Application of Lean in Product and Manufacturing of Lean in Product and Manufacturing Engineering ... tools bring to make product development 'Lean'. ... described 'Lean' principles are

Download Application of Lean in Product and Manufacturing   of Lean in Product and Manufacturing Engineering ... tools bring to make product development 'Lean'. ... described 'Lean' principles are

Post on 03-Apr-2018

215 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>W</p><p>HITEP</p><p>APER</p><p>ApplicationofLeaninProduct</p><p>andManufacturingEngineering</p><p>Version 1.0January2010</p></li><li><p> 2</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p>CopyrightNotice</p><p>GeometricLimited.Allrightsreserved.</p><p>Nopartofthisdocument(whetherinhardcopyorelectronicform)maybereproduced,storedinaretrieval</p><p>system,ortransmitted, inany formorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,or</p><p>otherwise, to any third partywithout thewritten permission of Geometric Limited. Geometric Limited</p><p>reservestherighttochangetheinformationcontainedinthisdocumentwithoutpriornotice.</p><p>The names or trademarks or registered trademarks used in this document are the sole property of the</p><p>respectiveownersandaregoverned/protectedbytherelevanttrademarkandcopyrightlaws.</p><p>ThisdocumentisprovidedbyGeometricLimitedforinformationalpurposesonly,withoutrepresentationor</p><p>warrantyofanykind,andGeometricLimitedshallnotbeliableforerrorsoromissionswithrespecttothe</p><p>document.The informationcontainedherein isprovidedonanASISbasisand to themaximumextent</p><p>permittedbyapplicablelaw,GeometricLimitedherebydisclaimsallotherwarrantiesandconditions,either</p><p>express, implied or statutory, including but not limited to, any (if any) implied warranties, duties or</p><p>conditionsofmerchantability,offitnessforaparticularpurpose,ofaccuracyorcompletenessofresponses,</p><p>of results, of workmanlike effort, of lack of viruses, and of lack of negligence, all with regard to the</p><p>document.</p><p>THEREISNOWARRANTYORCONDITIONOFNONINFRINGEMENTOFANYINTELLECTUALPROPERTYRIGHTS</p><p>WITH REGARD TO THEDOCUMENT. INNO EVENTWILLGEOMETRIC LIMITED BE LIABLE TOANYOTHER</p><p>PARTYFOR LOSTPROFITS, LOSSOFUSE, LOSSOFDATA,ORANY INCIDENTAL,CONSEQUENTIAL,DIRECT,</p><p>INDIRECT, OR SPECIAL DAMAGES WHETHER UNDER CONTRACT, TORT, WARRANTY, OR OTHERWISE,</p><p>ARISINGINANYWAYOUTOFTHISDOCUMENT,WHETHERORNOTSUCHPARTYHADADVANCENOTICEOF</p><p>THEPOSSIBILITYOFSUCHDAMAGES.</p><p>ConfidentialityNotice</p><p>Thisdocumentisdisclosedonlytotherecipientpursuanttoaconfidentialityrelationshipunderwhichthe</p><p>recipient has confidentiality obligations defined herein after. This document constitutes confidential</p><p>informationandcontainsproprietaryinformationbelongingtoGeometricLimited,andtherecipient,byits</p><p>receiptofthisdocument,acknowledgesthesame.Therecipientshallusetheconfidentialinformationonly</p><p>for thepurposedefinedabove forwhich thisdocument issupplied.TherecipientmustobtainGeometric</p><p>Limitedswrittenconsentbeforetherecipientdisclosesanyinformationonthecontentsorsubjectmatter</p><p>ofthisdocumentorpartthereoftoanythirdpartywhichmayincludeanindividual,firmorcompanyoran</p><p>employeeoremployeesof sucha firmor company.The recipientacknowledges itsobligation to comply</p><p>withtheprovisionsofthisconfidentialitynotice.</p></li><li><p> 3</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p>Contents</p><p>Abstract................................................................................................................... 5</p><p>Introduction ............................................................................................................ 5</p><p>Scope&amp;Objective................................................................................................... 5</p><p>Scope ................................................................................................................................................ 5</p><p>Objective........................................................................................................................................... 6</p><p>Applicabilityof'Lean' .............................................................................................. 