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General Characteristics:Amaranth Family ( Greek Habit unfading, from the persistent -Usually herbs or suffrutescent shrubs, bracts and perianth) sometimes succulent; usually with concentric consists of annual or perennial, hermaphroditic, dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous herbs, vines, shrubs, or rarely trees.rings of vascular bundles
Stems are sometimes jointed or succulent leaves are simple, spiral or opposite, exstipulate, succulent, alternate or reduced in some taxa infloresence is of solitary flowers or a spike, panicle, cyme, or thryse, with bracts and bracteoles bristle-like and pigmented in some taxa
Showing alternate leaves
flowers are small, bisexual or unisexual, usually actinomorphic, hypogynous or rarely epihypogynous perianth is uniseriate (usually termed a calyx) stamens have generally the same number as the sepals and antisepalous, distinct or basally connate and forming a tube
Inflorescence Branch Androecium
inflorescence Top two flowers in two levels and uncinate bracts
top with flowers in one layer only and uncinate bracteoles
are longitudinal in dehiscence, dithecal or monothecal is unicarpellous or syncarpous, with a superior, rarely half-interior ovary and one locule are one to several
placentation is basal ovules are campylotropous or amphitropous, bitegmic nectaries are present in some, typically in annular disc fruit is a nutlet, berry, irregularly dehiscing capsule, or rarely a circumscissile capsule or multiple fruit seeds are mostly starchy-perispermous with curved embryo
Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Caryophyllales Family: Amaranthaceae
Species of Amaranthaceae belong to 163 plant genera. 7,717 scientific plant names of species rank for the family Amaranthaceae. Of these 1,825 are accepted species names.
The status of the 9,607 names (including infraspecific names) for the family Amaranthaceae recorded, are as follows:SPECIES NAMES ALL NAMES
Status Accepted Synonym unplaced unassessed
Total 1825 3320 320 2252
% 23.6% 43% 4.10% 29.20%
Total 2003 4975 322 2307
% 20.8% 51.8% 3.4% 23.7%
Achyranthes, Achyropsis, Acnida, Aerva, Allmania, Alternanthera, Amaranthus, Arthraerua, Blutaparon, Bosea, Brayulinea, Calicorema, Celosia, Centema, Centemopsis, Centrostachys, Chamissoa, Charpentiera, Chionothrix, Cyathula, Dasysphaera, Dasysphaera, Deeringia, Digera, Eriostylos, Froelichia, Gomphrena, Gossypianthus, Guilleminea, Hebanthe, Hemichroa (~ Chenopodiaceae), Henonia, Herbstia, Hermbstaedtia, Indobanalia, Irenella, Iresine, Kyphocarpa, Lagrezia, Leucosphaera , Lithophila, Lopriorea, Marcelliopsis, Mechowia, Nelsia, Neocentema, Nothosaerva, Nototrichium, Nyssanthes, Pandiaka, Pfaffia, Philoxerus, Pleuropetalum, Pleuropterantha, Polyrhabda, Pseudogomphrena, Pseudoplantago, Pseudosericocoma, Psilotrichopsis, Psilotrichum, Ptilotus, Pupalia, Quaternella, Rosifax, Saltia, Sericocoma, Sericocomopsis, Sericorema, Sericostachys, Siamosia, Stilbanthus, Tidestromia, Trichuriella, Volkensinia, Woehleria, Xerosiphon.
Almost all flowers of most species of Amaranthaceae producenectarand are insectpollinated, except for Genus
Amaranthus with about 50 species, whose flowers arewind pollinated and do not make nectar.
distributed worldwide, members common in some deserts, estuarine or alkaline regions, tropical areas and some temperate regions.
major threats to Amaranthaceae are habitat degradation and destruction by cattle and feral goats, competition with alien plant species, and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events like landslides and hurricanes.
Flower) Status: Extinct Avhyranthes mutica(Blunt Chaff Flower) Status: Critically Endangered Pop. trend: stable Achyranthes splendens(Round-leaved Chaff Flower) Status: Vulnerable Pop. trend: decreasing
Achyranthes splendens Also known as Maui Chaff Flower
talbotii Status: Vulnerable Pop. trend: decreasing Aerva microphylla Status: Least Concern Pop. trend: unknown Aerva revoluta Status: Least Concern Pop. trend: unknown
Alternanthera areschougii Status: Vulnerable Alternanthera corymbiformis Status: Vulnerable Alternanthera filifolia Status: Lower Risk/least concern Alternanthera flavicoma Status: Vulnerable Alternanthera galapagensis Status: Vulnerable Alternanthera grandis Status: Vulnerable
helleri Status: Vulnerable Alternanthera nesiotes Status: Endangered Alternanthera snodgrassii Status: Vulnerable Brown's Pigweed Amaranthus anderssoni Status: Data Deficient Amaranthus brownii (Brown's Pigweed) Status: Critically Endangered Pop. trend: unknown
Amaranthus furcatus Status: Data Deficient Amaranthus sclerantoides Status: Lower Risk/least concern Blutaparon rigidum Status: Extinct Cyathula fernando-poensis Status: Vulnerable Froelichia juncea Status: Vulnerable Froelichia nudicaulis Status: Vulnerable Irenella chrysotricha Status: Endangered Froelichia juncea
Iresine pedicellata Status: Vulnerable Lithophila radicata Status: Lower Risk/near threatened Lithophila subscaposa Status: Vulnerable Pleuropetalum darwinii Status: Vulnerable Psilotrichum aphyllum Status: Endangered Psilotrichum axilliflorum Status: Vulnerable
Alternanthera tenella, joy weed
Amaranthus spinosus, spiny amaranth.
Celosia argentea, cockscomb.
Charpentiera tomentosa, papala.
leaves and/ or roots of a few species, such as Beta vulgaris (beet, Swiss chard), Chenopodium spp. ( lambs quarters, goosefoot), and Amaranthus spp. (pigweed) are eaten.
Beta vulgaris ( Beet, Swiss chard)
Spinaceae oleracea ( spinach )
Amaranthus spp. Chenopodium sp.
seeds of several South American species of Chenopodium and Amaranthus are used to make flour. family includes a few ornamentals, including Celosia (cockscomb), Gomphrena (globe Amaranth), and Iresine (bloodleaf).
Celosia sp. (cockscomb)
Gomphrena sp. (Globe amaranth)
Ex Situ : Amaranthaceae
propagated at the National Tropical Botanic Gardens where, in 1997, more than hundreds of seeds were in storage and about plants were in cultivation.
In situ A fence constructed by one landowner proved successful in protecting one plant from grazing cattle in an a certain area. The construction of additional exclosures is recommended to reduce the impact from domestic cattle and feral goats. Removal of cattle to locations away from the preferred habitat of the Amaranthaceae is recommended, as are various methods of feral goat/cattle removal.