an concepts and principles

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Concepts, Principles & Applications Palayamanan: Diversified Integrated Rice-Based Farming Systems Rizal G. Corales Supervising Science Research Specialist Agronomy, Soils & Plant Physiology Division PhilRice, Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija

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Page 1: an Concepts and Principles

Concepts, Principles & Applications

Palayamanan: Diversified Integrated Rice-Based

Farming Systems

Rizal G. CoralesSupervising Science Research SpecialistAgronomy, Soils & Plant Physiology DivisionPhilRice, Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva [email protected]; [email protected];

Page 2: an Concepts and Principles

What is Palayamanan?What is Palayamanan?

Kayamanan

Palay

• Synergistic mix of farming enterprises • Implemented by the farm family • Depending on their resources• Based on the existing environments • Attainment of family goals and aspirations

• Synergistic mix of farming enterprises • Implemented by the farm family • Depending on their resources• Based on the existing environments • Attainment of family goals and aspirations

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PalayamananPalayamanan

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Revival of “Bahay Kubo” Concept

PalayamananPalayamanan

Uplifting it from subsistence to Entrepreneurial Level

Giving it with a new TWIST

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Palayamanan…Palayamanan…

With Palayamanan, the farm is not just rice. It is about food security,

livelihood and empowering farmers to become better decision makers

Palayamanan blends the right mix of farm components like crops, trees, livestock & fish, and the integration of waste management to fully utilize the resources and maximize the benefits that can be generated from the farm

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IIncreased cropping intensity,

productivity, profitability &

economic stability

Principle of Principle of PalayamananPalayamanan Enhance

biodiversity & ecological balance

RReduce prod’n risks

CContinuous food supply

HHigher income & profit

CROPS

020,00040,00060,00080,000

100,000120,000

2002 2003 2004

Pe

so

s

gross income expenses net income

ANIMALS

020,00040,00060,00080,000

100,000120,000140,000

2002 2003 2004

Pe

so

s

gross income expenses net income

“BE RICHBE RICH”

Better resource allocation

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PALAyamanAN

HalamanANPaghahayupAN

PalaisdahANKakahuyAN

Iba pang PangkabuhayAN

PALAPALA

KAYAMANANKAYAMANAN

KABUHAYANKABUHAYAN

KAALAMANKAALAMAN

Hard workHard work

Knowledge & SkillsKnowledge & Skills

Prosperity

Farming venturesFarming ventures

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Inter-conectivity of the farm components

Inter-conectivity of the farm components

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1 Crop Production

RICE

CASH CROPS

VEGETABLES

HIGH VALUE CROPS

PALAYAMANAN Components & Strategies

PALAYAMANAN Components & Strategies

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Strategies for Crop Diversification

Relay/Sequential cropping

Simultaneous cropping

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Strategies for Crop Production

Rain shelters

High-value vegetables

Off-season

Continuous cropping

Permanent beds

Popular varieties

Aromatic

Special purpose

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Cost efficient practices for upland crop production

Permanent beds Organic fertilizer Mulching

Mixed crops

Microbials

Fruit wrapping

Botanicals

Pyramid trellis

Controlled irrigation

Cover plants

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MANOK

2 Livestock Production

BAKA/KALABAW

KAMBING/TUPA BIBI/PATOBABOY

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DUCKS

CHICKENGRAZING

GOATS

COWS

PIGSCHICKENS

Legend

Fence area

Shade area

Figure 1. Layout of the multi-animal single roof shed.

Multi-Animal Single Roof System

Area: 50m2

CompactEasy to maintain

Organic fertilizer generator

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Cost efficient practices for animal production

Automatic waterer/Feeder

Feed supplement

Cut and CarryFree range

Microbial inoculantGrazing

Mulch beddings

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3 Aquaculture

Fish-Snail/Clam culture

Crab fattening

Fish culture

Shrimp culture

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Strategies for Aquaculture

Rice-Fish Pond refuge Rice-Gabi-Fish Pond refuge

Fish cage Fish pondSFR

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4 Fruit & Forest Tree Production

Forest trees

Fruit trees

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5 Other Farming Ventures

Food Processing

Vermi-composting

Plant propagation

Marketing

Bio-based Products

Mushroom culture

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6 Biomass Recovery System

Composting

Fermented kitchen garbage

Residue Incorporation

In situ composting

Organic fertilizer production

MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY

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Criteria in Establishing a Palayamanan Food Plan

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• It must be simple and manageable• It must supply the family’s minimal dietary requirements•It must provide economic incentive, so that income will, at a minimum, meet the family’s basic needs•It must be labor intensive and provide meaningful employment and involvement for the farm family.•All the components of the food production strategy must be complementary and integrated.