6</p><p>ValueandValueStream.......................................................................................... 7</p><p>Value................................................................................................................................................. 7</p><p>DesignValueStream......................................................................................................................... 8</p><p>EliminationofNVAs .......................................................................................................................... 8</p><p>Waiting.............................................................................................................................................. 9</p><p>Conveyance&amp;Handoff.................................................................................................................... 9</p><p>Correction ......................................................................................................................................... 9</p><p>Flow....................................................................................................................... 10</p><p>ContinuousIntegration&amp;Validation.............................................................................................. 10</p><p>WorkflowAutomation .................................................................................................................... 11</p><p>Pull......................................................................................................................... 11</p><p>SimplifyDesignModifications......................................................................................................... 11</p><p>AssociativeChangePropagation..................................................................................................... 12</p><p>ContinuousImprovement..................................................................................... 12</p><p>ShorteningtheIterations................................................................................................................ 12</p><p>ReducingIterationCycles ............................................................................................................... 13</p><p>Implementation .................................................................................................... 13</p></li><li><p> 4</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p>IncrementalImplementation.......................................................................................................... 13</p><p>KnowledgeUtilization..................................................................................................................... 14</p><p>Conclusion............................................................................................................. 14</p><p>References ............................................................................................................ 15</p><p>AbouttheAuthor .................................................................................................. 15</p><p>AboutGeometric .................................................................................................. 16</p></li><li><p> 5</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p>Abstract</p><p>This whitepaper discusses 'Lean' to continuously enhance product and manufacturing</p><p>engineeringprocesses. Itexplainsapplicationof 'Lean'principlesto improveproductivity, lead</p><p>time,andresponsivenesstochangethroughreallifeexamples.Toimplement'Lean'itproposes</p><p>anincrementalandselfsustainingapproach,supplementedbyCAxautomationsandKBE.</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Shorteningproductdevelopmentleadtime,whilereducingthecostandincreasingreliability,isa</p><p>perpetualchallengeofengineering.This,coupledwithchangingconsumerneeds,doesntmake</p><p>product development any easier. While manufacturing function has embraced the lean</p><p>philosophywith relativeeaseandenthusiasm, it isa struggle forengineeringdue to inherent</p><p>uncertainties.