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Appendicular Skeleton

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Page 1: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Appendicular Skeleton

Page 2: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton

• The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body• The appendicular skeleton

includes bones of the limbs and supporting elements that connect them to the trunk• It has a great ability to change

the abilities and environment for a human being

Page 3: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton

• The axial skeleton was a system that was designed to protect and house vital organs• Its primary uses were for keeping

important organs safe• The appendicular skeleton is a

system that is designed to allow movement and flexibility for an organism• It is generally the reason you can

experience the world around you

Page 4: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton

• The appendicular is composed of four different sections• Each section is used to

manipulate the environment around the individual• Each section is composed of

entirely different bones that will allow the individual the best chance to survive

Page 5: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton

• The pectoral girdle articulates the upper limbs around the body• The upper limbs are used to

manipulate tools and increase balance• The pelvic girdle handles weight

load and helps move the lower limbs• The lower limbs allow for

movement and support

Page 6: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Pectoral Girdle

• Each arm articulates with the trunk at the pectoral girdle• It consists of two broad flat

scapulae and two clavicles• The movements of the scapulae

and the clavicles position the shoulder joints and provide base for arm movement

Page 7: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Pectoral Girdle

• The clavicles are “S” – shaped bones that originate at the superior lateral border of the manubrium • These bones are relatively fragile

and are the main reason that people have to wear shoulder pads when they play various contact sports• You can feel the clavicle move

against your sternum when you raise or lower your shoulder joints

Page 8: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Pectoral Girdle

• The anterior body of each scapula forms a broad triangle• The muscles that attach to the

scapula move the shoulder, rotator cuff and the humorous• This allows for a large range of

movements of the shoulder and upper arm

Page 9: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Glenohumeral Joint

• Where the scapula and the upper arm bones meet is called the glenohumeral joint• At the glenohumeral joint the

scapula articulates with the humerus, the proximal bone of the upper limb• Both bones are set an anchored

in the joint with a mixture of connective tissue and muscle tissue

Page 10: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Glenohumeral Joint

• The bones of the shoulder stay together with the help of the rotator cuff• The muscles and tendons of the

rotator cuff are designed to help support ant help the shoulder stay in place• However, repeated motions

(especially overhead) can damage the muscle and tendon that hold the glenohumeral joint together

Page 11: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Upper Limbs

• The upper limbs are designed for the ability to use and utilize our hands• Unlike most organisms they are

not used to balance on the ground• They can be free to use during

any activity

Page 12: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Upper Limbs

• The bones of the upper arm consist of four separate sections• The humerus (upper arm)• The radius and ulna (lower arm)• The carpals (wrist)• The metacarpals and the

phalanges (hands)

Page 13: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Humerus

• The humerus is a long bone that is found in the upper arm region of the body• This bone sits inside the

shoulder and articulates to create all of the movements of the upper arm• It also interacts with the bones

of the lower arm to create a twisting motion of the forearm

Page 14: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Humerus

• The most prominent feature of this bone is the head, which is a large projection on the proximal end• The large head will rotate when

the muscles of the rotator cuff pull it in different directions• The other end of the humerus

articulates at the condyle• This section will rotate with the

radius and ulna

Page 15: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Radius and Ulna

• The radius and the ulna are parallel bones that support the forearm• It is often easy to get these two

confused• However, the radius always lines

up with the thumb• This is because when something is

“rad” you give it a thumbs up• If that does not help, then the

knob you feel in your elbow is the ulna

Page 16: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Radius and Ulna

• The ulna has two major features that allow the elbow to move• The trochlear notch is where the

humerus sits and articulates• The olecranon is the projection

that is posterior of the elbow

Page 17: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Radius and Ulna

• The radius is has two major features that allows the radius to move with the elbow• The radial head articulates with

the end of the humerus• The ulnar notch is near the wrist

and allows the forearm to twist

Page 18: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Radius and Ulna

• The radius and the ulna interact very interestingly when interacting with the humerus• They will only bend one

direction when acting with the humerus• However they will rotate over

each other to allow the forearm to twist at the wrist

Page 19: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Carpal Bones

• The wrist is a very interesting section of the upper limb• The wrist allows movement on two

different axis• Side to side and forward back

• The twisting motion that is seen in the lower arm is really dependent on the radius and ulna• It has eight bones that will all

articulate to allow a really wide range of movement

Page 20: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Carpal Bones

• Out of the eight carpal bones, four are considered distal (far) and four are considered proximal (near)• The four proximal bones are

the…• Scaphoid• Lunate• Triquetrum• Pisiform

Page 21: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Carpal Bones

• The remaining four bones are considered distal (far)• The distal bones are the…• Trapezium• Trapezoid• Capitate• Hamate

Page 22: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Carpal Bones

• Breakage generally happens when a person tries to stop their own body weight• The bones of the wrist and distal

ends of the radius and ulna are all susceptible to damage when someone breaks their wrist• This generally should be fixed

quickly because small changes in bone structure can cause large amounts of pain

Page 23: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Metacarpals and Phalanges

