# ankit vijayvargiya

Post on 30-May-2018

218 views

Category:

## Documents

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

1/20

Six Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

SIX SIGMA

ANKIT VIJAYVARGIYA

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

2/20

2

Six Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

What is Six Sigma? Six Sigma is a highlydisciplined process that helps us focuson developing and delivering near-perfect productsand services.

Why Sigma? The word is a statisticalterm that measures how far a givenprocess deviates from perfection. Thecentral idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can

measure how many defects you havein a process, you can systematicallyfigure out howto eliminate them and get as close tozero defects as possible.

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

3/20

3

Six Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

Sigma ( )

A term used in statistics to represent standarddeviation, an indicator of the degree of variation in a set of measurements or a

process. A one-sigma process produces691462.5 defects per million opportunitiesapercentage of satisfactory outputs of only30.854%.

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

4/20

4

Six Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

Standard deviation

A measure of the spread of data points inrelation to the mean. Its the mostcommon measure of variation in a setof data

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

5/20

5

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

Six Sigma

A philosophy of managing that focuses oneliminating defects through practices thatemphasize understanding, measuring, and

improving processes. Its based on thestatistical concept of six sigma, measuring aprocess at only 3.4 defects per millionopportunities (DPMO).

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

6/20

6

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

DPMO at sigma levels

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

7/207

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ONSIX SIGMA

In the mid-1980s, Motorola, under the leadership of Robert W. Galvin, was the initial developer of SixSigma. Most credit the late Bill Smith for inventingSix Sigma; Smith, a senior engineer and scientistwith n Motorolas Communications Division, hadnoted that its final product tests had not predicted thehigh level of system failure rates Motorola wasexperiencing. He suggested that the increasing levelof complexity of the system and the resulting highnumber of opportunities for failure could be possible

causes for this. He came to the conclusion thatMotorola needed to require a higher level of internalquality, and he brought this idea to then-CEO BobGalvins attention, persuading him that Six Sigmashould be set as a quality goal.

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

8/208

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

Six Sigma: DMAIC

Methodology Define

Measure Analyze Improve

Control

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

9/209

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Define Key Items

Customers, Value, Problem Statement Scope, Timeline, Team Primary/Secondary & OpEx Metrics Current Value Stream Map Voice Of Customer (QFD)

(Quality Function Deployment)

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

10/2010

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Measure

Establish measurement capability Validate the database (transactional) Gage R&R (Repeatability & Reproducibility) Calibration is not enough

Many (or most) measurement systems are not capable How good is the data you are using to make decisions?

Fix the measurement system Enables calculation of process capability Enables calculation of alpha & beta risks

This step is often skipped

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

11/2011

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Analyze(and fix the obvious)

Find all KPOVs & KPIVs(Key Process Output Variables; Key Process

Input Variables)

FMEA, DOE, critical Xs, VA/NVA(Failure Modes Effects Analysis; Design Of

Experiment)

Graphical Analysis, ANOVA(Analysis Of Variance) Future Value Stream Map

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

12/20

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

13/2013

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Control

Management of Change Owned by project champion and value stream

manager Critical to long term success of project

Physical and cultural changes Measurement controls

On-going metrics

Visual Controls Enable workers to self-manage the process

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

14/2014

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Next Project

DefineCustomers, Value, Problem Statement

Scope, Timeline, Team

Primary/Secondary & OpEx Metrics

Current Value Stream Map

Voice Of Customer (QFD)

MeasureAssess specification / Demand

Measurement Capability (Gage R&R)

Correct the measurement system

Process map, Spaghetti, Time obs.

Measure OVs & IVs / Queues

Analyze ( and fix the obvious)Root Cause (Pareto, C&E, brainstorm)

Find all KPOVs & KPIVs

FMEA, DOE, critical Xs, VA/NVA

Graphical Analysis, ANOVA

Future Value Stream Map

ImproveOptimize KPOVs & test the KPIVs

Redesign process, set pacemaker

5S, Cell design, MRS

Visual controls

Value Stream Plan

ControlDocument process (WIs, Std Work)

Mistake proof, TT sheet, CI List

Analyze change in metrics

Value Stream Review

Prepare final report

ValidateProject \$

ValidateProject \$

ValidateProject \$

Validate

Project \$Celebrate

Project \$

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

15/2015

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Develop a focused Problem Statement and Objective Develop a Process Map and/or FMEA Develop a Current State Map Identify the response variable(s) and how to measure them Analyze measurement system capability Assess the specification (Is one in place? Is it the right one?)

PracticalProblem

ProblemDefinition

Characterize the response, look at the raw data Abnormal? Other Clues? Mean or Variance problem?

Time Observation Spaghetti Diagram Takt Time Future State Maps Percent Loading Standard Work Combination Use Graphical Analysis, Multi-Vari, ANOVA and basic

statistical tools to identify the likely families of variability

ProblemSolution

Identify the likely Xs 5S Set Up Time Reduction (SMED) Material Replenishment Systems Level Loading / Line Leveling Cell Design Visual Controls Use Design of Experiments to find the critical few Xs Move the distribution; Shrink the spread; Confirm the results

ProblemControl

Mistake Proof the process (Poka-Yoke)

Tolerance the process Measure the final capability

Place appropriate process controls onthe critical Xs Document the effort and results

IdentifyProblem

Strategic Link to Business Plan defined in Project Selection Process Defined Business Impact with Op Ex Champion support Structured Brainstorming at all organizational levels Cause and Effect Diagrams identifying critical factors Primary and Secondary Metrics defined and charted Multi-Level Pareto Charts to confirm project focus

Plan Execute

Execute Plan

k h h f

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

16/2016

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Breakthrough performancegains

2 308,5373 66,8074 6,2105 2336 3.4

2 308,5373 66,8074 6,2105 233

6 3.4

PPMPPM

(Distribution Shifted 1.5 )

ProcessCapability

ProcessCapability

Defects per MillionOpportunities

Defects per MillionOpportunities

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

17/2017

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Understand and DefineEntire Value Streams

Deploy Key Business Objectives- Measure and target (metrics)- Align and involve all employees

- Develop and motivate

Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve

Identify root causes, prioritize, eliminate waste,make things flow and pulled by customers

Control-Sustain Improvement

-Drive Towards Perfection

Identify Customer Requirements

Continuous Improvement (DMAIC)

Identify Customer Requirements

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

18/2018

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

The Normal Curve and Capability

LSL USL

Poor ProcessCapability

Very HighProbabilityof Defects

LSL USL

ExcellentProcess

Capability

Very LowProbabilityof Defects

Very HighProbabilityof Defects

Very LowProbabilityof Defects

Low Sigma Low Sigma High Sigma High Sigma

Wh b L TOC

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

19/2019

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Six Sigma Remove defects, minimize variance

Lean

Remove waste, shorten the flow TOC

Remove and manage constraints

TQM Continuous Improvement

• 8/14/2019 Ankit Vijayvargiya

20/20

20

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

S

ix Sig

ma

S

ix Sigma

Does it work?.

Source: American Customer Satisfaction Index, U Michigan, HBR, 2001

199973companies

RalstonPurina

Quaker OatsHilton Hotels

Coca-ColaUnileveretc.

The top companies in Customer Satisfaction grow MVA atnearly twice the rate of their poor-performing counterparts.

\$23

\$42

0

10

20

3040

50

Low HighCustomer Satisfaction Index Score

M a r

k e t V a

l u e

A d d

e d

In Billions \$