</p><p>Thiswhitepaperdiscussesanapproachtocontinuallyenhancetheeffectivenessandefficiencyof</p><p>product development. We believe the first step is always to get the process right, before</p><p>deploying tools and technologies to run it better.We have also tried to illustrate the power</p><p>technologytoolsbringtomakeproductdevelopment'Lean'.</p><p>Scope&amp;Objective</p><p>This paper focuses on engineering pieces of product development with an objective that is</p><p>definedfromtheproductdevelopmentcontext.</p><p>ScopeEngineering functions define component specifications andmanufacturing process in product</p><p>development.'ProductandManufacturingEngineering'contributeinexcessof80%towardsthe</p><p>productdevelopmentcosts;and includesgeometrycreationandconsumptionacrossdifferent</p><p>engineeringsubfunctions.</p><p>Define Develop CommercializeServices&amp;Support</p><p>RetireProductLifecycle</p><p>SystemEngineering</p><p>Design&amp;Verification</p><p>Mfg.Planning&amp;Tooling</p><p>ProcessPlanning</p><p>EngineeringActivity</p><p>Planning&amp;Ideation Production</p><p>ProductDevelopment</p><p>ProductEngineering</p><p>ManufacturingEngineering</p></li><li><p> 6</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p>Thiswhitepaper isaroundproductandmanufacturingengineering,with focusoncomponent</p><p>development. For remaining part of the white paper this scope is referred as 'Engineering</p><p>Activity'.</p><p>Objective</p><p>Componentdevelopmentmaturesthroughiterativedevelopment,whichcanberepresentedby</p><p>aspiralmovingtowardcenter.Timetakentotraversethespiral is leadtimeand lengthofthe</p><p>spiralisthetotaleffort.Atanypointradiusrepresentsflexibilitytomodifythedesign.</p><p>OptimalDesign</p><p>Fromthisanalogy,objectivesofleanimplementationaredefinedas</p><p> Shorteningthetotalspirallengthtoreducetheefforts.</p><p> Reducetotaltimeoftraversalonspiraltoreducetheleadtime.</p><p> Increasingflexibilitytoadaptthespiralforshiftinspiralcenter.</p><p> Getmoreinsightfromeachrevolution,tograduallyreducenumberofrevolutions.</p><p>Applicabilityof'Lean'</p><p>'Lean'isagenericphilosophy.Variousorganizationshavesuccessfullyapplied'Lean'toactivities</p><p>rangingfromaspecifictasktoenterpriselevel.Commonlydescribed'Lean'principlesare</p><p> Specifyvaluefromthestandpointoftheendcustomer</p></li><li><p> 7</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p> Identifyallstepsinvaluestreamandeliminatestepsthatdonotcreatevalue</p><p> Followvaluecreationstepstoachieveasmoothvalueflowtowardthecustomer</p><p> Letcustomerspullvaluefromthenextupstreamactivity</p><p> Eliminatefurtherwasteandpursueperfectionthroughcontinuousimprovement</p><p>Dueto inherentvariations inengineeringactivity, it isthoughtthat 'Lean'cannotbeapplied in</p><p>engineering.Butvariousreferencessuggestsizeableopportunitiesinmultiplepockets.</p><p> Engineeringjobsspend60%oftheleadtimeinwaiting</p><p> 40%oftheengineeringhoursarepurewaste</p><p> 72%ofproductqualityissuescanbetracedtodesignprocess</p><p>Engineering is combination of craft and science,which includes creative and repetitive tasks.</p><p>'Leaning'repetitivetasksofferslargeropportunitiesforimprovementinengineeringactivity.</p><p>'Lean'canbeappliedtothespiralofengineeringactivitytoachievethedefinedobjectives.The</p><p>'Value&amp;ValueStream'canbeused todefinecontributionsexpected fromeach task,and trim</p><p>'Waste' segments to reduce length of each revolution. The 'Flow' principle can be used to</p><p>eliminateblockagesandspeedupflowonspiral,reducingthetotaltraversaltime.'Pull'increases</p><p>flexibility for shift in spiral center to allow late changes in the requirement. 'Continuous</p><p>Improvement' isusedto increaseefficiencyandeffectivnessofeachcycletoreducenumberof</p><p>revolutions.</p><p>ValueandValueStream</p><p>'Value'isprovidingrightproduct/serviceatrighttimeandatrightprice,asdeterminedbythe</p><p>customer.ValueStreamMapping(VSM)isusedtocapturesequenceoftasksandsegregatethem</p><p>intoValueAddandNonValueAdds(VA/NVA),therebyhelpingtoeliminateNonValueAdd</p><p>tasks.</p><p>Value</p><p>Any activity / effort that can be directly traced to improving the product is said to be value</p><p>adding (VA),anythingelse isnonvalueadding (NVA). IdeaofLean is to reduce theamountof</p><p>timeandeffortspentonNVA.Someactivitiesaffecttheproductdirectly,andsomeotherswill</p><p>improvetheenterprisesabilitytocontinuallybettertheproduct.