseau) *hose *ors and ideas inf#uen&ed im"ortant thiners of both the !meri&an and Fren&h Revo#utions

    he name Bo#taireB% *hi&h the author ado"ted in 1+18 both as a "en name and for dai#y use% :citation needed ; is an ana$ram on B AROVET LI %B the ,atinied s"e##in$ of his surname% !rouet% and the initia# #etters of the sobriHuet Ble jeuneB (Bthe youn$erB)  he name a#so e&hoes in reverse order 

    the sy##ab#es of the name of a fami#y &hMteau in the Poitou re$ionC B!irvau#tB he ado"tion of the name Bo#taireB fo##o*in$ his in&ar&eration at the 9asti##e is seen by many to mar o#taire.s forma# se"aration from his fami#y and his "ast

    Ri&hard /o#mes:4; su""orts this derivation of the name% but adds that a *riter su&h as o#taire *ou#d have intended it to a#so &onvey its &onnotations of s"eed and darin$ hese &ome from asso&iations *ith *ords su&h as BvoltigeB (a&robati&s on a tra"ee or horse)% Bvolte-aceB (a s"innin$ about to fa&e one.s enemies)% and BvolatileB (ori$ina##y% any *in$ed &reature) B!rouetB *as not a nob#e name fit for his $ro*in$ re"utation% es"e&ia##y $iven that name.s resonan&e *ith B! rouer B (Bfor thrashin$B) and Brou"B (a Bdebau&heeB)

    o#taire is no*n to have used at #east 1+8 se"arate "en names durin$ his #ifetime of *ritin

    he a"titude for Hui&% "er&e"tive% &uttin$% *itty and often s&athin$#y &riti&a# re"artee for *hi&h o#taire is no*n today made him hi$h#y un"o"u#ar *ith many of his &ontem"oraries% inudin$ mu&h of the Fren&h aristo&ra&y hese shar"Aton$ued retorts *ere res"onsib#e for o#taire.s ei#e from Fran&e% durin$ *hi&h he resided in 2n$#and

    !fter o#taire retorted to an insu#t $iven him by the youn$ Fren&h nob#eman heva#ier de Rohan in #ate 1+5% the aristo&rati& Rohan fami#y obtained a roya# lettre de cachet % an irrevo&ab#e and often arbitrary "ena# de&ree si$ned by the Fren&h =in$ (,ouis % in the time of o#taire) that *as often bou$ht by members of the *ea#thy nobi#ity to dis"ose of undesirab#es hey then used

    this *arrant to for&e o#taire first into im"risonment in the 9asti##e and then into ei#e *ithoutho#din$ a tria# or $ivin$ him an o""ortunity to defend himse#f :6; he in&ident mared the  be$innin$ of o#taire.s attem"ts to im"rove the Fren&h Ludi&ia# system

    o#taire.s ei#e in 2n$#and #asted over t*o years% and his e"erien&es there $reat#y inf#uen&ed many of his ideas he youn$ man *as im"ressed by 9ritain.s &onstitutiona# monar&hy  in &ontrast to the Fren&h abso#ute monar&hy% as *e## as the &ountry.s su""ort of the freedoms of  s"ee&h and re#i$ion /e *as a#so inf#uen&ed by severa# of the neoassi&a# *riters of the a$e% and deve#o"ed an interest in ear#ier 2n$#ish #iterature% es"e&ia##y the *ors of @haes"eare% sti## #itt#e no*n in &ontinenta# 2uro"e at the time Ies"ite "ointin$ out his deviations from neoassi&a# standards% o#taire sa* @haes"eare as an eam"#e Fren&h *riters mi$ht #oo u" to% sin&e drama

    in Fran&e% des"ite bein$ more "o#ished% #a&ed onAsta$e a&tion ,ater% ho*ever% as @haes"eare.sinf#uen&e *as bein$ in&reasin$#y fe#t in Fran&e% o#taire *ou#d endeavour to set a &ontrary eam"#e *ith his o*n "#ays% de&ryin$ *hat he &onsidered @haes"eare.s barbarities

    !fter a#most three years in ei#e% o#taire returned to Paris and "ub#ished his v

View more