appendicular&axial skeleton

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The Appendicular The Appendicular Skeleton Skeleton Appendicular Appendicular Skeleton = Skeleton = Everything that is Everything that is not the Axial not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs pelvis and limbs www.freelivedoctor.com www.freelivedoctor.com

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Page 1: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

The Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton =Appendicular Skeleton =

Everything that is not the Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbsand limbs

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Page 2: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Clavicle Clavicle (collarbone)(collarbone)

Manubrium to Acromion

Frequently fractured

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Page 3: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Scapula Scapula (shoulder blade)(shoulder blade)

Origin of biceps brachii muscle:Origin of biceps brachii muscle:Coracoid ProcessCoracoid ProcessSupraglenoid tubercleSupraglenoid tubercle

GlenoidGlenoid SpineSpine AcromionAcromion Acromioclavicular Acromioclavicular

jointjoint Inferior and Superior Inferior and Superior

AnglesAngles

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Page 4: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

The ArmThe Arm

Synonym: Upper limbSynonym: Upper limb Upper Arm = BrachiumUpper Arm = Brachium Forearm = Forearm =

AntebrachiumAntebrachium

Humerus, Radius and Humerus, Radius and UlnaUlna

Carpus (wrist)Carpus (wrist)

Hand (manus)Hand (manus)

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Page 5: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

HumerusHumerus

HeadHead

Greater and Lesser Greater and Lesser TuberclesTubercles

Intertubercular SulcusIntertubercular Sulcus Biceps tendonBiceps tendon

Coronoid FossaCoronoid Fossa

Olecranon FossaOlecranon Fossa

TrochleaTrochlea

Medial and Lateral Medial and Lateral EpicondylesEpicondyles

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Page 6: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Radius UlnaRadius UlnaHead, neck, shaftHead, neck, shaftInsertion of biceps Insertion of biceps brachii:brachii: Radial TuberosityRadial Tuberosity

Radial Styloid Radial Styloid ProcessProcess

OlecranonOlecranon

Trochlear notchTrochlear notch

Coronoid ProcessCoronoid Process

Ulnar Styloid ProcessUlnar Styloid Process

Interosseous Membrane (between Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna)radius and ulna)

Note how the two bones can Note how the two bones can crosscross

““Funny bone”Funny bone”www.freelivedoctor.comwww.freelivedoctor.com

Page 7: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Carpus = WristCarpus = WristFour ProximalFour Proximal Scaphoid, Scaphoid,

lunate, lunate, triquetrum, triquetrum, pisiformpisiform

Four DistalFour Distal Trapezium, Trapezium,

trapezoid, trapezoid, capitate, hamatecapitate, hamate

Scaphoid is frequently fractured

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Page 8: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Hand = ManusHand = Manus

Five metacarpal bones (1-Five metacarpal bones (1-5)5)

Five fingers Five fingers Labeled 1-5Labeled 1-5 Thumb = Pollex = digit 1Thumb = Pollex = digit 1

Two phalangeal bonesTwo phalangeal bones Fingers = phalanges = digits Fingers = phalanges = digits

2-52-5Three phalangeal bonesThree phalangeal bones

Proximal, middle, distalProximal, middle, distal

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Page 9: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

The GirdlesThe Girdles

Pectoral GirdlePectoral Girdle Supports the ArmsSupports the Arms Clavicle and ScapulaClavicle and Scapula

Pelvic GirdlePelvic Girdle Supports the LegsSupports the Legs Pelvis (os coxae)Pelvis (os coxae)

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Page 10: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Pelvis = Pelvis = os coxae = hip boneos coxae = hip bone

Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis (innominate bone)Pubis (innominate bone)

Anterior and posterior iliac Anterior and posterior iliac spines meet to form the iliac spines meet to form the iliac crestcrest

Greater and Lesser Sciatic Greater and Lesser Sciatic NotchesNotches

Ischial TuberosityIschial Tuberosity

AcetabulumAcetabulum Acetabular fossaAcetabular fossa

Obturator ForamenObturator Foramen

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Page 11: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

More PelvisMore Pelvis

Articular Surface for Articular Surface for Articulation with SacrumArticulation with Sacrum

Difference between male Difference between male and femaleand female

Pelvic (or pubic) Pelvic (or pubic) symphysissymphysis

FibrocartilageFibrocartilage Stretches at childbirth Stretches at childbirth

(Relaxin)(Relaxin)

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Page 12: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

The legThe leg

AKA Lower LimbAKA Lower Limb

FemurFemur

PatellaPatella

Tibia/fibulaTibia/fibula

TarsusTarsus

FootFoot

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Page 13: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