• It must be simple and manageable• It must supply the family’s minimal dietary requirements•It must provide economic incentive, so that income will, at a minimum, meet the family’s basic needs•It must be labor intensive and provide meaningful employment and involvement for the farm family.•All the components of the food production strategy must be complementary and integrated.

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Considerations in Selecting the Palayamanan Components

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• Grain crops should be main food for both human & livestock & adaptable to the locality

• Small livestock may include poultry, rabbits, goat, pigs, and other animals adopted to the region. The animals provide the family with a constant supply of quality protein, Vitamin B12, and other vitamins and available minerals.

• A food legume such as dry beans, pigeon pea, cowpea, soy beans to provide additional protein base for human diet & livestock.

• Vegetable garden to provide minerals and vitamins (particularly vitamin A & C)

• Revenue source either food or non-food or livestock solely for cash purposes. This creates some of the income for the family and become an economic driver of the Palayamanan.

• Grain crops should be main food for both human & livestock & adaptable to the locality

• Small livestock may include poultry, rabbits, goat, pigs, and other animals adopted to the region. The animals provide the family with a constant supply of quality protein, Vitamin B12, and other vitamins and available minerals.

• A food legume such as dry beans, pigeon pea, cowpea, soy beans to provide additional protein base for human diet & livestock.

• Vegetable garden to provide minerals and vitamins (particularly vitamin A & C)

• Revenue source either food or non-food or livestock solely for cash purposes. This creates some of the income for the family and become an economic driver of the Palayamanan.

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Palayamanan Farm Model

• Homestead• Diversified Integrated Farming Systems

Components

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2438.481 48

23.6

7841.1

31.112

38 38

10

456 1181.8

1616.4

1651.6

51

10495

Vegetable Area

Fis

h P

on

d

Ric

e +

Du

ck

Fish Pond

Rice + Fish

Rice Production Area

Residential Area411

Motor pool

PalayCheck System

12.5

50.2

32.2

32.9

7424.53159.1

Fish pond

Vegetable garden

Road

NIA canal

Drainage canalIrrigation canal

Rice area

Livestock

Kubo

Trees

Legend

N

PALAYAMANAN NORTH MODEL FARM DESIGN

AREA: 18,338.8 m2

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Considerations in Establishing Palayamanan Model Farm

Careful planning and prioritization• existing conditions• family resources

Careful planning and prioritization• existing conditions• family resources

Biological diversity of farm components• interconnectivity• harvest security• nutritional balance• economic stability• sustainability

Biological diversity of farm components• interconnectivity• harvest security• nutritional balance• economic stability• sustainability

Each model is unique• no replica• depends on local factors • resources of the farm family

Each model is unique• no replica• depends on local factors • resources of the farm family

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Factors to consider

LandscapeLandscape

Soil TypeSoil TypeSecuritySecurity

LaborLabor

MarketMarket

Crop suitabilityCrop suitability

CapitalCapital

Water ResourcesWater Resources

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PALAYAMANAN Village Model

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• Diversification in a Village context

• Give more freedom for farm families to choose farm enterprises that they can integrate to their farming systems

• Encourage participation of more farm families

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Palayamanan Domain

Unfavorable or Food Insecure Areas

• Rainfed lowland • Upland areas • Areas with partial irrigation or tail

end of irrigation systems • Saline prone areas • Cool-elevated areas• Fusion of irrigated and rainfed

lowland or upland areas• Indigenous people territories• Insurgency rehabilitation areas

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To transform rice-based farming systems domains into economically productive, competitive and sustainable agricultural systems … Agribusiness Enterprises

