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AMERICAN BEGINNINGS. Journal. September 6, 2013—What does it mean to be a slave? . Background on Slavery in America. Slave trade in English settlements began in 1619 when 20 slaves arrived in Jamestown via Dutch ship. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



AMERICAN BEGINNINGSSeptember 6, 2013What does it mean to be a slave? JournalSlave trade in English settlements began in 1619 when 20 slaves arrived in Jamestown via Dutch ship.Spain and Portugal already practice slavery, but Englands use didnt grow until 1670s.Most slaves came from W. African coast.Those taken as slaves were primarily wartime captives, criminals sentences to enslavement, or debtors. Background on Slavery in AmericaThe Atlantic crossing, known as the middle passage, was atrocious.For six to ten weeks, Africans were chained below decks in cramped, confining spaces. Overcrowding, disease, and despair claimed many lives. The Slave Trade Olaudah Equiano

According to his autobiography, Equiano was born a chiefs son of the Ibo (or Igbo) culture of present-day Nigeria. Captured and sold as a slave to a series of African masters before making the journey to America on the Middle Passage.Sold in the West Indies to a British Navy officer, Michael Pascal, who renamed Equiano as Gustavus Vassa. Equianos BackgroundEquiano spent years fighting for Britain in hopes of being freed for good service. Sold again in 1762 to a Quaker merchant, Robert King, who trained him in business.In 1766, after 21 years as a slave, Equiano bought his freedom, moved to London, and started a business career. By 1773, he was at sea again, first to find a northwest passage, and later traveling the Central America and Turkey.Equianos BackgroundIn the late 1770s, Equiano returned to London and became involved in anti-slavery efforts and converted to Christianity. When the debate over abolishing slavery came to Britain in 1789, Equiano wrote, self-published, and promoted his narrative. His narrative exposed the cruelty of the slave trade.He died in 1797, only ten years before Britain abolished the slave trade. Turning PointsEquianos narrative contains many details, most of which can be supported by other sources. In 1999, English professor Vincent Carretta uncovered two documents that suggested Equiano was not born in AfricaHis baptismal record from EnglandA Ships passenger listBoth identify Equianos birthplace as South Carolina!A Closer LookHistorians continue to debate the evidence and how it may change the value of The Interesting Narrative. Carretta points out that even if the narrative is based on oral accounts from other slaves, the descriptions still provide a valuable portrait of early African life and the Middle Passage. Slave Narrativethe life stories of people who survived slavery.Portrays the culture shock of a newly captured AfricanFocuses criticism on slave traders, not slave ownersIncludes religious and moral appeals against slavery

Literary TermMostly American and European abolitionists.Immediate purpose was to influence British political leaders who were debating the slave trade issue.

Equianos AudienceBackground of the narrative: Tensions were high in the Massachusetts Bay Colony at the end of the seventeenth century.Relationships between Native Americans (Wampanoag) and Europeans had broken down. Colonial troops began driving the Wampanoag from their land. Cut off from food they stored for snowy months.In desperate need of suppliesAngered by prior attack on WampanoagMrs. Mary Rowlandson40-year-old wife of a minister.Watched feud carry on around their house.Twenty colonists were killed and twenty-four were taken captive, including Rowlandson and her son and daughter. Who was Mrs. Mary Rowlandson?Rowlandson was held captive for three months before being ransomed back to her husband. After their release, she wrote an account of her captivity. First American bestseller written by a woman. Spawned many imitations that claimed to be true, even though they were largely fictional.

Rowlandsons books offered a one-sided and negative view of the Native American; however, her observations helped explain Indian culture to colonists. Much of her story concerned details of the Indians struggle for survival.

Impact of the NarrativeWhat are the important events that take place in the excerpt?What did you learn about the Native Americans?What did you learn about Mary? Any additional important informationOlaudah Equiano & Mrs. Mary Rowlandson worksheetdue Tuesday, September 10th!

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