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  • An Ontology based

    approach for sharing

    distributed Educational

    ResourcesAuthors: Heitor Barros, Jonathas Magalhes and Evandro Costa

    heitor.barros@copin.ufcg.edu.br

  • Outline

    Educational Resources on the Web

    Problem: Repositories integration

    Our proposal

    Overview

    Integration Ontology

    Illustrative scenario

    Future work

    Conclusion

  • Educational Resources on the Web

    Educational resources are widely available on the Web.

    They can be found in different formats.

    Text documents;

    Videos;

    Applications;

    Blogs;

  • Educational Resources on the Web

    Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative.

    Free access.

    Open license.

    This trend has led to the development of many OER Repositories.

    Wikieducator.org -> 64 repositories.

    OER Quality Project -> 98 repositories.

    1 -> http://wikieducator.org/Exemplary_Collection_of_Open_eLearning_Content_Repositories2 -> http://oerqualityproject.wordpress.com/2012/10/22/directory-of-oer-repositories

  • Educational Resources on the Web

    However, these repositories were not designed to communicate with each other.

    Lack of integration.

    Users need to navigate over these repositories using different interfaces and websites in their searches.

    Users prefer generic search engines.[1]

    Google, Bing, Yahoo.

  • Problem: Repositories integration

    Repositories integration:

    Different metadata schemas.

    Heterogeneous software plataforms.

    Different courses structures.

  • Related Work

    Metadata patterns

    IEEE LOM[2]

    LRMI[3]

    SCORM[4]

    Linked Data

    Vidal et al.[5]

    Yu et al.[6]

    Piedra et al.[7]

    Ontologies

    www.linkedlifedata.com

    www.organic-edunet.eu

    www.meducator.net

  • Our proposal

    Create an Ontology based approach to integrateEducational Resources on the Web.

    Not just put resources together, but integrate them.

    Define relationships between resources.

  • Our proposal

    Overview

  • Our proposal

    Integration Ontology

    Integration Ontolgy is based on Mathemas[8] pedagogical model.

    Organizes resources into Pedagogical Units (topics).

    Defines relationships according to Pedagocial units.

    It was created in OWL Language (http://www.w3.org/2004/OWL/).

    Designed with Protg Owl editor (protege.stanford.edu/).

  • Integration Ontology

    Course

    Model

    Course Model defines the

    pedagogical units of a

    discipline in a structured

    way (Hierarchical and

    Sequencing structures).

  • Integration Ontology

    Course

    Model

    Domain

    belongs_to

  • Integration Ontology

    Course

    Model

    Domain

    belongs_to

    Topic 2

    Topic 1

    Topic 3

    Topic N

    ...

    has_topichas_topic

    has_topic

    has_topic

  • Integration Ontology

    Course

    Model

    Topic 2

    Topic 1

    Topic 3

    Topic N

    ...

    has_topichas_topic

    has_topic

    has_topic

    Educational Resources

  • Integration Ontology

    Property: parent_of

    This property specifies thehierarchical structure. It

    defines that the former

    Topic is a generalization

    of the other one.

    The second Topic is asub-topic of the first one.

    Polygons

    TrianglesPenta-

    gons

    Parent_of

    Quadrila-

    terals

    Parent_ofParent_of

  • Integration Ontology

    Property: next

    This property specifies thesequencing structure. It

    defines that the content

    of second Topic is

    subsequent to the first.

    Polygons

    TrianglesPenta-

    gons

    Next

    Quadrila-

    terals

    NextNext

  • TopicsTopics

    Integration Ontology

    Mapping Course Models.

    Property: Equivalent.

    TriangleTriangleEquivalent

    Course

    Model A

    Course

    Model B

  • TopicsTopics

    Integration Ontology

    Mapping Course Models

    Property: Specialized_by

    Triangle

    Right

    TriangleSpecialized_by

    Course

    Model A

    Course

    Model B

  • TopicsTopics

    Integration Ontology

    Mapping Course Models.

    Property: Precedes.

    Polygon

    Polyhe-

    dronsPrecedes

    Course

    Model A

    Course

    Model B

  • Computer Networks Example

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

    Individual:

    Types:

    Facts:

    ,

    ,

    ,

  • Computer Networks Example

  • Computer Networks Example

    Results for: topic_Tanembaum_Applicationhttp://ot.loom.opentapestry.com/view/VW7H2iL7SDKTx_NUpMREAg

    http://youtu.be/RAmyf9heMA0

    https://tao.truststc.org/Members/jmitchell/computer_and_network_security/Public%20resources/lecture_12

    Results from equivalent Topics:

    http://www.techopedia.com/definition/6006/application-layer topic_Kurose_Application

    http://ot.loom.opentapestry.com/view/SJmk2V2OR4ywen9-zrh0XQ topic_Kurose_Application

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_layer topic_Kurose_Application

  • Future Work

    Integration System development (In progress).

    Further evaluation of Integration Ontology.

    Development of tools to assist the annotation ofEducational Resources.

  • Conclusion

    Despite the large number of educational repositories, it is still necessary to build mechanisms of integration.

    This work proposes an Ontology based approach tointegrate Educational Resources.

    Preliminary results show that the Integration Ontology is a promising approach.

  • References1. C. Dichev and D. Dicheva. Is it time to change the oer repositories role? In Proceedings of the 12th ACM/IEEE-CS

    joint conference on Digital Libraries, pages 31-34. ACM, 2012.

    2. F. Neven and E. Duval. Reusable learning objects: a survey of lom-based repositories. In Proceedings of thetenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, pages 291-294. ACM, 2002.

    3. LRMI, 2013. Learning Resource Metadata Initiative LRMI SURVEY REPORT August 2013 Update,http://www.lrmi.net/resources/reports.

    4. Bohl, O. et al., 2002. The sharable content object reference model (SCORM)-a critical review. Computers inEducation, 2002. Proceedings. International Conference on. IEEE.

    5. J. C. Vidal, M. Lama, E. Otero-Garca, and A. Bugarn. Graph-based semantic annotation for enrichingeducational content with linked data. Knowledge-Based Systems, 55:29-42, 2014.

    6. Yu, Hong Qing; Dietze, Stefan; Li, Ning; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Taibi, Davide; Dovrolls, Nikolas ; Stefanut, Teodor ;Kaldoudi, Eleni and Domingue, John(2011). A linked data-driven & service-oriented architecture for sharingeducational resources. In: 1st International Workshop on eLearning Approaches for Linked Data Age (LinkedLearning 2011), 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2011), 29 May 2011, Heraklion, Greece

    7. N. Piedra, J. A. Chicaiza, J. Lopez, and E. Tovar. An architecture based on linked data technologies for theintegration and reuse of oer in moocs context. Open Praxis, 6(2):171-187, 2014.

    8. Evandro de Barros Costa, Manoel A. Lopes, and Edilson Ferneda. 1995. Mathema: A Learning EnvironmentBased on a Multi-Agent Architecture. In Proceedings of the 12th Brazilian Symposium on Artificial Intelligence:Advances in Artificial Intelligence (SBIA '95), Jacques Wainer and Ariadne Carvalho (Eds.). Springer-Verlag,London, UK, UK, 141-150.

  • Questions?heitor.barros@copin.ufcg.edu.br

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