To transform rice-based farming systems domains into economically productive, competitive and sustainable agricultural systems … Agribusiness Enterprises

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GoalGoal

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Framework & Scheme

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Social Mobilization

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• Provide information to local partners

• Assess willingness and commitments of local partners

Technical Briefing

Site Validation• Technical feasibility &

representativeness• Accessibility & Visibility

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Process of ImplementationProcess of Implementation

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Pilot

Village

Model

Municipal

Level

Provincial

LevelOut &

Up

scaling

Private

Institutio

ns

Mobilizatio

n

Execution of Memorandum of Agreement (MOA)

Other

Government

Institutio

ns

SUCs

PHILRICE

Pooling and sharing of resources

Efficient delivery of services

Sense of ownership

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M/P Local

Government

Units

Farmers &

Civic

Organizations

Forge partnerships and linkages

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Conduct Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

• FGD

• PNOA

• SWOT Analysis

Conduct Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

• FGD

• PNOA

• SWOT Analysis

Identify resources, opportunities, and problems

Identify interventions

Basis for impact assessment

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Mapping (Transect map, Resource map, GIS map)

Mapping (Transect map, Resource map, GIS map)

Secondary Data (Barangay/Municipal Profile)Secondary Data (Barangay/Municipal Profile)

InterviewInterview

Benchmark Data Gathering

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Increase number of farmer partners over time as more FFS will be conducted

Increase number of farmer partners over time as more FFS will be conducted

Farmer Leaders can be trained and serve as FFS Facilitators

Farmer Leaders can be trained and serve as FFS Facilitators

> 100 Farmer Partners in 2 years3025

15 Core Farmers

1 Palayamanan Model Farm

Conduct PTDsFFS

FFS

FFS

FFS

Farmer Partners

Farmer Leaders

FFS

OUTSCALING

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Selection of Farmer Partners

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Planning workshopPlanning workshop

Project ReviewProject Review

• Develop work plan

• Assess progress

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Participatory Planning & Assessment

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Improve technical and managerial skills

Change attitude Better decision making

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Capacity Enhancement

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Farmers’ Field SchoolFarmers’ Field School

Learning field

AESA

Info process

Critical evaluation

Experiential & Discovery-Based Learning Process

Enlist 25-30 Farmer-partners Weekly half-day learning Field as a learning material Response to what is happening Share of experiences Based from what farmers want &

needs Discover, evaluate and

understand

Capacity Enhancement

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Support SystemSupport System

School on the Air Program Training, Seminars Field Days Field Walks, Techno Klinik Cross Visits Farmers’ Congress, Fora Dap-ayan ICT, Text Center

Capacity Enhancement

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Page 39: an Concepts and Principles

Participatory Technology Development (PTDs)

Participatory Technology Development (PTDs)

Develop location specific technologies & farming models

Serve as Learning Fields for FFS

Promote only technologies adaptable to the local condition based on PTD results

Promote only technologies adaptable to the local condition based on PTD results

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Enterprise Development

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Ragiwdiw Handicraft

Sea grass a prevalent weeds in rice areas Sea grass as raw materials for handicraft Before the monthly income was

P10,500/month Braids bought at P0.60/m. Daily income

of P120.00/individual Assistance from DA-BES, PhilRice, DTI The business now has P

50,000.00/month income Source of additional income from more

than 100 households

Bibiron, San Fernando, Camarines SurBibiron, San Fernando, Camarines Sur

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Coccina de Palayamanan

Partners: DA-BES, LGU, PhilRice & DTI

80 housewives ; 20 engaged in production

Bicol recipes such as bicol express, laing, sweet potato cookies, vegetable pickles, atsara, salted eggs, pulvoron, cassava cookies, yema and salabat

Additional income: P900.00-P1,500.00/month

Poblacion, San Fernando, Camarines SurPoblacion, San Fernando, Camarines Sur

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Institutional Infrastructure

Community Seed BankCommunity Seed Bank

Planting Materials

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• Source of plant & animal stocks

