Application of Lean in Product and Manufacturing of Lean in Product and Manufacturing Engineering ... tools bring to make product development 'Lean'. ... described 'Lean' principles are ...

Download Application of Lean in Product and Manufacturing   of Lean in Product and Manufacturing Engineering ... tools bring to make product development 'Lean'. ... described 'Lean' principles are ...

Post on 03-Apr-2018

215 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • W

    HITEP

    APER

    ApplicationofLeaninProduct

    andManufacturingEngineering

    Version 1.0January2010

  • 2

    GettingreadyforPLM

    CopyrightNotice

    GeometricLimited.Allrightsreserved.

    Nopartofthisdocument(whetherinhardcopyorelectronicform)maybereproduced,storedinaretrieval

    system,ortransmitted, inany formorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,or

    otherwise, to any third partywithout thewritten permission of Geometric Limited. Geometric Limited

    reservestherighttochangetheinformationcontainedinthisdocumentwithoutpriornotice.

    The names or trademarks or registered trademarks used in this document are the sole property of the

    respectiveownersandaregoverned/protectedbytherelevanttrademarkandcopyrightlaws.

    ThisdocumentisprovidedbyGeometricLimitedforinformationalpurposesonly,withoutrepresentationor

    warrantyofanykind,andGeometricLimitedshallnotbeliableforerrorsoromissionswithrespecttothe

    document.The informationcontainedherein isprovidedonanASISbasisand to themaximumextent

    permittedbyapplicablelaw,GeometricLimitedherebydisclaimsallotherwarrantiesandconditions,either

    express, implied or statutory, including but not limited to, any (if any) implied warranties, duties or

    conditionsofmerchantability,offitnessforaparticularpurpose,ofaccuracyorcompletenessofresponses,

    of results, of workmanlike effort, of lack of viruses, and of lack of negligence, all with regard to the

    document.

    THEREISNOWARRANTYORCONDITIONOFNONINFRINGEMENTOFANYINTELLECTUALPROPERTYRIGHTS

    WITH REGARD TO THEDOCUMENT. INNO EVENTWILLGEOMETRIC LIMITED BE LIABLE TOANYOTHER

    PARTYFOR LOSTPROFITS, LOSSOFUSE, LOSSOFDATA,ORANY INCIDENTAL,CONSEQUENTIAL,DIRECT,

    INDIRECT, OR SPECIAL DAMAGES WHETHER UNDER CONTRACT, TORT, WARRANTY, OR OTHERWISE,

    ARISINGINANYWAYOUTOFTHISDOCUMENT,WHETHERORNOTSUCHPARTYHADADVANCENOTICEOF

    THEPOSSIBILITYOFSUCHDAMAGES.

    ConfidentialityNotice

    Thisdocumentisdisclosedonlytotherecipientpursuanttoaconfidentialityrelationshipunderwhichthe

    recipient has confidentiality obligations defined herein after. This document constitutes confidential

    informationandcontainsproprietaryinformationbelongingtoGeometricLimited,andtherecipient,byits

    receiptofthisdocument,acknowledgesthesame.Therecipientshallusetheconfidentialinformationonly

    for thepurposedefinedabove forwhich thisdocument issupplied.TherecipientmustobtainGeometric

    Limitedswrittenconsentbeforetherecipientdisclosesanyinformationonthecontentsorsubjectmatter

    ofthisdocumentorpartthereoftoanythirdpartywhichmayincludeanindividual,firmorcompanyoran

    employeeoremployeesof sucha firmor company.The recipientacknowledges itsobligation to comply

    withtheprovisionsofthisconfidentialitynotice.

  • 3

    GettingreadyforPLM

    Contents

    Abstract................................................................................................................... 5

    Introduction ............................................................................................................ 5

    Scope&Objective................................................................................................... 5

    Scope ................................................................................................................................................ 5

    Objective........................................................................................................................................... 6

    Applicabilityof'Lean' .............................................................................................. 6

    ValueandValueStream.......................................................................................... 7

    Value................................................................................................................................................. 7

    DesignValueStream......................................................................................................................... 8

    EliminationofNVAs .......................................................................................................................... 8

    Waiting.............................................................................................................................................. 9

    Conveyance&Handoff.................................................................................................................... 9

    Correction ......................................................................................................................................... 9

    Flow....................................................................................................................... 10

    ContinuousIntegration&Validation.............................................................................................. 10

    WorkflowAutomation .................................................................................................................... 11

    Pull......................................................................................................................... 11

    SimplifyDesignModifications......................................................................................................... 11

    AssociativeChangePropagation..................................................................................................... 12

    ContinuousImprovement..................................................................................... 12

    ShorteningtheIterations................................................................................................................ 12

    ReducingIterationCycles ............................................................................................................... 13

    Implementation .................................................................................................... 13

  • 4

    GettingreadyforPLM

    IncrementalImplementation.......................................................................................................... 13

    KnowledgeUtilization..................................................................................................................... 14

    Conclusion............................................................................................................. 14

    References ............................................................................................................ 15

    AbouttheAuthor .................................................................................................. 15

    AboutGeometric .................................................................................................. 16

  • 5

    GettingreadyforPLM

    Abstract

    This whitepaper discusses 'Lean' to continuously enhance product and manufacturing

    engineeringprocesses. Itexplainsapplicationof 'Lean'principlesto improveproductivity, lead

    time,andresponsivenesstochangethroughreallifeexamples.Toimplement'Lean'itproposes

    anincrementalandselfsustainingapproach,supplementedbyCAxautomationsandKBE.

