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Applications Manual Volume 1Table of ContentsSection 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8 Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications Chlor-Alkali Industries Applications Mineral Acids Applications PTA Applications Titanium Dioxide Hydrocracking Applications Delayed Coker Applications Combined Cycle Unit Applications

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications

Table of Contents Page Number 1. Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 Rationale and Methodology Raw Materials and Derivatives Corn Wet Milling and Refining Process 1-1 1-2 1-4

2.

Market Profile 2.1 2.2 Market Drivers and Growth Competition 2-1 2-2

3.

Flowserve Experience 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Flowserve Sales Decision Makers Competitive Advantages of Durco Process Pumps Guidelines for Seals Plant and Pump Details 3-1 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-5

4.

Pump Recommendations 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Steep House Mill House Germ Plant Feed House Modification (Mod) House Syrup Refinery Auxiliary Pumps Profile of End-Users OEMS and Engineering Contractors Master List of Pump Applications Conversion Factors: Alloys, Volumes and Temperatures 4-3 4-8 4 - 15 4 - 20 4 - 23 4 - 24 4 - 31 A- 1 B-1 C-1 D-1

Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D

i

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications

Exhibits Page Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Components of a Corn Kernel Derivatives of Corn Other Raw Materials Used in Milling and Refining Upstream Processes in Corn Milling and Refining Corn Derivatives in the United States Flowserve Sales of Durco Process Pumps in Corn Wet Milling and Refining Flowserve Customers Plant Organizational Chart Typical Plant Layout Pumps Used in Corn Wet Milling and Refining Pump Applications List: Corn Wet Milling and Refining Pump Applications List: Steep House Pump Applications List: Mill House Pump Applications List: Germ Plant Pump Applications List: Feed House Pump Applications List: Syrup Refinery Pump Applications List: Auxiliary Pumps Alloy Conversions Volume Conversions Temperature Conversions 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-4 2-1 3-1

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. D.1 D.2 D.3

3-2 3-3 3-6 3-7 4-2 4-3 4-8 4 - 15 4 - 20 4 - 25 4 - 31 D-1 D-1 D-1

ii

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications

1. 1.1

Introduction Rationale and Methodology

Over the last twenty years, Flowserves Durco Process Pump business has developed a leading presence in the corn1 wet milling and refining industry. Although technically part of the food and beverage segment, the industry requires chemical process pumps for abrasive corn slurries and numerous other applications. Driving this market today are the corn syrups produced from corn starch. Demand has been on the rise around the world because these corn syrups are 1.) economical sugar substitutes, and 2.) important ingredients for processed foods and beverages, notably soft drinks. In response to increasing opportunities around the world, a global consolidation is underway in corn wet milling and refining. Whereas many small local producers once existed, a handful of large producers are emerging. Most have well established operations in North America and West Europe, and are now expanding via acquisitions and joint ventures in developing regions. Given Flowserves experience serving corn wet millers in developed regions, as well as this new growth potential in developing areas, it seemed logical to create an applications manual specifically for the wet milling and refining processes. The purpose of the manual is therefore twofold: Introduce Flowserve sales personnel to the market as a preparation to pursue new pump business, especially in Asia Pacific, East Europe and Latin America Consolidate and share Flowserves modular pump experience in this market so that all sales personnel can offer proven pump solutions. This manual represents the collective work of numerous Flowserve sales engineers and other personnel who have knowledge of the industry. Resources for further information include Corn Refiners Association (Washington, DC USA), the Association Des Amidonnieries De Cereales De LUE (Brussels, Belgium), and the textbook Technology of Corn Wet Milling.2

1

Corn wet milling, as it is known in North America, is referred to as maize wet milling in Europe and other parts of the world. In addition to corn, other starchy grains, fruits and vegetables are wet milled. Paul Harwood Blanchard, Technology of Corn Wet Milling, Elsevier Science Publishers BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1992.