FemurFemurHead and fovea capitusHead and fovea capitus Articulate with pelvis Articulate with pelvis

Neck (“fx pelvis”)Neck (“fx pelvis”)Greater and Lesser Greater and Lesser TrochantersTrochantersShaftShaftLateral and medial Lateral and medial condyles and condyles and epicondylesepicondylesIntercondylar fossaIntercondylar fossaPatellar SurfacePatellar Surface

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Page 14: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Patella Patella = knee cap= knee cap

Sesamoid BoneSesamoid Bone

Enclosed in the Enclosed in the tendon of the tendon of the quadriceps group of quadriceps group of musclesmuscles

“Skyline” MRI of patellawww.freelivedoctor.comwww.freelivedoctor.com

Page 15: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Tibia Tibia = shin bone= shin bone

Lateral and medial Lateral and medial condylescondyles Intercondylar eminenceIntercondylar eminence

Tibial tuberosityTibial tuberosity

Inferior articular Inferior articular surfacesurface

Medial malleolusMedial malleolus (= ankle bone)(= ankle bone)

Interosseous MembraneInterosseous Membranewww.freelivedoctor.comwww.freelivedoctor.com

Page 16: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

FibulaFibula

HeadHead

ShaftShaft

Lateral malleolusLateral malleolus (= ankle bone)(= ankle bone)

Not weight bearingNot weight bearing Frequent fxFrequent fx

Interosseous MembraneInterosseous Membranewww.freelivedoctor.comwww.freelivedoctor.com

Page 17: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Tarsus (7 bones)Tarsus (7 bones) Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

NavicularNavicular

CuboidCuboid

Cunieform (3)Cunieform (3) CalcaneusCalcaneus

TalusTalus

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Page 18: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

FootFoot

Metatarsals (1-5)Metatarsals (1-5)

Phalanges (3 per toe Phalanges (3 per toe except big toe)except big toe)

Longitudinal ArchesLongitudinal Arches Medial and lateralMedial and lateral

Transverse ArchTransverse Arch

Dancer’s fx

Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

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Page 19: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Bones of the SkullBones of the Skull

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Page 20: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Bones of the SkullBones of the Skull

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Page 21: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Cranial Bones, AKA calvarium

vs.

Facial Bones

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Page 22: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Bones of the CalvariumBones of the Calvarium

FrontalFrontal (forehead) (forehead) Anterior fossa of base of skullAnterior fossa of base of skull Frontal CrestsFrontal Crests

More prominent in maleMore prominent in male Frontal sinusesFrontal sinuses

ParietalParietal (2) (2) SuturesSutures

OccipitalOccipital Foramen MagnumForamen Magnum Occipital Condyles articulate with Occipital Condyles articulate with

CC11

Occipital CrestOccipital Crest

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Page 23: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Bones of the Calvarium, cont’dBones of the Calvarium, cont’d

Temporal (4 parts): Temporal (4 parts): Squamous (very thin),Squamous (very thin), Mastoid (means breast-like) processMastoid (means breast-like) process

Small sinusSmall sinus Petrous Petrous

Houses inner earHouses inner earAcoustic meatusAcoustic meatusJugular foramenJugular foramen

Zygomatic processZygomatic process Styloid ProcessStyloid Process

“In one of these, the squamosal section of the temporal bone had been crushed, and another showed a jagged hole through the parietal bone.”The Bounty Trilogy, 1788

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Page 24: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Bones of the Calvarium floorBones of the Calvarium floor

SphenoidSphenoid Sella turcica houses pituitary Sella turcica houses pituitary

glandgland

Ethmoid Ethmoid (sieve) (sieve) Cribriform plate for olfactory Cribriform plate for olfactory

nervenerve Crista galliCrista galli Part of nasal septumPart of nasal septum

FrontalFrontalTemporalTemporal

Petrous partPetrous part

OccipitalOccipital Foramen magnumForamen magnum

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Page 25: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Facial bonesFacial bones

Maxilla (2)Maxilla (2) Alveolar margin for teethAlveolar margin for teeth Maxillary sinusMaxillary sinus Anterior portion of hard palateAnterior portion of hard palate

Palatine (2)Palatine (2) Posterior aspect of hard palatePosterior aspect of hard palate

Nasal (2)Nasal (2)

Inferior Nasal conchae (2)Inferior Nasal conchae (2) Will be covered in Respiratory Will be covered in Respiratory

SystemSystem

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Page 26: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Facial bones, cont’dFacial bones, cont’d

Zygomatic (2) Zygomatic (2) AKA cheek bonesAKA cheek bones Zygomatic process of temporal boneZygomatic process of temporal bone

