anatomical terms and reference points mr. frey athletic training terms #1 worksheet

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  • Slide 1
  • Anatomical Terms and Reference Points Mr. Frey Athletic Training Terms #1 worksheet
  • Slide 2
  • Why do we use these terms? Medical language Common language and way of describing the body between medical professionals
  • Slide 3
  • Anatomical position Anatomical Starting point Unless another position is specifically mentioned
  • Slide 4
  • Planes of the body Sagital Plane invisible line that divides the body into equal right and left halves Transverse (horizontal) Plane Invisible line that divides the body into equal top and bottom halves Coronal (frontal) Plane Invisible line that divides the body into equal front and back halves Center of gravity - exists at the intersection of all three planes
  • Slide 5
  • The Planes of the body
  • Slide 6
  • Slide 7
  • Flexion / Extension Flexion - Decreasing the angle of a joint Extension Increasing the angle of a joint
  • Slide 8
  • Supination / Pronation Supination Turning the palms upward Pronation Turning the palms downward
  • Slide 9
  • Circumduction Moving an appendage in a cone like motion
  • Slide 10
  • Adduction / Abduction Add vs. Abb A B duction A B duction Adduction - to move a body part closer to the Sagital Plane Abduction to move a body part away from the Sagital Plane Jumping Jacks
  • Slide 11
  • Horizontal Abb and Adduction Moving a limb either toward or away from the Sagital Plane while the limb remains parallel to the transverse Plane
  • Slide 12
  • Medial Closer to the Sagital Plane The inside Usually used to refer to a location of something on the body The athlete presents with a bruise on the lateral side of the thigh The athlete presents with a bruise on the lateral side of the thigh
  • Slide 13
  • Lateral Further away from the Sagital Plane The outside Usually used to refer to a location of something on the body The player was weight bearing and was struck in the lateral side of the knee The player was weight bearing and was struck in the lateral side of the knee
  • Slide 14
  • Proximal Something that is closer to the middle of the body or something is closer to the middle of the body than something else closer Proximal sounds like proximity Proximal IP Joint The fracture occurred in the distal 1/3 of the Femur
  • Slide 15
  • Distal Something that is further from the middle of the body or something is further from the middle of the body than something else further away Distal sounds like distance Proximal Interphalangeal Joint The fracture occurred in the distal 1/3 of the Femur
  • Slide 16
  • Anatomical Reference Points
  • Slide 17
  • Inversion / Eversion Inversion turning the sole of the foot inward One of the most common mechanisms for injury in sports One of the most common mechanisms for injury in sports Eversion - turning the sole of the foot outward
  • Slide 18
  • Dorsiflexion / Plantarflexion Only occurs at the ankle Plantarflexion pointing the toes/foot downward plant you foot plant you foot Dorsiflexion pulling the toes/foot upwards
  • Slide 19
  • Acute Injuries Occur suddenly during activity Mack truck syndrome Sprains, Sprains, Fracture, Contusions, etc. Sings and symptoms can include: sudden, severe pain sudden, severe pain swelling swelling inability to place weight on a lower limb inability to place weight on a lower limb extreme tenderness in an upper limb extreme tenderness in an upper limb inability to move a joint through full range of motion inability to move a joint through full range of motion extreme limb weakness extreme limb weakness visible dislocation / break of a bone visible dislocation / break of a bone
  • Slide 20
  • Chronic Injuries Injuries that occur over time Injuries that occur over time Usually result from overusing one area of the body while playing a sport or exercising over a long period Usually result from overusing one area of the body while playing a sport or exercising over a long period itis itis Tendonitis, bursitis, arthritis, shin splints, stress fractures Tendonitis, bursitis, arthritis, shin splints, stress fractures Signs and symptoms may include Signs and symptoms may include pain when performing activitiespain when performing activities a dull ache when at resta dull ache when at rest swellingswelling
  • Slide 21
  • Inferior / Superior Inferior Below or bottom The laceration is on the inferior part of the foot The laceration is on the inferior part of the foot The athlete was struck 3 inches inferior to the patella The athlete was struck 3 inches inferior to the patella Superior Above or top The athlete mad contact with the superior aspect of his helmet The athlete mad contact with the superior aspect of his helmet
  • Slide 22
  • Anterior You may also use ventral Front or in front of Something could be anterior to something else Something could be anterior to something else Could be an anterior view of something Could be an anterior view of something A view from the frontA view from the front
  • Slide 23
  • Posterior Could also use dorsal Dorsal fin Dorsal fin Back or behind something Something could be posterior to something else Something could be posterior to something else Could be a posterior view of something Could be a posterior view of something A view from the backA view from the back
  • Slide 24
  • Sprain Stretch or tear of a ligament Ligament connect bone to bone Usually due to forced excessive movements
  • Slide 25
  • Strain Stretch or tear of a muscle or tendon Muscle contractile fiber that produces movement Tendon connect bone to muscle Usually occurs due to muscular imbalance or inflexibility pulled muscle
  • Slide 26
  • Grading system for Sprains and Strains Grade 1 overstretch Microtears Microtears Grade 2 partial tear Grade 3 complete tear rutpure rutpure
  • Slide 27
  • Dislocation / Subluxation Dislocation- bone comes out of the joint and stays out Bodies response to the dislocation may make the injury worse Bodies response to the dislocation may make the injury worse Subluxation bone comes out of the joint but the body reduced the joint itself pops out but pops right back in pops out but pops right back in
  • Slide 28
  • Closed Chain vs. Open Chain Closed Chain Position Feet are always in contact with the ground Bike, elliptical trainer, cross-country skiing Bike, elliptical trainer, cross-country skiing Compression forces = GOOD! Compression forces = GOOD! Open Chain Position feet come off of the ground Running / jogging Running / jogging Shearing forces = BAD! Shearing forces = BAD!
  • Slide 29
  • Gliding joint Two flat surfaces that glide over one another Tarsals and carpals Tarsals and carpals
  • Slide 30
  • Hinge Joint Allows movement in one plane only Uniaxial IP joints, ulnohumeral joint (elbow)
  • Slide 31
  • Pivot Joint Allow one movement (rotation, pronation, supination) Radius rotates on ulna to allow pronation and supination
  • Slide 32
  • Condylar joint Allows one primary movement with small amounts of movement in another plane Knee joint, Tempromandibular joint
  • Slide 33
  • Ellipsoid Joint Allows movement in two planes Biaxial Interphalangeal joints
  • Slide 34
  • Saddle Joint Found in the thumb Carpometacarpal joint Carpometacarpal joint Allows two plane of movement
  • Slide 35
  • The Ball and Socket Joint Allows movement in three planes Hip and shoulder

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