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DESCRIPTIONAncient Rome. Group 3 March 9, 2007. Government. Domestic Politics. Government Background. Roman Republic founded after the end of the Etruscan Kingship in 509 B.C. Based on the Ancient Greek model of government Republic 509 B.C.-27 B.C.; Empire 31 B.C.-293 A.D. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Ancient RomeGroup 3March 9, 2007
Government BackgroundRoman Republic founded after the end of the Etruscan Kingship in 509 B.C.Based on the Ancient Greek model of governmentRepublic 509 B.C.-27 B.C.; Empire 31 B.C.-293 A.D.
The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent in the year 116 under the rule of the emperor Trajan.
The RepublicRoman laws traditionally could only be passed by a vote of the popular assembly Candidates for public positions had to run for election by the people The Senate held great authority, but no actual legislative power; it was technically only an advisory council Senators were chosen from among the most accomplished patricians by Censors who could also remove a Senator from his office if he was found "morally corrupt"
The RepublicTo prevent any one person from gaining too much power, new magistrates were elected annually and had to share power with anotherNormally the highest authority was held by two consuls, but in emergencies a temporary dictator might be appointedThe structure of the administration was changed multiple times due to internal changes
The EmpireIn the early years of the empire, the government remained a republic Augustus was the first true emperor, ruling after he dismantled the final triumvirateThe first five emperors of the New Rome were considered the Julio-Claudian Emperors as they were descendants of Julius Caesar; they ruled 27 B.C.-68 A.D.Tiberius 14 A.D.-37 A.D.Augustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D.Caligula37 A.D.-41 A.D.Claudius 41 A.D.-54 A.D.Nero54 A.D.-68 A.D.
The EmpireOver time the emperor became more and more autocratic and the Senate truly lost powerTerritory was divided into multiple provincesTowns were divided into colonies composed of former soldiers or members of the Roman underclassAfter the Julio-Claudian line of emperors, many other lines followed before the East-West splitPax Romana 27 B.C.-180 A.D. was a period of relative peace for the Roman EmpireThe Crisis of the Third Century occurred 235-284 and almost caused the complete collapse of the empireDiocletian gained complete power in 285 and divided the empire into East and West
Roman Empire in 250 B.C After wars with allies, the Etruscans, the Samnites and the Greeks, Rome is victorious and has city-states that pay tribute to Rome where citizenship is either offered or can be earned.
Roman Empire in 241-227 B.C. After the first Punic War, the Romans take control of Sicily and later take possession of Sardinia and Corsica. Praetors are created to be the official governing body in each of Romes new provinces (Sicily, Sardinia/Corsica).
Roman Empire in 197 B.C.After the Second Punic War, Rome takes Southern Spain from the Carthaginians, dividing it into Hispana Citerior and Hispana Ulterior, each with its own praetor.
Roman Empire in 167 B.C. In the Third Macedonian War, Rome defeats King Gentium and takes an unofficial hold of the Ilyrian coastline.
Roman Empire in 146 B.C. Corinth and Carthage are defeated and destroyed. Macedonia-Achaia and Africa are added as provinces of Rome.
Roman Empire in 133 B.C. The Lusitanii are defeated in Northern and Eastern Spain. King Attalus Pergamum in Asia Minor leaves his wealthy kingdom in his will to the possession of Rome.
Roman Empire in 121-102 B.C. Celtic tribes, along with the Teutones and the Cimbri along the Rhone are defeated, allowing the addition of the Gallia Narbonensis province. The Baelaric Islands are taken and Roman Victory over pirates in part of Cilicia in Southern Asia Minor also adds new territory.
Roman Empire in 74-60 B.C. After Sullas defeat of the King of Pontus, the province Bithynia et Pontus in present-day Northern Turkey is added. Pompey later expands this territory and creates a new province, Syria, though no new praetors are added.
Roman Empire in 44 B.C.Caesar conquers the majority of Gaul. Pompey takes control of Northern Spain.
