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CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTY EVALUATION OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES [MMCs] USING STIR CASTING Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGYIn
1112840030AVINASH UPADHYAY1112840043ANKUR GOEL
1112840028Under the guidance ofMR. SAURABH GUPTAMECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTBHARAT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MEERUT.
I hereby declare that the work carried out in this project report entitled, CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTY EVALUATION OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES [MMCs] USING STIR SQUEEZE CASTING, is presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in production & industrial system engineering, submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut, under the guidance of Mr.Saurabh Gupta, Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. (Mr. Saurabh gupta)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The euphoria and joy, accompanying the successful completion of my task would be incomplete without the special mention of those people whose guidance and encouragement made my effort successful.I am deeply indebted to my guides Mr. Saurabh Gupta, Asst. Professor in the department of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut, whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time to make my effort successful.
Especially, I would like to give my special thanks to my parents and my friends, whose support and motivation inspire me to complete the study.ANKIT PATHAK
10Classification of composites
11METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES
14Constituents of MMCs
16Types of MMCs
17INTRODUCTION TO ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
PRODUCTION METHODS OF ALUMINIUM
21EXPERIMENTAL SET UP AND PROCEDURE
Stir Squeeze Casting Set up
Stir Squeeze Casting Procedure
26DEFINITION & FORMULAE 27RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
LIST OF FIGURESFig no.Name of figurePage no.
1 Classification of composite8
2(a)Typical microstructure of silicon carbide particle/ aluminum alloy composite18
2(b)Typical microstructure of silicon carbide particle/ aluminum alloy composite18
3Some application of AMCs20
5Diagram of Set up27
Table no.Name of tablePage no.
1Typical reinforcements used in metal matrix composites16
2A comparative evaluation of the different techniques used for MMC fabrication22
3Chemical Composition of A6063 alloy25
4Result & discussion27
ABSTRACT Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite by stir casting is one of the most economical method of processing MMC. The aluminum based composites are increasingly being used in the transport, aerospace, marine, automobile and mineral processing industries, owing to their improved strength, stiffness and wear resistance properties. The widely used reinforcing materials for these composites are silicon carbide, aluminum oxide and graphite in the form of particles or whiskers. The ceramic particles reinforced aluminum composites are termed as new generation material and these can be tailored and engineered with specific required properties for specific application requirements. Particle reinforced composites have a better plastic forming capability than that of the whisker or fiber reinforced ones, and thus they have emerged as most sought after material with cost advantage and they are also known for excellent heat and wear resistance applications .Given the factors of reinforcement type, form, and quantity, which can be varied, in addition to matrix characteristics, the composites have a huge potential for being tailored for particular applications. One factor that, to date, has restricted the widespread use of MMCs has been their relatively high cost. This is mostly related to the expensive processing techniques used currently to produce high quality composites. The most widely applied methods for the production of composite materials and composite parts are based on casting techniques such as the stir casting of porous ceramic pre - forms with liquid metal alloys and powder metallurgy methods. The cost and the properties of the produced MMC are highly dependent on the method of their processing. INTRODUCTION Aluminum alloys are preferred engineering material for automobile, aerospace and mineral processing industries for various high performing components that are being used for varieties of applications owing to their lower weight, excellent thermal conductivity properties. The composites formed out of aluminum alloys are of wide interest owing to their high strength,fracture toughness, wear resistance and stiffness. Further these composites are of superior in nature for elevated temperature application when reinforced with ceramic particle .Alluminium and its alloys are being widely used as matrix for the synthesis of metal matrix composites (MMCs) by researchers, owing to their abundant availability, easy processing, low melting point and easy machining. In the world of polymer matrix composites, and plastics, Al and its alloys maintain their critical importance due to characteristic properties of metals i.e. ductility, strength and, thermal and electrical conductivity . Higher strength to weight ratio, ease in alloying and recycling are added advantages of Al and its alloys. 
The addition of high strength, high modulus refractory particles to a ductile metal matrix produce a material whose mechanical properties are intermediate between the matrix alloy and the ceramic reinforcement. Metals have a useful combination of properties such as high strength, ductility and high temperature resistance, but sometimes have low stiffness, whereas ceramics are stiff and strong, though brittle. Aluminium and silicon carbide, for example, have very different mechanical properties: Young's moduli of 70 and 400 GPa, coefficients of thermal expansion of 24 X 10-6 and 4 X 10-6/oC, and yield strengths of 35 and 600 MPa, respectively. By combining these materials, e.g. A6061/SiC/17p (T6 condition), an MMC with a Young's modulus of 96.6 GPa and yield strength of 510 MPa can be produced . By carefully controlling the relative amount and distribution of the ingredients of a composite as well as the processing conditions, these properties can be further improved.COMPOSITE
Composite material are materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical and chemical properties, that when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual component. Many of common materials (metals, alloys, doped ceramics and polymers mixed with additives) also have a small amount of dispersed phases in their structures, however they are not considered as composite materials since their properties are similar to those of their base constituents (physical property of steel are similar to those of pure iron) . Favorable properties of composites materials are high stiffness and high strength, low density, high temperature stability, high electrical and thermal conductivity, adjustable coefficient of thermal expansion, corrosion resistance, improved wear resistance etc. composite materials are generally used for buildings, bridges and structures such as boat hulls, swimming pool panels, race car bodies, shower stalls, bathtubs, storage tanks, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and counter tops. the most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft and aircraft in demanding environments.Composites as engineering materials normally refer to the material with the following characteristics:
1. These are artificially made (thus, excluding natural material such as wood).
2. These consist of at least two different species with a well defined interface.
3. Their properties are influenced by the volume percentage of ingredients.
4. These have at least one property not possessed by the individual constituents.
Performance of Composite depends on:
1. Properties of matrix and reinforcement,2. Size and distribution of constituents,
3. Shape of constituents,
4. Nature of interface between constituents.
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITESComposite materials are classified
a. On the basis of matrix material,
b. On the basis of filler material.