• There are five different metacarpal bones• These bones articulate with the

carpals to move the palm of your hand• These bones make up the

majority of your palm

Page 24: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Metacarpals and Phalanges

• The metacarpals are give roman numerals to define which one them• Metacarpal I is located just

below the thumb• From there they increase in

number across the palm of the hand• Roman numeral I - Radius

Page 25: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Metacarpals and Phalanges

• Distal to the metacarpals is the phalanges• Each finger has three different

phalanges• They are proximal, middle and

distal• The thumb (pollex) has two

phalanges • Proximal and distal

Page 26: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Pelvic Girdle

• The pelvic girdle consists of two very strong hip bones• It often is included in a structure

called the pelvis that includes the sacrum and the coccyx• These bones are designed to

carry the weight of the body and move the body

Page 27: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Pelvic Girdle

• The pelvic bones consist of three different parts• The ilium is a the superior and

broad part to the hip bone.• This provides attachment points for

muscles

• The ischium is posterior lower section to the hip bone• When seated, this part supports your

weight

• The pubis is the anterior lower section to the hip bone

Page 28: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Pelvis

• The pelvis consists of the hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx• They are held together by an

extensive collection of cartilage• These bones are important for

providing support to everything above them and making sure your body can move while upright

Page 29: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Pelvis

• Males and females have many differences in the pelvis• These are due to the fact males

are generally heavier and females bear children• Some of the major differences

include…• A broader pubic angle (greater

than 100 degrees)• A wider more circular pelvic outlet• An enlarged pelvic outlet

Page 30: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Legs

• The legs contain the large bones of the lower body• These will be responsible for the

movement of the body• They are also designed ot hold a

large amount of weight• When standing on your feet a

large amount of weight is being placed on a small surface of your leg bones

Page 31: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Legs

• The legs consist of four bones• The femur is the bone of the

thigh• The patella is more commonly

known as the kneecap• The tibia and the fibula combine

to make the bones of the shin

Page 32: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Femur

• The femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body• It articulates at the hip and at

the knee• It is often said that this bone is

the most painful thing in the body to break• Remember pain is subjective

http://youtu.be/L5W6JyF7br8?t=4m10s

Page 33: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Femur

• The femur has a pronounced head that articulates at the pelvis • Then the femoral shaft connects

the pelvis to the knee• The patellar surface is the area

where the femur articulates at the patella

Page 34: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Video

• Snapping your femur can come from direct contact from a side angle• Mostly happens from older age

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PEgkuoD5VsU • https://www.youtube.com/watc

h?v=_LJCgGq946c

Page 35: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Patella

• The patella is a bone located within the patella tendon• It is used to protect the delicate

inner workings of the knee• Direct blows to the knee can be

diverted by the patella

Page 36: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

The Patella

• The patella articulates at the patellar surface in the femur• This allows the patella to track up

and down in its own notch• However if the patella tracks

sideways in the notch, there is friction and rubbing • This is commonly referred to as

runners knee • This can be because of improper

shoes on hard or slanted surfaces

Page 37: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Tibia and Fibula

• The tibia and the fibula are the bones of the lower leg• These two bones articulate with

the knee and the ankle/foot• The tibia is commonly known as

a shinbone• Remember – Tibia = Toes

• The fibula posterior to the tibia

Page 38: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Tibia and Fibula

• The tibia is the major weight bearing bone of the shin• The fibula has such a small

diameter because it does not help transfer weight to the ankle or foot• However, it is an important bone

to attach muscles to move the ankle and foot

Page 39: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Tarsal Bones

• The tarsal bones make up the ankle and the upper section of the foot• These sections are crucial to be

able to walk• They transfer the weight from the

body to the ground and vice versa• These bones are significantly

thicker and stronger than their counterparts in the wrist

Page 40: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Tarsal Bones

• There are 7 tarsal bones that make up the foot and the ankle• We will only be learning a few• The talus transfers weight from

the legs to the rest of the foot• Talus = Top = Tibia

• The calcaneus is commonly referred to as the heel• Most of the weight of the body is

transferred to the ground through the heel

Page 41: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Metatarsals and Phalanges

• The metatarsals are the bones of the middle foot• These bones make up the foot

beginning in the middle of your arch• These bones articulate with the

metatarsals

Page 42: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Metatarsals and Phalanges

• The metatarsals are give a roman numeral system similar to the metacarpals• The first metatarsal is the bone

associated with the big toe• From there we label across II - V

Page 43: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Metatarsals and Phalanges

• The phalanges are the bones of the toes• Much like the fingers, there are

proximal middle and distal sections to each toe• However, the “great toe” (big

toe) is given the name hallux• This toe only has two bones

Page 44: Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body

Video

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLGfx4aKPE8