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DESCRIPTIONAncient Rome. Label the following: Corsica Sardinia Sicily Po River Arno River Tiber River Mediterranean Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Adriatic Sea Ionian Sea. City of Rome (and area controlled by Rome) Ostia Apennine mountain range Alps mountain range - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Unit 4: Ancient Rome
Map Assignment: Page 197Label the following:CorsicaSardiniaSicilyPo RiverArno RiverTiber RiverMediterranean SeaTyrrhenian SeaAdriatic SeaIonian SeaCity of Rome (and area controlled by Rome)OstiaApennine mountain rangeAlps mountain rangeEtruscan settlements (purple dots)Greek settlements (black dots)Colour the map according to fertile, mountainous and water regions.
Italys GeographyThe Roman Empire was strategically located on the Italian Peninsula, in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea.
Early settlers to this area easily traded with the Middle East, Greece, Egypt, Spain and North Africa.
Very mountainous region:
Protection from invasions
Three main rivers:PoArnoTiber
Many fertile areas near rivers provided many types of foods and building supplies:
But still needed colonies (like the Greeks) to supplement their food supply.6Romes Beginnings:The Romans lived on the peninsula with two other groups: Greeks and Etruscans.
Etruscan armies soon took over most of what the Romans had.
One Etruscan family the Tarquins soon developed a dynasty.Greeks had a profound influence on the Italian peninsula and Roman culture. Etruscans had city states similar to the Greeks, ruled by kings and had superior military over the Romans. They had forced military service and training, Romans only called upon the able bodied to defend the city when necessary-recruits had to supply their own weapons and armor (rich were cavalry, poor were light-armed troops. By 600 BCE, Etruscans take over.7Ancient Rome-Rise to Power:Part 1: (about 25 minutes)
1. What great structure did emperor Vespasian build in 70 AD?2. What part of urban planning was the Romans greatest invention? 3. What helped make Rome the first Superpower of the world?4. There were civilized people already in Italy when the Greeks first arrived, and these people taught the Romans everything they knew before the Romans created their own empire. Who were these people?5. What was Romes first step on their way to creating their own empire?6. According to Roman legend, who killed his twin brother to become the first king of Rome?
Video: Ancient Rome Rise to PowerSection 2:7. What was the great innovation (new idea) of king Servius Tullius?8. Why did the Romans decide to never again live under the rule of a king?9. What kind of government did they decide to create?10. What did the Romans call the Gauls (from what is now France) who threatened and attacked them?11. What did Cincinnatus do that was considered so great to the Romans?
The last Etruscan ruler Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown by a new, stronger Rome in 509 BCE.
Rome was strongly influenced by the Etruscans, from them they had learned:
use of the arch
Compulsory military serviceTarquin the Proud was oppressive, opposed the peoples wishes and scorned religion. Etruscans had taken their alphabet from the Greeks, and the Romans changed it to fit their own Latin language; would later form the basis of modern English, French, Italian and Spanish. 10The Republic:Republic citizens elected representatives to run the government. (only members of noble families, called patricians)
Two groups of citizens:
Patricians the wealthy landowning class
Plebeians the common (lower) class
The plebeians elected two tribunes to represent them in the senate.
NEED TO ADD CONSULS IN HERE SOMEWHERE11Defending the Republic:Envious neighbors began attacking Rome (Gauls, Etruscan city-states to the south etc)
Romans soon went on the offensive.
Army was organized into Legions of 5000 men.