    Introduction

    Shorteningproductdevelopmentleadtime,whilereducingthecostandincreasingreliability,isa

    perpetualchallengeofengineering.This,coupledwithchangingconsumerneeds,doesntmake

    product development any easier. While manufacturing function has embraced the lean

    philosophywith relativeeaseandenthusiasm, it isa struggle forengineeringdue to inherent

    uncertainties.

    Thiswhitepaperdiscussesanapproachtocontinuallyenhancetheeffectivenessandefficiencyof

    product development. We believe the first step is always to get the process right, before

    deploying tools and technologies to run it better.We have also tried to illustrate the power

    technologytoolsbringtomakeproductdevelopment'Lean'.

    Scope&Objective

    This paper focuses on engineering pieces of product development with an objective that is

    definedfromtheproductdevelopmentcontext.

    ScopeEngineering functions define component specifications andmanufacturing process in product

    development.'ProductandManufacturingEngineering'contributeinexcessof80%towardsthe

    productdevelopmentcosts;and includesgeometrycreationandconsumptionacrossdifferent

    engineeringsubfunctions.

    Define Develop CommercializeServices&Support

    RetireProductLifecycle

    SystemEngineering

    Design&Verification

    Mfg.Planning&Tooling

    ProcessPlanning

    EngineeringActivity

    Planning&Ideation Production

    ProductDevelopment

    ProductEngineering

    ManufacturingEngineering

  • 6

    GettingreadyforPLM

    Thiswhitepaper isaroundproductandmanufacturingengineering,with focusoncomponent

    development. For remaining part of the white paper this scope is referred as 'Engineering

    Activity'.

    Objective

    Componentdevelopmentmaturesthroughiterativedevelopment,whichcanberepresentedby

    aspiralmovingtowardcenter.Timetakentotraversethespiral is leadtimeand lengthofthe

    spiralisthetotaleffort.Atanypointradiusrepresentsflexibilitytomodifythedesign.

    OptimalDesign

    Fromthisanalogy,objectivesofleanimplementationaredefinedas

    Shorteningthetotalspirallengthtoreducetheefforts.

    Reducetotaltimeoftraversalonspiraltoreducetheleadtime.

    Increasingflexibilitytoadaptthespiralforshiftinspiralcenter.

    Getmoreinsightfromeachrevolution,tograduallyreducenumberofrevolutions.

    Applicabilityof'Lean'

    'Lean'isagenericphilosophy.Variousorganizationshavesuccessfullyapplied'Lean'toactivities

    rangingfromaspecifictasktoenterpriselevel.Commonlydescribed'Lean'principlesare

    Specifyvaluefromthestandpointoftheendcustomer

  • 7

    GettingreadyforPLM

    Identifyallstepsinvaluestreamandeliminatestepsthatdonotcreatevalue

    Followvaluecreationstepstoachieveasmoothvalueflowtowardthecustomer

    Letcustomerspullvaluefromthenextupstreamactivity

    Eliminatefurtherwasteandpursueperfectionthroughcontinuousimprovement

    Dueto inherentvariations inengineeringactivity, it isthoughtthat 'Lean'cannotbeapplied in

    engineering.Butvariousreferencessuggestsizeableopportunitiesinmultiplepockets.

    Engineeringjobsspend60%oftheleadtimeinwaiting

    40%oftheengineeringhoursarepurewaste

    72%ofproductqualityissuescanbetracedtodesignprocess

    Engineering is combination of craft and science,which includes creative and repetitive tasks.

    'Leaning'repetitivetasksofferslargeropportunitiesforimprovementinengineeringactivity.

    'Lean'canbeappliedtothespiralofengineeringactivitytoachievethedefinedobjectives.The

    'Value&ValueStream'canbeused todefinecontributionsexpected fromeach task,and trim

    'Waste' segments to reduce length of each revolution. The 'Flow' principle can be used to

    eliminateblockagesandspeedupflowonspiral,reducingthetotaltraversaltime.'Pull'increases

    flexibility for shift in spiral center to allow late changes in the requirement. 'Continuous

    Improvement' isusedto increaseefficiencyandeffectivnessofeachcycletoreducenumberof

    revolutions.

    ValueandValueStream

    'Value'isprovidingrightproduct/serviceatrighttimeandatrightprice,asdeterminedbythe

    customer.ValueStreamMapping(VSM)isusedtocapturesequenceoftasksandsegregatethem

    intoValueAddandNonValueAdds(VA/NVA),therebyhelpingtoeliminateNonValueAdd

    tasks.