</p></li><li><p> 8</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p> Foreseeissuestoreducerisk CAE/CFDanalysis Expertreviews</p><p> Materialchoices Defineshapeanddimensions</p><p> Defineprocesstodeliverproduct</p><p> Manufacturingplanning Toolingdesign</p><p>ValuetoProduct</p><p> Specificationforfunctionalperformance Understandingoftradeoffs Feasible/Infeasibletradeoffs Cost/Qualityimplications</p><p> Experiencegainedbyengineers Insighttohandlecomplextasks Bestpracticesaboutusageoftools</p><p> Understandingofprocessdynamics ProjectManagementdata Tool/processenhancementneeds</p><p>KnowledgeforEnterprise</p><p>DesignValueStream</p><p>Engineeringactivitypresentsuniquechallenges inapplicationofVSM,due toconcurrent tasks</p><p>and iterations. This can be tackled by creating amap for a typical iteration and bymapping</p><p>concurrencies and subbranches of VSM. The mapping follows the development beyond</p><p>organizationalboundaries.</p><p>EliminationofNVAs</p><p>'Lean' defines seven sources of waste overproduction, waiting, conveyance, inventory,</p><p>processing,motion,andcorrections.Eliminatingthesesourcesreducesthetotalworkcontent.If</p><p>eliminationisnotfeasible,countermeasuresshouldbeusedtoreduceitsimpact.</p><p>Theengineeringactivityhasallsourcesofwasteindifferentforms,butvarioussurveysshowthat</p><p>waiting,conveyanceandcorrectioncontributetothemajorityofwaste.</p></li><li><p> 9</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p>Waiting</p><p>Engineering jobswait forcapacity (e.g.experts time forreview,computingcapacity) tohandle</p><p>the job, or for information required to proceed with the job. Due to inherent variability in</p><p>engineeringactivity,itisnoteasytoensureaccesstorightcapacitymerelythroughcoordination</p><p>andsynchronization.Soitbecomesnecessarytofindcreativewaystoincreasethecapacityina</p><p>flexiblemanner.</p><p>Conveyance&amp;Handoff</p><p>AteverytouchpointdefinedintheVSM,engineeringhoursarespentonmodelderivationtosuit</p><p>thedownstreamfunction.Fore.g.:</p><p> Analysis idealizationandboundary conditionplacement requiresmanualeffortonpartoftheanalyst</p><p> Manufacturingmodel requiresvariousmodifications formanufacturingallowances,and togeneratebillofprocess</p><p>Inherentdifferencesbetweenvariousfunctionsmakeitimpossibletoeliminatemodelderivation.</p><p>Butderivationeffortcanbereducedby2050%byutilitiestoassistthederivationprocess.</p><p>An automation utility to evaluate weight and CG at eachsectionwillreducetheanalystseffortofModelDerivation.It saves the cost of analysis, and simultaneously eliminateserrorsassociatedwithmanualwork.</p><p>Structural analysis of airplane wingmust account for selfweightofthewingstructure.Analystcutsthewinggeometryinmultiplesectionstoevaluateweightandcenterofgravity(CG)ofeachsectionaspartofModelDerivation.</p><p>Correction</p><p>Designmistakesresult indesigncorrections,which iswasteaccordingto leanprinciples. 'Lean'</p><p>advocatesmistakeproofingtoavoidortowarnagainstmistakes.Inengineeringactivity,40%of</p><p>theiterationsareduetoerrorsinphysicaldesign.Hence,physicaldesignshouldbeatargetfor</p><p>mistakeproofing.</p></li><li><p> 10</p><p>GettingreadyforPLM</p><p>Checksurfacesforminbendradius</p><p>MistakesinHVACgeometrycanbeeliminatedbytwomistakeproofingmethods</p><p> Check and restrict selection of inputs. Assuming that the duct is created bysweeping,checkifpathcurveshavelinesandarcsonly.</p><p> Validateoutputatexitandraiseerror/warning, ifthereareanynonplanerandnoncylindricalsurfaces,orifthereareanyminimumbendradiusviolations.</p><p>Due to manufacturingconstraints HVAC ductgeometriesmustbeplaner/cylindrical. Any othergeometry will result inchange requests frommanufacturing.</p><p>HVACDuctmanufacturedfrom</p><p>SheetmetalPathcurveconsistsoflines&amp;arcs</p><p>Flow</p><p>'Flow'reducesleadtime,byrunningvaluecreatingstepsintightersequence.Inmanufacturing,</p><p>flowreducesleadtimebyeliminatingbatchandachievingsinglepieceflow.</p><p>Inengineeringactivity,batchesoccurat integrationandvalidationpoints.Thebatches canbe</p><p>reduced, if design flows in smaller increments by continuous integration and validation, and</p><p>increasedcapacitythroughworkflowautomation.</p><p>ContinuousIntegration&amp;Validation</p><p>Atypicalproductdevelopment integratesthesystematfixedtime i...</p></li></ul>