Family and Gender Relations
MarriageMore of a financial and political alliance than romantic association in hopes of improving familys wealth or classArranged marriagesFathers usually began seeking husbands for their daughters when they reached ages 12-14Husband typically older than brideMonogamous Women presented dowryDivorce very common
HouseholdsBasic unit of societyIncluded paterfamilias, his wife materfamilias, children, and slaves (if family owned any)Every home had household god, usually with shrine
MenDominated family lifePaterfamilias (father of the family), the oldest living male, was head of familyOnly one to own propertyTended to family's business affairs and property and could perform religious rites on their behalf Absolute rule (patria potestas) over household and children
Paterfamilias had all powerPower to decide whether or not to keep newborn babyLegal rights over children
WomenDefined by the men in their livesRegarded mainly as mothers and wivesNot equal under lawReceived only basic educationSubject to the authority of man at any timeBefore marriage: fatherAfter: authority of husbandCould not vote or stand for officeDegree of freedom depended on wealth and social status
ChildrenHigh infant mortality rateAs a result, Roman state gave legal rewards to women who successfully gave birthAfter 3 live babies, women recognized as legally independentSons were important- placed lots of value on continuing the family name
Foods, Festivals, and Holidays in Ancient Rome
Roman CuisineChanged throughout their ancient civilizationInfluenced by Greek culture, political changes, and the expansion
3 meals:Lentaculum, or breakfast, in the morningSmall lunch at noonMain meal of the day, the cena, in the evening
Roman Festivals and HolidaysPurpose was to celebrate and worship a certain god or mythical occurrence through various religious practices, festival traditions, and feasts.Four most important:the Saturnaliathe Consualiathe LupercaliaThe Rites of the Bona Dea
Saturnalia: Rites of Bona Dea:December 17th Feast in honor of Saturn, the god of agriculture and harvest Public festival in which sacrifices were madeSchool holiday, making and giving of small presents, and a special marketSlaves celebrated and were free from duties & punishmentDecember 4thGoddess of fertility, healing, virginity, and womenHeld in the home of a prominent Roman magistrateOnly included womenConducted annually by senior magistrates wife Little is known about the ceremony; worship may be agricultural in origin
The ConsualiaAugust 21In honor of Consus, the god of counsel and protector of the harvest Harvest grains, which were in storage in underground vaults all year long, were uncovered for this day onlyChariot racesRomulus allowed men to forcibly take Sabine women as wives in order to increase the population of RomeWomen treated fairly even though taken against their will & eventually became submissive wives
Lupercalia February 15thAncient pastoral festival meant to avert evil spirits and purify the city to release health and fertilitySacrificed two male goats and a dogTwo young male patricians anointed with the blood.Sacrificial feastPatricians cut thongs from the skins of the sacrifices, dressed themselves in the goats skin, and ran around the walls of the city striking people Women and girls would line up to be whipped Believed to prevent sterility, ensure fertility, and ease childbirth.
Gladiators Professional fighters who fought other gladiators, slaves, and/or wild animals. Comes from Latin word gladius - a short sword used by legionnaires. The gladiatorial games were actually adopted from the Etruscan culture for entertainment Initially set up by rich individuals for public popularity Emperors eventually controlled all recreation, including gladiator gamesUsually did not fight more than three times per yearFought one versus one or in groups based on request Usually did not fight to the death, but were accidentally killed or maimed
GladiatorsWere usually slaves, but were also criminals and were expected to die within a year or earn their freedom three years if they survivedGiven a wooden sword as a memento of survivingCrowd decided on fate of the gladiators not emperorsGladiators seen in an ambivalent lightLower than slaves (owned by the rich)Pop icons/sex symbols Some taught the legionnaires in single combat Some joined the games as a last resort to povertyEmperors participated in the rigged gladiatorial games One of the most famous gladiators: Spartacus, who led a revolt in 73 BC.Gladiatorial games outlawed in 325, and the last known gladiatorial game Rome, January 1st, 404
Roman TheatreThe Roman theater semicircular in shapeorchestra pit in front of it These theaters were built outside, due to lighting and sound issuesHad a high back wall, so the audience could not see overNooks and tunnels were carved into wall for usage Sound problem was solved by extravagant visuals:Brown masks = men, white masks = womenA purple gown = affluence, striped toga = boy, short cloak = soldier, red toga = poor man, and a short tunic = slave, etc. Audience paid more attention to actor than acting, so actors used costumes to win over audienceWomen were not allowed to perform, men or boys took their roles An actor spoke lines, a second actor mimed the lines to some background musicSome gestures were known to represent certain things
Roman TheatreThe Romans were bloodthirstyFor plays they actually killed a person