Legions were subdivided into groups of 120 in ranks of 10 lined up behind each other in files of 12.several small states to the south were also willing to help Romans fight their neighbors so they decide to go on the offensive. Selective conscription: all landowners (farmers and nobles) had to undergo training and serve in the army. Romans also paid poorer citizens which was important because they had to feed, clothe and arm themselves.Rome took over all of Italy by 265 BCE, including Greek settlements of southern Italy. Had policy of just treatment and leniency for conquered peoples-unlike Egyptians and Persians for example, the Romans took only a portion of conquered lands and allowed them to keep the rest. Also allowed them to keep their own customs, local government, laws. Had to acknowledge Roman leadership-but Rome did not take slaves and also gave some people limited citizenship rights-these things won Rome loyalty of the people in Italy.12
Soldiers:Hasti young and inexperienced. (Spears/javelins)
Principes older, more experienced. (stronger weapons, shields)
Hasti in front, followed by principes and finally the triarri who had already proven their courage. If security was threatened, the government would increase military size, sometimes recruiting slaves, but drawback would be high casualties due to ill trained new soldiers.14Rome Flip Book (32 points):Title Page: Roman Life
1) Social Structure, pg 232-233: (2 facts for each of the four pyramid levels)
2) Everyday Life: pg 234-7: a) The Family, b) Education(3 facts for each)
3) Roads, pg 253: (3 facts)
4) Aqueducts, pg 254: (3 facts)
5) Entertainment: pgs 240-243: a)Chariot racing, b)Gladiators, c)Baths, d)Banquets(Give three facts for each) 15The Punic Wars:Roman Republics first territorial interest outside Italy was in Africa the city of Carthage.
Carthage was a naval power and controlled several areas around Italy such as the island of Sicily.
Purple = Carthage = Phoenicians = PunicsRome wanted control of Carthage for two reasons:
1. Carthage controlled Sicily which was rich in wheat and could therefore provide a valuable source of grain.
2. Carthages navy was a threat to Roman trade in the Mediterranean.
This rivalry led to the Punic Wars.Assignment:1st Punic War:1. In what years did the first Punic War take place?2. What did Rome do that caused the war?3. After Rome had been losing early on in the war, what changes did they make to their ships which helped them eventually win?4. When the Romans won the war, what two things did they make the losing Carthaginians do for them?
2nd Punic War:5. In what years did the second Punic War take place?6. What had the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca done to threaten Rome?7. What had Barcas son Hannibal done to threaten Rome?8. What did Rome demand Hannibal do?9. What promise had Hannibal made to his father?10. What was unusual about the way in which Hannibal attacked Rome?11. Was Hannibal successful in his cavalry attack on the Romans? Explain.12. What did the Romans do to Hannibals brother Hasdrupal?13. When the Carthaginians realized they had lost, they asked for peace, what did they offer the Romans as reparations (repayments) for the war?14. How did Hannibal react to his defeat at the battle of Zama-the only defeat in his military career?
3rd Punic War:15. In what years did the third Punic War take place?16. What had the Carthaginians done to cause the third war?17. How did the Romans react/feel about what the Carthaginians had done?18. What did the Romans do to the city of Carthage?19. What happened to the people of Carthage?20. What happened to the land/territory in North Africa where Carthage was located?
Ancient Rome: Expansion and Conquest
1. From which people did the Romans steal their early weapons and armour?2. From which people did the Romans steal the basic organization of their military?3. Which other empire did Rome begin fighting with for territory in North Africa, Spain etc?4. How did the Romans learn to build ships for their navy?5. Who did Rome see as the first real threat to the survival of its empire?6. What did General Marius give to his veteran soldiers in the army?
Click on: Social Studies 10
Scroll down to:A) On-line quizzes (complete these)B) On-line games (have fun)C) No other websites-these only!Decline of the Roman Republic:Rome was spreading its rule demanding more taxes and enslaving more people.
The gap between rich and poor was growing bigger. The rich hated and feared the poor, a.k.a the mob.
Popular leaders tried to improve conditions for the poor.Outside Rome, empire was expanding, inside Rome social unrest and power struggle. Senate represented the patricians, the assembly represented the plebeians. 24Reformers (also brothers who were Tribunes):Tiberius Gracchus:
Wanted to limit the amount of land one family could own.
Wanted to divide public land and give to the poor. The Senate was not happy with him and provoked a riot; Tiberius and his followers were murdered.
At 7 minutes of the video titled Struggles for Power until about 12 minutes covers Tiberius.25Gaius Gracchus:
Gave free wheat and grain to the poor.
Senate had his followers arrested and killed, he fled and committed suicide.
Felt the poor should be moved from the city back to the country.
Wanted to take control of courts away from Senate. Felt conquered peoples were treated too harshly, he proposed that citizenship be granted to Romes Latin allies. Same response as ten years earlier, riots broke out, his followers murdered, he committed suicide.