• Income generating activity

• Learning center

• Demo-Farm

Establishment of On-Station & In-Campus Palayamanan Model Farms

Establishment of On-Station & In-Campus Palayamanan Model Farms

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Community Seed Banks

CSU, Sanchez Mira CagayanISU, Roxas, IsabelaISU, Echague, IsabelaCVIARC, Ilagan, IsabelaPhilRice, San Mateo, IsabelaISCAF, Lamut, IfugaoCLSU, Munoz, Nueva EcijaPhilRice, Maligaya, Munoz, Nueva

EcijaNEUST, Gabaldon, Nueva EcijaTCA, Camiling, TarlacSPES, San Pascual, Tarlac CityBASC, San Ildefonso BulacanPAC, Magalang, PampangaBPSU, Abucay, BataanRMTU, San Marcelino, ZambalesRMTU, Botolan, Zambales

Camp Martillana, Pili, Camarines SurBES/BIARC, Pili, Camarines SurSDF, Sorsogon City, SorsogonEVIARC, Babatngon, LeyteCCJ, Calbayog City, Northern SamarDA-ROS, San Jorge, Northern SamarCapSU, CapizWESVIARC, Jaro, IloiloNESCA, Cauayan, Negros OccidentalPhilRice, Murcia, Negros OccidentalPhilRice, RTR, Agusan del NorteUSM, Cabacan, North CotabatoPhilRice, Midsayap, North Cotabato

30 Palayamanan Model Farms established30 Palayamanan Model Farms established

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Financing Scheme

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Ensure the sustainability of the activities beyond the project span

Roll over seed fund to increase the number of farmer partners

Roll over seed fund to increase the number of farmer partners

Eliminate the “dole-out” mentality

Eliminate the “dole-out” mentality

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Capital Build-up

Loan Assistance

Technical Assistance

Capital Roll-over & Build-up Scheme

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• Assess progress

• Provide technical assistance

• Direction and guidance

Regional Meetings

Regional Meetings

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Monitoring & Evaluation

Consultation

Consultation

Field Monitoring

Field Monitoring

Resource person

Resource person

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Forum/Congress

Consultation Meetings

• Gather information on the performance of technologies

• Enhance promotion or commercialization or technologies

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Feedback Mechanism

Field day

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Several Palayamanan Models

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Kinalangay Nuevo, Malinao, AklanKinalangay Nuevo, Malinao, Aklan

Rice Production: 3.05t/ha (1.0t/ha increase) Vegetable production: P20,000.00 Livestock: P5,000.00 Dispersal program: swine (25 recipients);

Darag Chicken (35 recipients) & tilapia (5 recipients)

Palayamanan Village Model was adopted by Aklan State University as “Social Laboratory”

14 students of ASU conducted thesis, practicum for other students

Palayamanan for Rainfed

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Rice + Vegetable + Livestock System

Rice + Vegetable + Livestock System

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Palayamanan Model for Upland

Integrated Farming Model Farm (Dry Season, 2008)_______________________________________________Capital Amount (P) Land Preparation 1, 320.00 Farm Inputs (Fertilizer) 600.00Yield Sweet Corn (109 kls@35/kl) 3, 815.00 Cucumber (51 kls@20/kl) 1, 020.00 Upland Rice (1.5 tons) 27, 000.00Profit 29, 115.00________________________________________________

Note: Poultry component is on going. (100 heads)

Agdanganan, Baao, Camarines SurAgdanganan, Baao, Camarines Sur

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Diversified Upland Crops + Livestock System

Diversified Upland Crops + Livestock System

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Palayamanan in Saline-prone AreasCamanhagay, San Sebastian, SamarCamanhagay, San Sebastian, Samar

Component Yield

(kg)

Gross Income

(P)

Expenses

(P)

Net Income

(P)

Crops

Rice 2,400.00 19,800.00 8,659.17 11,140.83

Vegetables

Coconut

11,681.03

393.33

148,247.13

7,303.33

94,965.00

1,133.33

53,281.61

6,170.00

Sub total

Livestock

Swine

Chicken

Turkey

Sub total

GRAND TOTAL:

14,474.36

3 heads

10 heads

5 heads

175,350.46

16,000.00

1,500.00

1,500.00

19,000.00

194,350.46

104,758.02

7,978.50

854.25

936.75

9,769.50

114,527.52

70,592.44

8,021.15

645.75

563.25

9,230.15

79,822.59

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Rice + Vegetables + Livestock SystemRice + Vegetables + Livestock System

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Bibiron, San Fernando, Camarines SurBibiron, San Fernando, Camarines Sur

Rice : PSB Rc84, 86, 88; average yield 4.5t/ha

Vegetable : Food + P800/wk Fish : Golden apple snail feed

supplement; 2,500 stock, Net income P18,000.00

Duck : 200 heads; 150 eggs/day; Income P 5,000.00/wk

Palayamanan for Flood-prone

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Rice+Vegetable+Livestock/Fish System

Rice+Vegetable+Livestock/Fish System

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• Mr. Ambatang earned average P500/week from vegetables, 5 initial duck stocks now 67 heads; income from eggs P200/wk.

• Pstr. Soriano seed produced and multiplied his vegetables and are now planted in the barangay and Church gardens

• Mr. Andingil is selling duck at P100/kg; eggs at P4 each (eggs & ducks produced about P17,000 in 5 months)

• Bucks dispersed are now used to breed with native does in the barangay

Palayamanan Model in Flood-prone Areas

Cuyapon, Kabakan, North CotabatoCuyapon, Kabakan, North Cotabato

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Rice+Livestock+Vegetable System

Rice+Livestock+Vegetable System

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San Pascual Elementary School, Tarlac City, TarlacSan Pascual Elementary School, Tarlac City, Tarlac

Learning center for school childrenSupport the Feeding ProgramChildren to establish vegetable home

gardens

Food ProductionRice 4,500m2 2,500 kg 26,000.00

Squash 300m2 3.0 kg 90.00

Okra 7.0 kg 175.00

Eggplant 5.0 kg 150.00

Ampalaya 5.0 kg 150.00

Sili 2.0 kg 50.00

Total P 26,615.00

Palayamanan sa Paaralan

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Waste Management cum Food Production System

Waste Management cum Food Production System

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Calbayog City Jail, Calbayog City, Northern SamarCalbayog City Jail, Calbayog City, Northern Samar

Production systemRice Seed Production (0.50) 62 bags P55,000.00

Hybrid Rice 7.2t P40,000.00

Vegetable Assorted 6,432.00

Tilapia 103kg 6,180.00

Chicken 38 heads

90eggs

Pineapple just planted

Total P113,612.00

15 attended FFS rice; 25 FFS vegetable6 hours/day out of cellFood supply & extra incomeOutstanding warden & AT

Palayamanan sa Bilanguan

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Food Plan and Livelihood System

Food Plan and Livelihood System

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Lidong, Polangui, AlbayLidong, Polangui, Albay

Military FFS on rice productionLead implementer of PalayamananEstablished Palayamanan Model Farm inside

military camp (For food & support villages)Learning center for soldiers

Variety Trial: PSB Rc3 (2.11 t), Rc5 (3.15t), Rc7 (3.08t), NSIC Rc9 (4.17t), Rc11 (4.01t), Basmati (4.55t)

Basmati Production: 17 farmers, Average Income: P65,000.00/ha

Vegetable Production: Home consumption

Palayamanan in Insurgency Rehabilitation Areas

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Reconnaissance and Development ProgramReconnaissance and Development Program

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Inug-ug, Pagulungan, Maguindanao

Inug-ug, Pagulungan, Maguindanao

Palayamanan in Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)

Food For Peace ProgramFood For Peace Program

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• Communal Vegetable Production: Communal Vegetable Production: Income used for weekly “Pahina” Income used for weekly “Pahina”

• Backyard Vegetable Production: For Backyard Vegetable Production: For family consumptionfamily consumption

• Backyard Animal Production: Duck Backyard Animal Production: Duck eggs used for family consumptioneggs used for family consumption

Palayamanan for Indigenous People

Upian, DavaoUpian, Davao

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Community Food Plan

Community Food Plan

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A new day… A new hope begins

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A new day… A new hope begins

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Saganang Pagkain Po!