2

Flowserve RED 06/98

1-1

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications

1.2

Raw Materials and Derivatives

Each corn kernel is composed of four materials: 1.) germ, where oil is found 2.) hull, a fibrous material 3.) gluten, a protein 4.) starch EXHIBIT 1 Components of a Corn Kernel

By wet milling corn, the kernels are broken down and the four component parts separated. Water is used throughout the milling process to soften and transport the corn, hence the term wet milling. After the four components have been milled, they are refined to make value-added products. Exhibit 2 illustrates the types of products which can be made from corn. EXHIBIT 2 Derivatives of Corn

Flowserve RED 06/98

1-2

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications

In addition to corn, numerous other agricultural products are wet milled and refined into similar value-added products. EXHIBIT 3 Other Raw Materials Used in Milling and Refining OTHER RAW MATERIALS Arrowroot Barley Cassava Manioc Potato Rice Sago Sorghum Tapioca Wheat COMMENTS Tropical American plant; root contains starch Cereal grass; seed contains starch Tropical plant; root contains starch Tropical plant; similar to cassava Primarily milled in Europe Cereal grass; seed contains starch Palm plant; pith contains starch Tropical grass; similar to corn Also called cassava (see above) Cereal grass; seed contains starch; primarily milled in Europe; more abrasive than corn

Other raw materials are used in parts of the world where corn is less abundant or more expensive. The milling process is generally the same, but there can be differences, such as Method of milling (dry and wet) Number and nature of separation steps Hardness of raw material (abrasion concern) For example, wheat milling involves dry and wet processes. In the dry process, some starch burns and must be removed from the rest of the starch. This is done via a wetted centrifugal separation, but unlike the slurries in corn wet milling, the separation is difficult because the specific gravity of burned and unburned starch is similar. To adjust for this, the suction pressures at the inlet of the pump tend to be higher.

Flowserve RED 06/98

1-3

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications

1.3

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Process

Corn wet milling and refining is a term used to describe numerous processes involved in converting corn into value-added products. During milling, corn is separated into its four components (germ, hull, gluten, starch). The components are then refined into any number of derivatives (food ingredients, chemicals, fuels, etc.).3 A corn wet milling and refining plant will consist of numerous sub-plants. At a minimum, most plants include the facilities and upstream processes highlighted in Exhibit 4: EXHIBIT 4 Upstream Processes in Corn Wet Milling and Refining

For recommended pump specifications used in these upstream processes, see Section 4, Pump Recommendations. A corn wet milling and refining plant can include various other downstream processing facilities which also require large numbers of process pumps. These facilities may be owned by the corn wet miller, or by one of its customers which uses corn derivatives as feedstock. Although not covered in detail in this manual, a few examples of downstream facilities and/or products are: - Citric Acid - Itaconic Acid - Mono Sodium Glutamate - Vitamin E - Erythritol - Lactic Acid - Polyol - Ethanol Fuel - Lysine - Sorbitol

3

Most plants include both milling and refining processes, but are often referred to jointly as simply corn wet milling.

Flowserve RED 06/98

1-4

Corn Wet Milling and Refining Applications

2.

Market Profile

2.1

Market Drivers and Growth

The corn wet milling market is driven by demand for its derivatives. The situation in the United States, where the industry is well developed, shows that corn syrups are the largest derivative: EXHIBIT 5 Corn Derivatives in the United States

Corn syrups are part of the 5.3 billion bushel (135 million tonnes) per year sweeteners market. Seventy-nine percent of this market is found in developing regions of the world, so economic development there drives much of the demand for sweeteners. With moderate economic growth expected during 1998, the sweetener market is set to expand 2%. Higher growth is anticipated in the longer term as economic development and population growth rates accelerate. Corn syrups are an expanding part of the world sweeteners market. Representing about 20% of the world sweeteners market, corn syrups are found predominantly in processed foods and beverages. As standards of living increase around the world, so too has demand for these food products and the corn syrups used to make them. Corn syrup production has historically been more significant in North America than in other parts of the world. In Europe, Asia Pacific and Latin America, protected sugar industries have supplied most of the sweetener requirements. Smaller corn wet milling and refining facilities do exist, yet their production has been limited. Despite this there are still significant expansion and upgrade projects in progress today, with even greater potenti