    Value

    Any activity / effort that can be directly traced to improving the product is said to be value

    adding (VA),anythingelse isnonvalueadding (NVA). IdeaofLean is to reduce theamountof

    timeandeffortspentonNVA.Someactivitiesaffecttheproductdirectly,andsomeotherswill

    improvetheenterprisesabilitytocontinuallybettertheproduct.

  • 8

    GettingreadyforPLM

    Foreseeissuestoreducerisk CAE/CFDanalysis Expertreviews

    Materialchoices Defineshapeanddimensions

    Defineprocesstodeliverproduct

    Manufacturingplanning Toolingdesign

    ValuetoProduct

    Specificationforfunctionalperformance Understandingoftradeoffs Feasible/Infeasibletradeoffs Cost/Qualityimplications

    Experiencegainedbyengineers Insighttohandlecomplextasks Bestpracticesaboutusageoftools

    Understandingofprocessdynamics ProjectManagementdata Tool/processenhancementneeds

    KnowledgeforEnterprise

    DesignValueStream

    Engineeringactivitypresentsuniquechallenges inapplicationofVSM,due toconcurrent tasks

    and iterations. This can be tackled by creating amap for a typical iteration and bymapping

    concurrencies and subbranches of VSM. The mapping follows the development beyond

    organizationalboundaries.

    EliminationofNVAs

    'Lean' defines seven sources of waste overproduction, waiting, conveyance, inventory,

    processing,motion,andcorrections.Eliminatingthesesourcesreducesthetotalworkcontent.If

    eliminationisnotfeasible,countermeasuresshouldbeusedtoreduceitsimpact.

    Theengineeringactivityhasallsourcesofwasteindifferentforms,butvarioussurveysshowthat

    waiting,conveyanceandcorrectioncontributetothemajorityofwaste.

  • 9

    GettingreadyforPLM

    Waiting

    Engineering jobswait forcapacity (e.g.experts time forreview,computingcapacity) tohandle

    the job, or for information required to proceed with the job. Due to inherent variability in

    engineeringactivity,itisnoteasytoensureaccesstorightcapacitymerelythroughcoordination

    andsynchronization.Soitbecomesnecessarytofindcreativewaystoincreasethecapacityina

    flexiblemanner.

    Conveyance&Handoff

    AteverytouchpointdefinedintheVSM,engineeringhoursarespentonmodelderivationtosuit

    thedownstreamfunction.Fore.g.:

    Analysis idealizationandboundary conditionplacement requiresmanualeffortonpartoftheanalyst

    Manufacturingmodel requiresvariousmodifications formanufacturingallowances,and togeneratebillofprocess

    Inherentdifferencesbetweenvariousfunctionsmakeitimpossibletoeliminatemodelderivation.

    Butderivationeffortcanbereducedby2050%byutilitiestoassistthederivationprocess.

    An automation utility to evaluate weight and CG at eachsectionwillreducetheanalystseffortofModelDerivation.It saves the cost of analysis, and simultaneously eliminateserrorsassociatedwithmanualwork.

    Structural analysis of airplane wingmust account for selfweightofthewingstructure.Analystcutsthewinggeometryinmultiplesectionstoevaluateweightandcenterofgravity(CG)ofeachsectionaspartofModelDerivation.

    Correction

    Designmistakesresult indesigncorrections,which iswasteaccordingto leanprinciples. 'Lean'

    advocatesmistakeproofingtoavoidortowarnagainstmistakes.Inengineeringactivity,40%of

    theiterationsareduetoerrorsinphysicaldesign.Hence,physicaldesignshouldbeatargetfor

    mistakeproofing.

  • 10

    GettingreadyforPLM

    Checksurfacesforminbendradius

    MistakesinHVACgeometrycanbeeliminatedbytwomistakeproofingmethods

    Check and restrict selection of inputs. Assuming that the duct is created bysweeping,checkifpathcurveshavelinesandarcsonly.

    Validateoutputatexitandraiseerror/warning, ifthereareanynonplanerandnoncylindricalsurfaces,orifthereareanyminimumbendradiusviolations.

    Due to manufacturingconstraints HVAC ductgeometriesmustbeplaner/cylindrical. Any othergeometry will result inchange requests frommanufacturing.

    HVACDuctmanufacturedfrom

    SheetmetalPathcurveconsistsoflines&arcs

    Flow

    'Flow'reducesleadtime,byrunningvaluecreatingstepsintightersequence.Inmanufacturing,

    flowreducesleadtimebyeliminatingbatchandachievingsinglepieceflow.

    Inengineeringactivity,batchesoccurat integrationandvalidationpoints.Thebatches canbe

    reduced, if design flows in smaller increments by continuous integration and validation, and

    increasedcapacitythroughworkflowautomation.

    ContinuousIntegration&Validation

    Atypicalproductdevelopment integratesthesystematfixedtime i...

Recommended

View more >