Lacrimal (2)Lacrimal (2) Lacrimal sacLacrimal sac

VomerVomer Part of nasal septumPart of nasal septum

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Page 27: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Facial bones, cont’dFacial bones, cont’d

MandibleMandible Mandibular condyles Mandibular condyles

(TMJ)(TMJ) Mandibular notchMandibular notch Coronoid processCoronoid process RamusRamus AngleAngle

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Page 28: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

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Page 29: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Sutures and FontanelsSutures and Fontanels

Fibrous Articulation, no Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthoodmovement, fused in adulthood

Lambdoidal—betw occipital and Lambdoidal—betw occipital and parietalparietal

(mid) Saggital --- betw parietals(mid) Saggital --- betw parietals Coronal– betw frontal and Coronal– betw frontal and

parietalsparietals Squamous – betw parietals and Squamous – betw parietals and

temporalstemporals

Anterior and Posterior Anterior and Posterior FontanelsFontanels

““Soft spot” of NewbornSoft spot” of Newborn

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Page 30: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses

Frontal

Ethmoid

Sphenoid

Maxillary

Narrow passageways from each sinus provide communication with nasal cavitywww.freelivedoctor.com www.freelivedoctor.com

Page 31: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Hyoid BoneHyoid Bone

Inferior to the Inferior to the mandiblemandible

Superior to the larynxSuperior to the larynx

Supports many Supports many cervical musclescervical muscles

Supports the larynxSupports the larynx

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Page 32: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral Column

7 Cervical7 Cervical

12 Thoracic12 Thoracic

5 Lumbar5 Lumbar

5 Sacral (fused)5 Sacral (fused)

4 Coccygeal (usually)4 Coccygeal (usually)

Curvatures:Curvatures:Cervical, Thoracic, Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, SacralLumbar, Sacral

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Page 33: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

A “Typical” VertebraA “Typical” Vertebra

Body and intervertebral disks

Spinous Process

Intervertebral Foramina

Articular processes/facetsSuperiorInferior

Vertebral (neural) ArchPedicles and Laminae

Vertebral Canal/foramen

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Page 34: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Cervical Vertebrae (CCervical Vertebrae (C11 – C – C 77))

CC11 = Atlas (no body) = Atlas (no body)CC11-C-C22 – site of rotation – site of rotationCC22 = Axis (dens) = Axis (dens)CC33 - C - C66 are similar are similarNote the Note the transverse transverse foraminaforamina in each cervical in each cervical vertebravertebra

Vertebral Artery/VeinVertebral Artery/Vein

CC77 has the vertebra has the vertebra prominensprominens

C1

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Page 35: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Thoracic Vertebrae (TThoracic Vertebrae (T11 - T - T1212))

Large Spinous ProcessesArticulations for ribs, both superior and inferior

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Page 36: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Lumbar Vertebrae (LLumbar Vertebrae (L11 - L - L55))

BodyBody

Spinous ProcessSpinous Process

LaminaLamina

Articular FacetsArticular Facets

Transverse ProcessTransverse Process

PediclePedicle

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Intervertebral ArticulationIntervertebral Articulation

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Page 38: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Intervertebral DiskIntervertebral DiskNucleus PulposusNucleus PulposusAnnulus FibrosusAnnulus Fibrosus

FibrocartilageFibrocartilageSee Fig. 8-9

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Page 39: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Damage to the Intervertebral DiscsDamage to the Intervertebral Discs

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Page 40: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

The GirdlesThe Girdles

Pectoral GirdlePectoral Girdle Supports the ArmsSupports the Arms Clavicle and ScapulaClavicle and Scapula

Pelvic GirdlePelvic Girdle Supports the LegsSupports the Legs PelvisPelvis

Ilium, ischium, pubic boneIlium, ischium, pubic bone

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Page 41: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

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Page 42: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Sacrum (5 fused)Sacrum (5 fused)Coccyx (3-5 fused)Coccyx (3-5 fused)

Sacroiliac jointSacroiliac joint

Sacral ForaminaSacral Foramina

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Page 43: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Thoracic (Rib) CageThoracic (Rib) Cage

Protection and muscle attachmentsProtection and muscle attachmentsRibsRibs – 12 pairs – 12 pairs

1 - 7 are “true” ribs, with attachment to the sternum1 - 7 are “true” ribs, with attachment to the sternum 8 - 12 attach indirectly to the sternum, or not at all8 - 12 attach indirectly to the sternum, or not at all

Costal CartilagesCostal Cartilages

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Page 44: Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

Thoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’dThoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’d

SternumSternum ManubriumManubrium

Clavicular NotchClavicular Notch BodyBody XiphoidXiphoid

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