aristotle’s metaphysics. aristotle’s challenges to plato although aristotle studied at plato’s...
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Aristotles Challenges to PlatoAlthough Aristotle studied at Platos Academy for twenty years, he disagreed with Plato on many theoriesAristotle thought the theory of Forms was illogical because form cannot be separated from matter, instead he asserted that our natural world was our real world containing both form and matterAristotle criticized Platos theory of forms in that it did not explain movement or change Matter and FormAll substance is made up of Matter AND Formex. the concrete (matter) used to make a building is useless until it is combined with the architects blueprint (form). Yes, he took that part from Plato!Enabled Aristotle to understand the problem of permanence and changeAll things pass through changes, but patterns of continuity could be observedEx. A chair is broken into pieces to burn. The form of the substance then changed from chair to kindling, but a continuity with the former chair exists because the kindling has as its matter, chair
Potentiality and ActualityTo explain the process of change, Aristotle uses the concepts of Potentiality and ActualityWithin everything, people included, there exists a natural evolution toward fulfilling its own potential. In Platos terms, becoming its own FormPotentiality is the movement in nature and in humans from imperfection to perfection (aka. Actuality)This is a hardwired component in all things that is an involuntary process Cosmic scale- Big Bang to Big ChillIndividual scale- Birth to DeathAristotle called this entelechy- the self-contained end of anything
Potentiality and Actuality Acorn SaplingYoung TreeMature Tree Decaying TreePotentiality ContinuumActuality(loses actuality/ renew potentiality) Four CausesTo understand how a thing came to be what it was, Aristotle put forward four kinds of causes or explanationsMaterial CauseFormal CauseEfficient CauseFinal Cause