ap biology exam review plant anatomy and physiology

Download AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology

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AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology Slide 2 Angiosperm divisions Dicot 2 cotyledons: storage tissue for embryo Netted veins 4X 5X petals Ring of vascular bundles taproot Monocot 1 cotyledon Parallel veins 3X petals Scattered vas. Bundle Fibrous root Slide 3 Plant tissue Ground tissue: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma Dermal tissue: lower and upper epidermis, cuticle Vascular tissue: xylem and phloem Slide 4 Vascular tissue Xylem: primary and secondary cell wall, pits vs. perforations, tracheids vs. vessel elements Phloem: sieve tube members, pores, sieve plants, companion cells, plasmodesmata Slide 5 Xylem Slide 6 Phloem Slide 7 Meristems Shoot Lateral Root Slide 8 Seed Embryo: epicotyl (shoot tip), plumule (young leaves), hypocotyl (young shoot), radicle (root), coleoptile (sheath of monocot) Seed coat Endosperm or cotyledons Remains dormant until ABA washed away Slide 9 Seed Plumule Radicle Endosperm Seed coat Cotyledon Hypocotyl: dicot Coleoptile: monocot Slide 10 Germination: breaking dormancy Imbibition: absorb water, removing ABA, gibberellin promotes germination Meristamtic cells: actively dividing cells (primary growth) Root: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, root cap, zone of maturation Slide 11 Seed germination Slide 12 Primary vs. secondary growth Primary growth: primary xylem and phloem (still living) Secondary growth: increases girth (width), occurs at vascular cambium and cork cambium, VC wood, CC periderm (cork) Slide 13 Root structure Epidermis with root hairs Cortex Endodermis Vascular cylinder (stele) Slide 14 Root Slide 15 Stem structure Epidermis with cutin Cortex Vascular cylinder (xylem, phloem, pith) Secondary growth in stems: sapwood heartwood (annual rings) Slide 16 Secondary stem growth vascular cambium Slide 17 Cell plates plant mitosis Slide 18 Tree stem Slide 19 Leaf structure Epidermis with cuticle Palisade mesophyll Spongy mesophyll Vascular bundle Guard cells with stomata Slide 20 Leaves Slide 21 Transport Transpiration water transport Bulk flow/source to sink sugar transport Slide 22 Plasmodesmata: connects two plant cells Symplast vs. apoplast Transport types Slide 23 Water transwport Apoplast: within cell walls or between cells Symplast (within cells, plasmodesmata) Requires osmosis, capillary action, cohesion-tension Slide 24 Root and H 2 O Slide 25 Leaf water potential Slide 26 Controlling stomata Factors causing stomata to close high temperature CO 2 concentrations low Night diffusion of K + out of guard cells Slide 27 Stomata control Slide 28 Sugar transport Slide 29 Sieve tube: pressure flow Slide 30 Mineral uptake Slide 31 Symbiotic bacteria Slide 32 Double fertilization Slide 33 Auxin Slide 34 Signaling Slide 35 Hormone overview Auxin Abscisic acid Brassinoid Cytokinin Ethylene Gibberellin

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