An assistive computerized learning environment for distance learning students with learning disabilities
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Open Learning: The Journal of Open,Distance and e-LearningPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/copl20
An assistive computerized learningenvironment for distance learningstudents with learning disabilitiesJoel Klemes a , Alit Epstein a , Michal Zuker a , Nira Grinberg a &Tamar Ilovitch aa The Open University of Israel , IsraelPublished online: 23 Jan 2007.
To cite this article: Joel Klemes , Alit Epstein , Michal Zuker , Nira Grinberg & Tamar Ilovitch(2006) An assistive computerized learning environment for distance learning students with learningdisabilities, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 21:1, 19-32
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Open LearningVol. 21, No. 1, February 2006, pp. 1932
ISSN 02680513 (print)/ISSN 14699958 (online)/06/01001914 2006 The Open UniversityDOI: 10.1080/02680510500468062
An assistive computerized learning environment for distance learning students with learning disabilitiesJoel Klemes*, Alit Epstein, Michal Zuker, Nira Grinberg and Tamar IlovitchThe Open University of Israel, IsraelTaylor and Francis LtdCOPL_A_146789.sgm10.1080/02680510500468062Open Learning0268-0513 (print)/1469-9958 (online)Original Article2006Taylor & Francis211000000February 2006JoelKlemesjoelkl@openu.ac.il
The current study examines how a computerized learning environment assists students with learn-ing disabilities (LD) enrolled in a distance learning course at the Open University of Israel. Thetechnology provides computer display of the text, synchronized with auditory output and accompa-nied by additional computerized study skill tools which support learning. Since the technology isnot based on language-specific synthetic voice output, it can be operated in any language. Theresults of the study suggest that the assistive technology tested in this study is highly beneficial tostudents with LD who are studying from a distance. The prospects of its implementation forstudents with LD in distance learning academic institutions, at a time when their number in theseinstitutions is increasing, are discussed.
Keywords: Computerized learning environment; Distance learning; Learning disability; Text-to-speech
According to most definitions, learning disabilities (LD) are a group of disorders thataffect the ability to acquire or use listening, speaking, concentrating, reading, writ-ing, reasoning or math skills (Gerber & Reiff, 1994; National Institute for Literacy,1995). In the second half of the twentieth century, and particularly during the 1990s,special attention and efforts were devoted to research and treatment relating to chil-dren and adults with one or more of these disabilities. During this period, remarkableadvances were also made in the field of digital technology. As a consequence of therecruitment of new technology to LD research and treatment, a body of evidence was
*Corresponding author. The Open University of Israel, 108 Ravutski Street, PO Box 808, Raanana,Israel 43107. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
20 J. Klemes et al.
accumulated during this time that indicated that assistive technologies, primarily inthe areas of computer hardware and software, can help students overcome variouskinds and degrees of LD, and provide new opportunities for this population (Elkindet al., 1996; Day & Edwards, 1996; Elkind, 1998; Lewis, 1998; Raskind & Higgins,1998; Lewis, 2000; Maccini et al., 2002; Mull & Sitlington, 2003). The increasedavailability of computers and other assistive technologies, coupled with new legisla-tion related to students with LD in the UK, the US and elsewhere (Day & Edwards,1996; Bryant & Seay, 1998; Raskind & Higgins, 1998) has had a remarkable effecton the number of students with LD in institutions of higher education. For example,between 1988 and 2000, the percentage of students with learning disabilities amongstudents with any disability enrolled in US colleges more than doubled, and reached40% (Henderson, 2001).
Other developments which occurred during the second half of the twentiethcentury were the rapid increase in the number of academic distance learning institu-tions, as well as the tendency to replace face-to-face lectures in colleges, universitiesand corporate training with distance learning courses. Together with the rise in thenumber of college students with LD in traditional colleges and universities, therewas also a significant increase in the number of students with LD in distance learn-ing institutions. For example, at the Open University of Israel (OUI), a distancelearning university where the present study was conducted, the percentage ofstudents with LD in the total population of students grew from 1.08% in 19941995 to 5% in 20012002, of a total enrolment of 32,000 students (Heiman &Precel, 2003).
However, the number of students with LD in institutions of higher education isstill far smaller than the number of people with LD in the general population, whichis 5% to 20%, according to the definition of learning disability used in varioussurveys (Gerber & Reiff, 1994; Gadbow & DuBois, 1998). For example, thepercentage of students with LD in US colleges in 2000 was only 2.4% (Henderson,2001). Moreover, a study which examined postsecondary school attendance andcollege completion rate indicated that students with LD were less likely to attendcolleges or to graduate than their peers without LD (Murray et al., 2000). Anotherstudy indicated that only 14% of students with learning disabilities in the US(compared to 53% of students in the general population) attended a postsecondaryschool program within two years of leaving high school (Blackorby & Wagner,1996).
Teaching in distance learning courses is mainly text-centered rather than face-to-face. For students with print-related learning problems, reading might be slow andnot fluent, and the difficulties in learning that distance learners with LD face areintensified. One of the technologies developed to overcome students reading diffi-culties is computer programs that provide synthetic speech output, synchronizedwith text. Several such programs are commercially available (ReadPlease, AT&TNatural Voices Text-to-Speech Engine, Kurzweill 3000, WYNN, Screen-Reader and others). It is assumed that the benefit of text-to-speech computerprograms stems from the presentation of the text through both visual and auditory
An assistive computerized learning environment 21
channels (Hecker et al., 2002). Some of the commercial assistive software, such asthe Kurzweill 3000, includes, in addition, digital study tools which aim to supportlearning.
The majority of the studies that illustrate the effectiveness of text-to-speech tech-nology for people with LD focus on students in conventional face-to-face institutes.To the best of our knowledge, the benefits of assistive technologies for adult highereducation students with LD who study from a distance have not been studied.Therefore, we decided to examine whether a learning environment that providescomputer display of the text, synchronized with auditory output and accompaniedby additional computerized assistive applications, contributes to the learningprocess of students with LD studying from a distance. We conducted our studywith students who are enrolled in a distance learning course at the OUI. The OUIis a distance learning university, fully accredited by the Israeli Council for HigherEducation, which in 2003 served 36,000 undergraduate and graduate students invarious fields of knowledge. Unlike most other academic insti